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Federico Faggin (, ; born 1 December 1941) is an
Italian-American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nat ...
physicist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He is best known for designing the first commercial
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) ...

microprocessor
, the
Intel 4004 The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit In computer architecture, 4-bit integer (computer science), integers, or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 4 bits wide. Also, 4-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithme ...

Intel 4004
. He led the
4004 (MCS-4) project
4004 (MCS-4) project
and the design group during the first five years of
Intel Intel Corporation is an American and headquartered in , . It is the world's largest manufacturer by revenue, and is the developer of the series of s, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). , Intel ranked No. 45 in the 2020 ...

Intel
's microprocessor effort. Faggin also created, while working at
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
in 1968, the self-aligned MOS (
metal–oxide–semiconductor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect tran ...
) silicon-gate technology (SGT), which made possible MOS semiconductor
memory chip Semiconductor memory is a digital electronics, digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory. It typically refers to MOS memory, where data is stored within metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memo ...
s, CCD
image sensors An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they refraction, pass through or reflection (physics), reflect off objects) int ...
, and the microprocessor. After the 4004, he led development of the
Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 ("''eight-thousand-eight''" or "''eighty-oh-eight''") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, ...

Intel 8008
and
8080 The Intel 8080 (''"eighty-eighty"'') is the second 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written wi ...
, using his SGT methodology for random logic chip design, which was essential to the creation of early
Intel microprocessors This generational list of Intel processors attempts to present all of Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, Santa Clara, California, in Silicon Vall ...
. He was co-founder (with Ralph Ungermann) and CEO of
Zilog Zilog, Inc. is an American manufacturer of 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central proces ...
, the first company solely dedicated to microprocessors, and led the development of the
Zilog Z80 The Z80 is an 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithmeti ...

Zilog Z80
and Z8 processors. He was later the co-founder and CEO of Cygnet Technologies, and then
Synaptics Synaptics is a publicly owned San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the cultural, financial, and political center of Silicon Valley, and the largest city in Northern California by both population and area. With an estim ...
. In 2010, he received the 2009
National Medal of Technology and Innovation The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development o ...

National Medal of Technology and Innovation
, the highest honor the United States confers for achievements related to technological progress. In 2011, Faggin founded the Federico and Elvia Faggin Foundation to support the scientific study of consciousness at US universities and research institutes. In 2015, the Faggin Foundation helped to establish a $1 million endowment for the Faggin Family Presidential Chair in the Physics of Information at
UC Santa Cruz The University of California, Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz or UCSC) is a public land-grant research university in Santa Cruz, California. It is one of ten University of California#REDIRECT University of California {{Redirect category shell, 1 ...
to promote the study of "fundamental questions at the interface of physics and related fields including mathematics, complex systems, biophysics, and cognitive science, with the unifying theme of information in physics." Federico Faggin has been a
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. Spanning the state's nort ...

Silicon Valley
resident since 1968 and is a naturalized US citizen.


Education and early career

Born in
Vicenza Vicenza ( , ; ) is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , d ...

Vicenza
, Italy, Federico grew up in an intellectual environment. His father, Giuseppe Faggin, was a scholar who wrote many academic books and translated, with commentaries, the Enneads of
Plotinus Plotinus (; grc-gre, Πλωτῖνος, ''Plōtînos'';  – 270 CE) was a major Hellenistic philosophy, Hellenistic Ancient Greeks, Greek philosopher born and raised in Roman Egypt, regarded by modern scholarship as the founder of Neoplat ...

Plotinus
from the original Greek into modern Italian. Federico had a strong interest in technology from an early age. He attended a technical high school in Vicenza, I.T.I.S. Alessandro Rossi, and later earned a ''
laurea In Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands o ...
'' degree in
physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of eve ...

physics
, ''
summa cum laude Latin honors are a system of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...

summa cum laude
'', from the
University of Padua The University of Padua ( it, Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is an Italian university located in the city of Padua, region of Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , p ...
.


Olivetti R&D Labs

Faggin joined
Olivetti Olivetti S.p.A. is an Italy, Italian manufacturer of computers, Tablet computer, tablets, smartphones, Printer (computing), printers and other such business products as calculators and Fax Machine, fax machines. Headquartered in Ivrea, in the Me ...

Olivetti
aged 19. There he co-designed and led the implementation of a small digital transistor computer with 4 K × 12 bit of magnetic memory (1960). The Olivetti R&D department subsequently developed, one of the world's first programmable desktop electronic calculators, the Olivetti
Programma 101 The Olivetti Programma 101, also known as Perottina or P101, is one of the first "all in one" commercial desktop programmable calculatorProgrammable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under contro ...
(1964). After this first work experience, Faggin studied physics at the University of Padua and taught the electronics laboratory course for 3rd year physics students in the academic year 1965–1966.


SGS-Fairchild

In 1967 he joined SGS Fairchild, now
STMicroelectronics STMicroelectronics is a French-Italian multinational electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic part ...

STMicroelectronics
, in Italy, where he developed its first
MOS
MOS
metal-gate process technology and designed its first two commercial MOS integrated circuits. SGS sent him to California in 1968. When Fairchild sold SGS-Fairchild, Faggin accepted an offer to complete the development of the silicon-gate technology with Fairchild.


Silicon Valley career


Fairchild Semiconductor

The silicon-gate technology (SGT) is one of the most influential technologies to have fueled the progress of
microelectronics Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electro ...
since the
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect trans ...

MOSFET
. Without the SGT, the first
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) ...

microprocessor
could not have been made during 1970–1971. In February 1968, Federico Faggin joined
Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental pr ...
in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_ ...
where he was the project leader of the MOS silicon-gate technology, a MOSFET with a silicon
self-aligned gate In electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are ...
, and the inventor of its unique process architecture. The SGT became the basis of all modern NMOS and
CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS, pronounced "see-moss"), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor The metal–oxide–sem ...
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indivi ...

integrated circuit
s. It made possible the creation of MOS semiconductor
memory chip Semiconductor memory is a digital electronics, digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory. It typically refers to MOS memory, where data is stored within metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memo ...
s during 1969–1970, the first microprocessor during 1970–1971, and the first CCD and
EPROM An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of programmable read-only memory A programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. (eF ...

EPROM
(electrically
programmable read-only memory A programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a form of digital memory where the contents can be changed once after manufacture of the device. The data is then permanent and cannot be changed. It is one type of read-only memory Read-only memory (RO ...
) with floating silicon gates (1970-1971). The SGT replaced the incumbent aluminum-gate MOS technology, and was adopted worldwide within 10 years, eventually making obsolete the original integrated circuits built with
bipolar transistor A bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing Metal gate, gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The ga ...

bipolar transistor
s.


Fairchild 3708

At Fairchild, Faggin designed the first commercial integrated circuit using Silicon Gate Technology with self-aligned
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect trans ...

MOSFET
transistors: the Fairchild 3708. The 3708 was an 8-bit analog multiplexer with decoding logic, replacing the equivalent Fairchild 3705 that used metal-gate technology. The 3708 was 5 times faster, had 100 times less junction leakage and was much more reliable than the 3705, demonstrating the superiority of SGT over metal-gate MOS. See also: Faggin, F., Klein T. (1969). "A Faster Generation of MOS Devices With Low Threshold Is Riding The Crest of the New Wave, Silicon-Gate IC's." Electronics, 29 Sept. 1969.


Intel

The Intel 4004. Federico Faggin joined Intel from Fairchild in 1970 as the project leader and designer of the MCS-4 family, which included the 4004, the world's first single-chip microprocessor. Fairchild was not taking advantage of the SGT and Faggin was burning with the desire of using his new technology to design advanced chips. The 4004 (1971) was made possible by the advanced capabilities of the silicon gate technology (SGT) being enhanced through the novel
random logicRandom logic is a semiconductor circuit design technique that translates high-level logic descriptions directly into hardware features such as AND and OR gates. The name derives from the fact that few easily discernible patterns are evident in the ar ...
chip design methodology that Faggin created at Intel. It was this new methodology, together with his several design innovations, that allowed him to fit the microprocessor in one small chip. A single-chip microprocessor – an idea that was expected to occur many years in the future – became possible in 1971 by using SGT with two additional innovations: (1) "buried contacts" that doubled the circuit density, and (2) the use of bootstrap loads with 2-phase clocks—previously considered impossible with SGT— that improved the speed 5 times, while reducing the chip area by half compared with metal-gate MOS. The design methodology created by Faggin was utilized for the implementation of all Intel's early microprocessors and later also for Zilog's
Z80 The Z80 is an 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithmeti ...
. The Intel 4004 – a 4-bit CPU (central processing unit) on a single chip – was a member of a family of 4 custom chips designed for
Busicom kit, based on Intel 8080 chip, on the centre, Busicom calculator motherboard, based on Intel 4004 chip, and on the right, the Busicom calculator, fully assembled in Ueno Image:KaneijiPagoda1270.jpg, Pagoda of Kan'eiji, now in Ueno Zoo is a ...
, a Japanese calculator manufacturer. The other members of the family (constituting the MCS-4 family) were: the 4001, a 2k-bit metal-mask programmable ROM with programmable input-output lines; the 4002, a 320-bit dynamic RAM with a 4-bit output port; and the 4003, a 10-bit serial input and serial/parallel output, static shift register to use as an I/O expander. Faggin promoted the idea of broadly marketing the MCS-4 to customers other than Busicom by showing to Intel management how customers could design a control system using the 4004. He designed and built a 4004 tester using the 4004 as the controller of the tester, thus convincing Bob Noyce to renegotiate the exclusivity clause with Busicom that didn't allow Intel to sell the MCS-4 line to other customers. In 2009, the four contributors to the 4004 were inducted as Fellows of the Computer History Museum. Ted Hoff, head of Application Research Department, formulated the architectural proposal and the instruction set with assistance from Stan Mazor and working in conjunction with Busicom's
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and acti ...

Masatoshi Shima
. However none of them was a chip designer and none was familiar with the new Silicon Gate Technology (SGT). The silicon design was the essential missing ingredient to making a microprocessor since everything else was already known. Federico Faggin led the project in a different department without Hoff's and Mazor's involvement. Faggin had invented the original SGT at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968 and provided additional refinements and inventions to make possible the implementation of the 4004 in a single chip. With routine help from Shima, Faggin completed the chip design in January 1971. The Intel 2102A is a redesign of the Intel 2102 static RAM, where Federico Faggin introduced to Intel, for the first time, the depletion load, combining the silicon gate technology with ionic implantation. The design was done toward the end of 1973 by Federico Faggin and Dick Pashley. The 2102A was 5 times faster than the 2102, opening a new direction for Intel.


Early Intel microprocessors

Faggin's silicon design methodology was used for implementing all Intel's early microprocessors. The
Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 ("''eight-thousand-eight''" or "''eighty-oh-eight''") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, ...

Intel 8008
was the world's first single-chip 8-bit CPU and, like the 4004, was built with p-channel SGT. The 8008 development was originally assigned to Hal Feeney in March 1970 but was suspended until the 4004 was completed. It was resumed in January 1971 under Faggin's direction utilizing the basic circuits and methodology he had developed for the 4004, with Hal Feeney doing the chip design. The CPU architecture of the 8008 was originally created by CTC Inc. for the Datapoint 2200 intelligent terminal, in which it was implemented in discrete IC logic. The
Intel 4040 The Intel 4040 microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithme ...
microprocessor (1974) was a much improved, machine-code-compatible version of the 4004 CPU allowing it to interface directly with standard memories and I/O devices. Federico Faggin created the architecture of the 4040 and supervised Tom Innes who did the design work. The
8080 The Intel 8080 (''"eighty-eighty"'') is the second 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written wi ...
microprocessor (1974) was the first high-performance 8-bit microprocessor in the market, using the faster n-channel SGT. The 8080 was conceived and designed by Faggin, and designed by
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and acti ...

Masatoshi Shima
under Faggin's supervision. The 8080 was a major improvement over the 8008 architecture, yet it retained software compatibility with it. It was much faster and easier to interface to external memory and I/O devices than the 8008. The high performance and low cost of the 8080 let developers use microprocessors for many new applications, including the forerunners of the personal computer. When Faggin left Intel at the end of 1974 to found Zilog with Ralph Ungermann, he was R&D department manager responsible for all MOS products, except for dynamic memories.


Zilog

Zilog Zilog, Inc. is an American manufacturer of 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central proces ...
was the first company entirely dedicated to microprocessors started by Federico Faggin and Ralph Ungermann in November 1974. Faggin was Zilog's president and CEO until the end of 1980 and he conceived and designed the
Z80 The Z80 is an 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer (computer science), integers or other data#Uses of data in computing, data units are those that are 8 bits wide (1 octet). Also, 8-bit central processing unit, CPU and arithmeti ...
CPU and its family of programmable peripheral components. He also co-designed the CPU whose project leader was
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and acti ...

Masatoshi Shima
. The Z80-CPU was a major improvement over the 8080, yet it retained software compatibility with it. Much faster and with more than twice as many registers and instructions of the 8080, it was part of a family of components that included several intelligent peripherals (the Z80-PIO, a programmable parallel input-output controller; the Z80-CTC, a programmable counter-timer; the Z80-SIO, programmable serial communications interface controller, and the Z80-DMA, programmable direct memory access controller). This chip family allowed the design of powerful and low-cost microcomputers with performance comparable to minicomputers. The Z80-CPU had a substantially better bus structure and interrupt structure than the 8080 and could interface directly with dynamic RAM, since it included an internal memory-refresh controller. The Z80 was used in many of the early
personal computers A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known a ...

personal computers
, as well as in
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
systems such as the
MSX MSX is a standardized home computer Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977 and became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the firs ...

MSX
,
ColecoVision ColecoVision is a second-generation home video-game console developed by Coleco Coleco Industries, Inc. was an American company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as The Connecticut Leather Company. It became a highly successful toy company ...

ColecoVision
,
Sega Master System The is a third-generation 8-bit In computer architecture, 8-bit integer An integer (from the Latin wikt:integer#Latin, ''integer'' meaning "whole") is colloquially defined as a number that can be written without a Fraction (math ...
and
Game Boy The is an 8-bit computing, 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy family, it was first released in Japan on April 21, 1989. The console was released in North America later the same ...

Game Boy
. The Z80 is still in volume production in 2017 as a core microprocessor in various systems on a chip. The
Zilog Z8 The Zilog Z8 is a microcontroller architecture, originally introduced in 1979, which today also includes the Z8 Encore!, eZ8 Encore!, eZ8 Encore! XP, and eZ8 Encore! MC families. Signifying features of the architecture are up to 4,096 fast on-c ...
micro controller (1978) was one of the first single-chip microcontrollers in the market. It integrated an 8-bit CPU, RAM, ROM and I/O facilities, sufficient for many control applications. Faggin conceived the Z8 in 1974, soon after he founded Zilog, but then decided to give priority to the Z80. The Z8 was designed in 1976–78 and is still in volume production today (2017).


The Communication CoSystem

The Communication CoSystem (1984). The Cosystem was conceived by Faggin and designed and produced by Cygnet Technologies, Inc., the second startup company of Faggin. Attached to a personal computer and to a standard phone line, the CoSystem could automatically handle all the personal voice and data communications of the user, including electronic mail, database access, computer screen transfers during a voice communication, call record keeping, etc. The patent covering the CoSystem is highly cited in the personal communication field.


Synaptics

In 1986 Faggin co-founded and was CEO of
Synaptics Synaptics is a publicly owned San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the cultural, financial, and political center of Silicon Valley, and the largest city in Northern California by both population and area. With an estim ...
until 1999, becoming chairman from 1999 to 2009. Synaptics was initially dedicated to R&D in artificial neural networks for pattern-recognition applications using analog VLSI. Synaptics introduced the I1000, the world's first single-chip optical character recognizer in 1991. In 1994, Synaptics introduced the touchpad to replace the cumbersome trackball then in use in laptop computers. The touchpad was broadly adopted by the industry. Synaptics also introduced the early touchscreens that were eventually adopted for intelligent phones and tablets; applications that now dominate the market. Faggin came up with the general product idea and led a group of engineers who further refined the idea through many brainstorming sessions. Faggin is a co-inventor of ten patents assigned to Synaptics. He is chairman emeritus of Synaptics.


Foveon

During his tenure as president and CEO of Foveon, from 2003 to 2008, Faggin revitalized the company and provided a new technological and business direction resulting in image sensors superior in all critical parameters to the best sensors of the competition, while using approximately half the chip size of competing devices. Faggin also oversaw the successful acquisition of Foveon by the Japanese
Sigma Corporation is a Japanese company (law), company, manufacturing cameras, Photographic lens, lenses, Flash (photography), flashes and other photographic accessories. All Sigma products are produced in the company's own Aizu factory in Bandai, Fukushima, ...
in November 2008.


Federico and Elvia Faggin Foundation

Founded in 2011 the "Federico and Elvia Faggin Foundation" supports the scientific study of consciousness at US universities and research institutes. The purpose of the Foundation is to advance the understanding of consciousness through theoretical and experimental research. Faggin's interest in consciousness has his roots in the study of artificial neural networks at Synaptics, a company he started in 1986, that prompted his inquiry into whether or not it is possible to build a conscious computer.


Papers

On the silicon gate technology and the Fairchild 3708
Faggin, F., Klein, T., and Vadasz, L.: ''Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor Integrated Circuits with Silicon Gates''.
The Silicon Gate Technology with self-aligned gates was presented by its developer Federico Faggin at the IEEE International Electron Device Meeting on 23 October 1968, in Washington D.C. This new technology empowered the design of dynamic RAM memories, non-volatile memories, CCD sensors and the microprocessor.

The article published in ''Electronics'' (29 September 1969) introduces the Fairchild 3708, the world's first commercial integrated circuit using Silicon Gate Technology, designed by Federico Faggin at Fairchild in 1968. *F. Faggin, T. Klein: ''Silicon-Gate Technology''. "Solid State Electronics", 1970, Vo. 13, pp. 1125–1144 On the 4004 microprocessor *F. Faggin and M. E. Hoff: "Standard Parts and Custom Design Merge in a Four-chip Processor Kit". ''Electronics'', 24 April 1972 *F. Faggin, et al.: "The MCS-4 An LSI Microcomputer System". ''IEEE 1972 Region Six Conference''


Articles

*"The Birth of the Microprocessor" by Federico Faggin. Byte, March 1992, Vol.17 No.3, pp. 145–150. *"The History of the 4004" by Federico Faggin, Marcian E. Hoff Jr., Stanley Mazor,
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and acti ...

Masatoshi Shima
. IEEE Micro, December 1996, Volume 16 Number 6. *"The 4004 microprocessor of Faggin, Hoff, Mazor, and Shima". IEEE Solid State Circuits Magazine, Winter 2009 Vol.1 No.1. *"The MOS silicon gate technology and the first microprocessors" by Federico Faggin. La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento, year 2015, issue 12-December. SIF (Italian Physical Society) *"How we made the microprocessor" by Federico Faggin. Nature Electronics, Vol. 1, January 2018. Published online: 8 January 2018 *"Hard Problem and Free Will: an information-theoretical approach" by Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano and Federico Faggin. arXiv:2012.06580 28Jan2021


Books

* ''Silicon: From the Invention of the Microprocessor to the New Science of Consciousness'' by Federico Faggin. Waterside Productions (February 2021)


Awards

* 1988: Marconi International Fellowship Award "for his pioneering contributions to the implementation of the microprocessor, a principal building block of modern telecommunications" * 1988: Gold Medal for Science and Technology from the Italian Prime Minister * 1988: title of "Grande Ufficiale" from the President of the Italian Republic * 1994:
W. Wallace McDowell Award The W. Wallace McDowell Award is awarded by the IEEE Computer Society IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated the Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Its purpose a ...
"For the development of the Silicon Gate Process, and the first commercial microprocessor." * 1994: Laurea honoris causa in Computer Science from the
University of Milan The University of Milan ( it, Università degli Studi di Milano; la, Universitas Studiorum Mediolanensis), known colloquially as UniMi or Statale, is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individua ...
(Italy). * 1996: Ronald H. Brown American Innovator Award, with M. Hoff and S. Mazor * 1996: a Lifetime Achievement Award by P.C. Magazine for "technical excellence". * 1997:
Kyoto Prize The is Japan's highest private award for lifetime achievement in the arts and sciences. It is given not only to those that are top representatives of their own respective fields, but to "those who have contributed significantly to the scientific, ...
, with M. Hoff, S. Mazor and M. Shima * 1996: inducted into
National Inventors Hall of Fame The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) is an American not-for-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ope ...
, with M. Hoff and S. Mazor * 1997: George R. Stibitz Computer Pioneer Award by the American Computer Museum, with M. Hoff and S. Mazor * 1997: Masi Civilta' Veneta Prize * 2001: Dr. Robert Noyce Memorial Award by the Semiconductor Industry Association, with M. Hoff and S. Mazor * 2003: Laurea honoris causa in Electronic Engineering from the
University of Rome Tor Vergata Tor Vergata University of Rome, also known as the University of Rome II ( it, Università degli Studi di Roma "Tor Vergata"), is a public university, public research university located in Rome, Italy. Its current Rector (academia), rector is Orazio ...
(Italy) * 2003: AeA/
Stanford , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of American Universities, AAUNational Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, Space-grant , establishe ...

Stanford
Executive Institute Award for Outstanding Achievement in the High Tech Industry by an Alumnus * 2006:
European Inventor of the Year The European Inventor Award or European Inventor awards (formerly European Inventor of the Year Award, renamed in 2010), are presented annually by the European Patent Office, sometimes supported by the respective Presidency of the Council of the Eu ...
Lifetime Achievement Award by EPO (European Patent Office) * 2007: Laurea honoris causa in Electronic Engineering from the
University of Pavia The University of Pavia ( it, Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV or ''Università di Pavia''; la, Alma Ticinensis Universitas) is a university located in Pavia Pavia (, , , ; la, Ticinum; Medieval Latin: ) is a town and comune of south-we ...
(Italy) * 2008: Laurea honoris causa in Electronic Engineering from the
University of Palermo :''For the University of Palermo in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on ...
(Italy) * 2009: Laurea honoris causa in Computer Sciences from the
University of Verona The University of Verona ( it, Università degli Studi di Verona) is a university located in Verona, Italy. It was founded in 1982 and is organized in 12 Departments. According to business newspaper ''Il Sole 24 Ore'', it is ranked as the best non ...
(Italy) * 2009: Fellow of the
Computer History Museum The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum of computer history, located in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List o ...
"for his work as part of the team that developed the Intel 4004, the world's first commercial microprocessor." * 2009:
National Medal of Technology and Innovation The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development o ...

National Medal of Technology and Innovation
from U.S. President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
* 2011: The 2011 George R. Stibitz Lifetime Achievement Award by the American Computer Museum (Bozeman, MT): "For foundational contributions to the development of the modern technological world, including the MOS silicon gate technology that led to the realization of the world's first Microprocessor in 1971." * 2019: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic from the President of the Italian Republic
Sergio Mattarella Sergio Mattarella (; born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, jurist, academic, and lawyer who has served as president of Italy The president of Italy, officially denoted as President of the Italian Republic ( it, Presidente della Repubbli ...

Sergio Mattarella
Source: the book written by Angelo Gallippi titled: ''Faggin, Il padre del chip intelligente'' (Faggin, the father of the intelligent chip). Editor Adnkronos, Rome, first edition September 2002, covers the above-mentioned awards (pp. 279–285). Its second edition, February 2012, titled ''Federico Faggin, il padre del microprocessore'' (Federico Faggin, the father of the microprocessor). Editor Tecniche nuove, Milan, covers also the topic of Faggin's interest in consciousness and his ''Federico and Elvia Faggin Foundation'' (pp. 182–187). Angelo Gallippi, a physicist, has been teaching Scientific and Technical Communication at the University ''La Sapienza'' in Rome. He is author of a dozen books and of an English-Italian Dictionary of informatics and multimedia (text translated from book cover in Italian) * 2012: Global Information Technology Award from the President of Armenia. * 2012: Honorary PhD from the Polytechnic University (Armenia) * 2012: Premio Franca Florio, given by Ministro Francesco Profumo and Prof. Ing. Patrizia Livreri * 2013: Honorary PhD in science from Chapman University (CA) * 2014: Enrico Fermi Award, given by the Italian Society of Physics: "For the invention of the MOS silicon gate technology that led him to the realization in 1971 of the first modern microprocessor." * 2018: 2018 IEEE Italy Section Honorary Award to Federico Faggin for his outstanding contributions to the self aligned MOS silicon gate theory & technology and to the development of the first microprocessor * 2018: 2018 AAAS Fellow by the American Association for the Advancement of Science * 2019: PhD (Dottorato di ricerca) honoris causa in computer engineering from the University of Pisa (Italy) Università di Pisa.


References


External links


The Intel 4004 Microprocessor and the Silicon Gate Technology, A testimonial from Federico Faggin, designer of the 4004 and developer of its enabling technology
Federico Faggin personally gives details, history and nitty-gritty details about the Intel 4004's development and his inventions, innovations and ideas that made it all possible.
"Executive Profile"
from Foveon.com
IEEE Global History Network Biography of Federico Faggin

Oral History of Federico Faggin
Computer History Museum The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum of computer history, located in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List o ...
. Recorded 2004-05
Busicom Calculator Engineering Prototype
(Gift of Federico Faggin to the Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California). *
"Computers Still No Match for Human Intelligence"
Video and article interview with Federico Faggin 40 years after the release of the Intel 4004 microprocessor {{DEFAULTSORT:Faggin, Federico 1941 births 20th-century American businesspeople 20th-century American engineers American computer scientists European Inventor Award winners 20th-century Italian businesspeople Italian computer scientists Italian emigrants to the United States 20th-century Italian engineers 20th-century Italian inventors Intel people Kyoto laureates in Advanced Technology
Living people Related categories * :Year of birth missing (living people) / :Year of birth unknown * :Date of birth missing (living people) / :Date of birth unknown * :Place of birth missing (living people) / :Place of birth unknown * :Year of death mi ...
MOSFETs Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic National Medal of Technology recipients People from Vicenza Silicon Valley people University of Padua alumni