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A fan or fanatic, sometimes also termed an aficionado or enthusiast, is a person who exhibits strong interest or admiration for something or somebody, such as a
celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth, their participation in sports ...
, a sport, a
sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is th ...
, a
genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, ...

genre
, a
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
, a book, a movie, a video game or an entertainer. Collectively, the fans of a particular object or person constitute its fanbase or
fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, belief ...

fandom
. They may show their
enthusiasm In modern usage, enthusiasm refers to intense , , or approval expressed by a person. The term is related to playfulness, inventiveness, optimism and high energy. Historical usage The word ''enthusiasm'' originates from the from (en, “in ...

enthusiasm
in a variety of ways, such as by promoting the object of their interest, being members of a related
fan club A fan club is an organized group of fans, generally of a celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a ce ...
, holding or participating in
fan convention Fan convention (also known as con or fan meeting), a term that predates 1942, is an event in which fans Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine) Sounds from a household fan. A fan is a powered machine A machine is a man-made device that u ...
s or writing
fan mail Fan mail is mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels. A postal service can be private or public, though many governments place restrictions on private systems. Since the mid-19th century, ...
. They may also engage in creative activities ("
fan labor Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine) A fan is a powered machine used to create a flow of air. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades, generally made of wood, plastic, or metal, which act on the air. The rotating assembl ...
") such as creating
fanzine A fanzine ( blend of ''fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, espe ...

fanzine
s, writing
fan fiction Fan fiction or fanfiction (also abbreviated to fan fic, fanfic, fic or ff) is Fiction, fictional writing written in an amateur capacity by Fan (person), fans, unauthorized by, but derivative work, based on an existing work of fiction. Copyright p ...
, making
memes A meme ( ) is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads by means of imitation from person to person within a culture and often carries symbolic meaning representing a particular phenomenon or theme. A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ...
or drawing
fan art Fan art or fanart is artwork created by fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast ...
.


Etymology

Merriam-Webster, the Oxford dictionary and other sources define "fan" as a shortened version of the word ''fanatic''. '' Fanatic'' itself, introduced into English around 1550, means "marked by excessive enthusiasm and often intense uncritical devotion". It comes from the Modern
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
''fanaticus'', meaning "insanely but divinely inspired". The word originally pertained to a
temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...

temple
or sacred place atin ''fanum'', poetic English ''fane'' The modern sense of "extremely zealous" dates from around 1647; the use of ''fanatic'' as a noun dates from 1650. However, the term "fancy" for an intense liking of something (a usage attested by 1545), while being of a different etymology, coincidentally carries a less intense but somewhat similar connotation to "fanatic". Use of "the fancy" to mean avid sports enthusiasts emerged as an
Americanism Americanism may refer to: * American nationalism * A characteristic feature of American English * Americanism (ideology), an early 20th-century ideology frequently posited in opposition to communism or anarchism * Americanism (heresy), a group of re ...
in the mid-19th C. ''The Dickson Baseball Dictionary'' cites William Henry Nugent's work asserting that it was derived from ''the fancy'', a term referring to the fans of a specific hobby or sport from the early 18th century to the 19th, especially to the followers of
boxing Boxing is a combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent ...

boxing
. According to that theory, it was originally shortened to ''fance'' then just to the homonym ''fans''. ''The Great American Baseball Scrapbook'' attributes the term to
Chris Von der Ahe Christian Friedrich (or Frederick) Wilhelm von der Ahe (; October 7, 1851 – June 5, 1913) was a German-American German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and ...
, owner of the Saint Louis Brown Stockings in 1882. Von der Ahe sold tickets for 25 cents, hoping the many patrons would purchase his beer; the low ticket price helped him lead the stats in attendance. He called the fanatics filling his stands "fans". ''Supporter'' is a synonym to "fan" that predates the latter term and is still commonly used in
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
, especially to denote fans of
sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectato ...

sport
s teams. However, the term "fan" has become popular throughout the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
-speaking world, including the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. The term ''supporter'' is also used in a
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
sense in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, to a fan of a
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
, a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
, and a controversial issue.


Characteristics

Fans usually have a strong enough interest that some changes in their
lifestyles Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology) Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. The term was introduced by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler in his 1929 book, '' ...
are made to accommodate devotion to the focal object. Fans have a desire for external involvement – they are motivated to demonstrate their involvement with the area of interest through certain behaviors (attending conventions, posting online, displaying team banners outside their homes, etc.). Fans often have a "wish to acquire" material objects related to the area of interest, such as a baseball hit by a famous slugger or a used
guitar pick A guitar pick (American English) is a plectrum Image:Guitar picks DSC06879.jpg, thumbnail, Three plectra for use with guitar A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a string instrument, stringed instrument. For hand-held instru ...

guitar pick
from their musical hero. As well, some fans have a desire for
social interaction In social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botan ...
with other fans. This again may take many forms, from casual conversation, e-mail, chat rooms, and electronic mailing lists to regular face-to-face meetings such as fan club meetings and organized conventions. There are several groups of fans that can be differentiated by the intensity level of their level of involvement or interest in the hobby (level of
fanaticism Fanaticism (from the Latin adverb ''fānāticē'' ren-''fānāticus''; enthusiastic, ecstatic; raging, fanatical, furious is a belief or behavior involving uncritical zeal (disambiguation), zeal or an obsessive enthusiasm. Philosopher George ...
) The likelihood for a subject of interest to be elevated to the level of fandom appears to be dictated by its complexity. Complexity allows further involvement of fans for a longer period of time because of the time needed to work the subject of interest 'out.' It also contributes to a greater sense of belonging because of the mental effort invested in the subject.


Fan culture


Types


Celebrities

These fans will often hold a crush on a major
movie star A movie star (also known as a film star or cinema star) is an actor or actress who is famous for their starring, or leading, roles in movies. The term is used for performers who are marketable stars and whose names are used to promote movies, fo ...
,
pop star "Pop Star" is a song by Japanese singer Ken Hirai is a Japanese Rhythm and blues, R&B and pop singer. Since his debut, Hirai has worked as a model, actor, composer, lyricist, singer, and brand ambassador. During his career, Hirai has rel ...
,
athlete An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in several sports, such as golf or auto racing, becomes a controversial issue. A ...

athlete
or
celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth, their participation in sports ...
(see
teen idol A teen idol is a celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth ...
). The
groupie The term groupie is a slang word that refers to a fan of a particular Musical ensemble, musical group who follows the band around while they are on tour or who attends as many of their public appearances as possible, with the hope of meeting them ...

groupie
is an example, a fan of a particular band or musician, who will follow them on concert tours. The degree of devotion to celebrities can range from a simple crush to the
deluded
deluded
belief that they have a special relationship with the star which does not exist. In extreme cases, this can lead to
celebrity worship syndromeCelebrity worship syndrome (CWS) is an obsessive addictive disorder in which a person becomes overly involved with the details of a celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group, or occasion ...
,
stalking Stalking is unwanted and/or repeated surveillance by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are interrelated to harassment Harassment covers a wide range of behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviou ...

stalking
behavior. This can easily switch to
hatred Hatred is a very angry emotional response to certain people or idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epist ...
of the previously loved celebrity, and result in attempts at violent attacks, one notable incident being the death of
Rebecca Schaeffer Rebecca Lucile Schaeffer (November 6, 1967 – July 18, 1989) was an American actress and model. She began her career as a teen model before moving on to acting. In 1986, she landed the role of Patricia "Patti" Russell in the CBS comedy ''My Sist ...
by a stalking fan in 1989. This is somewhat related to the concept of parasocial interaction where audiences develop one-sided relationships with media characters and celebrities. Not all fans have a crush on their idols. There are also fans who want to become their friends or respect an idol's relationship. In fact, there are fans who idolize their celebrity couples.


Gaming

Gaming fans, or "gamers", are fans focused on playing non-sport games, usually
role-playing game A role-playing game (sometimes spelled roleplaying game; abbreviated RPG) is a game in which players assume the roles of character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch ...
s,
board game Board games are tabletop games that typically use moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of Table game, table, Card game, card, Role-playing game, role-playing, and Miniatures game, miniatures games a ...
s,
miniature wargame Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming in which players enact battles between opposing military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
s,
collectible card game A collectible card game (CCG), also called a trading card game (TCG) among other names, is a type of card game that mixes strategy game, strategic deck building elements with features of trading cards, introduced with ''Magic: The Gathering'' in ...
s or
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s.


Music

Music fans can differ somewhat from fans of particular musicians, in that they may focus on a genre of music. Many of the trade journals around music, such as ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish ...
'', were created by music fans. A notable music fan was groupie Cynthia Plaster Caster, famous for making numerous plaster casts of rock stars' penises. Another was
Pamela Des Barres Pamela Des Barres (born Pamela Ann Miller; September 9, 1948) is a rock and roll groupie, writer, musician, and actress. She is best known for her bestselling 1987 memoir, ''I'm with the Band'', which details her experiences in the Los Angeles rock ...
, author of the book ''
I'm With The Band ''I'm with the Band: Confessions of a Groupie'' is a 1987 memoir by former groupie Pamela Des Barres. Overview The book tells the story of Pamela Ann Miller, a groupie who gets a kind of fame in the 1960s by having wild nights with musicians and ...
''. Fans who are not
groupie The term groupie is a slang word that refers to a fan of a particular Musical ensemble, musical group who follows the band around while they are on tour or who attends as many of their public appearances as possible, with the hope of meeting them ...

groupie
s prefer the term ''supporter''. In the 1960s, the extreme frenzy of music fans surrounding
The Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

The Beatles
became known as
Beatlemania Beatlemania was the fanaticism Fanaticism (from the Latin adverb ''fānāticē'' ren-''fānāticus''; enthusiastic, ecstatic; raging, fanatical, furious is a belief or behavior involving uncritical zeal (disambiguation), zeal or an obsess ...
. In 2019, ''
Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ...
'' observed that popular musicians such as
Tyler, the Creator Tyler Gregory Okonma (born March 6, 1991), better known as Tyler, the Creator, is an American rapper and record producer. Following a large contribution to Odd Future's early work, Tyler released his debut solo mixtape, ''Bastard (Tyler, the Cr ...
had leveraged the power of fans to drive digital downloads using merchandise bundles. Similarly, ''
GQ
GQ
'' recognized
Vampire Weekend Vampire Weekend is an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound ...
for their commitment to extensive band merchandising for dedicated fans.


Musicals

Popular
musicals Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U ...
have their own particular sets of fans. ''
Rent Rent may refer to: Economics *Renting Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or owned by another. A is when the pays a flat rental amount and the pays ...
'' has boasted a sizable number of 'Rentheads' since its Broadway debut. Similarly, fans devoted to ''
The Phantom of the Opera ''The Phantom of the Opera'' (French: ''Le Fantôme de l'Opéra''), is a novel by French author Gaston Leroux. It was first published as a serial in ''Le Gaulois'' from 23 September 1909 to 8 January 1910, and was released in volume form in late ...
'' have been dubbed 'Phans'. In 2018,
Playbill ''Playbill'' is a monthly U.S. magazine for theatergoers. Although there is a subscription issue available for home delivery Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination. Cargo ...

Playbill
included ''The Phantom of the Opera'' in its list of the "Top 10 Musical Fandoms" of the year.


Otaku

''Otaku'' is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests. In Japan, the term is normally derogatory, a connotation lacking in English, where it generally refers to people in the
anime and manga fandom Anime and manga fandom (otherwise known as fan community) is a worldwide community of fans of anime and manga. Anime includes animation, animated wikt:serial, series, films and videos, while manga includes manga, graphic novels, drawings and relate ...
.


Politics

People who approve of or associate themselves with certain
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
s or political groups are generally called "supporters" rather than "fans", although there are politicians with official or unofficial "fan clubs". Intense and organized support for a politician may be referred to as a
personality cult Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on mot ...
, particularly in authoritarian or totalitarian regimes.


Professional wrestling

Fans of
professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a form of entertainment and performing art, which combines athletics with performance. It comprises of exhibitions, called 'matches', held by touring companies called Professional wrestling promotion, promotions, in ...
can be divided into two groups:
marks Marks may refer to: Business * Mark's, a Canadian retail chain * Marks & Spencer, a British retail chain * Collective trade marks, trademarks owned by an organisation for the benefit of its members * Marks & Co, the inspiration for the novel ''8 ...
and smarks. Derived from the same term for the prey of conmen, a mark is a fan who believes that everything associated with professional wrestling is real. In contrast, a "smark" is a fan who recognizes that they are witnessing a stage-managed work ("
kayfabe In professional wrestling Professional wrestling is a form of entertainment and performing art, which combines athletics with performance. It comprises of exhibitions, called 'matches', held by touring companies called Professional wrestlin ...
"), but appreciates it nonetheless, including its backstage aspects.


Science fiction

Since the 1920s, an increasingly elaborate sub-culture of organized
science fiction fandom Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms foun ...
has arisen, initially among correspondents to the
letter column A comic book letter column is a section of an American comic book where readers' letters to the publisher appear. Comic book letter columns are also commonly referred to as letter columns (or lettercols), letter pages, letters of comment (LOCs), or ...
s of
science fiction magazine A science fiction magazine is a publication that offers primarily science fiction, either in a hard-copy periodical format or on the Internet. Science fiction magazines traditionally featured speculative fiction in short story, Novella, novelette, ...
s. This non-centralized movement has given birth to
science fiction fanzines A science-fiction fanzine is an amateur or semi-professional magazine published by members of science-fiction fandom, from the 1930s to the present day. They were one of the earliest forms of fanzine, within one of which the term "''fanzine''" was ...
(and amateur press associations),
science fiction conventions Science fiction conventions are gatherings of fans Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine) Sounds from a household fan. A fan is a powered machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movemen ...
, the
Hugo Awards The Hugo Award is an annual literary award for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year, given at the World Science Fiction Convention and chosen by its members. The Hugo is widely considered the premier awa ...
(and various imitators/derivatives),
filk music Filk music is a musical culture, genre, and community tied to science fiction, fantasy and horror fandom and a type of fan labor. The genre has been active since the early 1950s, and played primarily since the mid-1970s. Etymology and defini ...
, "fan funds" such as the Trans Atlantic Fan Fund, and a variety of other institutions, jargon and customs. It has nurtured writers and artists such as
Ray Bradbury Ray Douglas Bradbury (; August 22, 1920June 5, 2012) was an American author and screenwriter. One of the most celebrated 20th-century American writers, he worked in a variety of modes, including fantasy, science fiction, horror, mystery, and real ...

Ray Bradbury
,
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
,
Lenny Kaye Lenny Kaye (born December 27, 1946) is an American guitarist, composer, and writer who is best known as a member of the Patti Smith Group. Early life Kaye was born to Jewish parents in the Washington Heights area of upper Manhattan Manhat ...
,
Michael Moorcock Michael John Moorcock (born 18 December 1939) is an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Engl ...

Michael Moorcock
and
Trina Robbins Trina Robbins (born Trina Perlson; August 17, 1938 in Brooklyn, New York) is an People of the United States, American cartoonist. She was an early and influential participant in the underground comix movement, and one of the first few female arti ...
; and has generated such spin-offs as comic book fandom,
media fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beli ...
, the
Society for Creative Anachronism The Society for Creative Anachronism (SCA) is an international living history Living history is an activity that incorporates historical tools, activities and dress into an interactive presentation that seeks to give observers and participants ...
,
gaming Gaming may refer to: Games and sports The act of playing game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: ...

gaming
fandom, and
furry fandom The furry fandom is a subculture interested in anthropomorphism, anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics. The term "furry fandom" is also used to refer to the community of people who gather on the Internet ...
, sometimes collectively referred to as "fringe fandoms". Science fiction fandom developed its own slang, known as
fanspeak Fanspeak is the slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective ...
after the "Newspeak" of the novel ''
Nineteen Eighty-four ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'' (also stylised as ''1984'') is a dystopian social science fiction novel and cautionary tale written by English writer George Orwell. It was published on 8 June 1949 by Secker & Warburg as Orwell's ninth and final boo ...
''. Fanspeak is made up of
acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign langu ...
s, blended words, obscure in-jokes,
pun The pun, also known as paronomasia, is a form of word play Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fict ...
s, coinages from science fiction novels or films, and archaic or standard English words used in specific ways relevant or amusing to the science fiction community. Some fanspeak terms, like
fanzine A fanzine ( blend of ''fan Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, espe ...

fanzine
have become standard English. Some fanspeak terms relate to fans themselves: * An Actifan is a fan involved in "
fanac Fanac is a fan slang term (from fannish activities) for activities within the realm of science fiction fandom Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within ...
" (fan activity), such as producing a fanzine or running a convention. The opposite is a Passifan, who enjoys the subject of the fandom and is not directly involved in the fandom. * A
Big Name FanAmong science fiction fandom, science fiction and fantasy, comic book, and media fandom, media fandom, fans, a Big Name Fan (BNF) is a member of a fandom who is particularly well-known and celebrated for their writings in fanzines, semi-professional ...
(BNF) is a fan who has become well known within a fandom for their contributions of various sorts, such as heading of a major blog or contributing to the franchise itself. * Fanne was used in early fandom as a feminine equivalent to "fan". *
Fen A fen is a type of peat-accumulating wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a sy ...
was used within fandom as the plural of the word "fan", by analogy with "men" as the plural of "man". This extended to other fanspeak terms, resulting in actifen, passifen, trufen, and so forth. * A Trufan is a very active and dedicated fan. Specific sub-groups of science fiction fandom are often known by a collection term. For example: *
Trekkie A Trekkie or Trekker is a fan of the ''Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise originating from the 1960s television program, television series ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek'', created by Ge ...
s are fans focused on the ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s series and quickly became a worldwide Popular culture, pop-culture Cultural influ ...

Star Trek
''
science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

science fiction
franchise. Arising out of
science fiction fandom Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms foun ...
they, to some extent, have served as a template for other organized fandoms in the
science fiction television Science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculativ ...
and
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
genres. Some "Trekkies" prefer to be referred to as "Trekkers" as they feel the term "Trekkies" was used in the past as a derogatory name for them and they hope to avoid the traditional stigma sometimes associated with being known as a "Trekkie". Many "old school" fans of the ''Star Trek'' universe defiantly, and proudly, refer to themselves, and other ''Star Trek'' fans, as "Trekkies" rather than the kinder, gentler "Trekkers" name used by many of the newer generations of ''Star Trek'' fans. *
Whovians The long-running British science fiction on television, science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' has developed a very large, loyal and devoted fan base over the years. ''Doctor Who'' fans are sometimes referred to as Whovians, or sim ...
are fans of the longest running science fiction television show in the world,
Doctor Who ''Doctor Who'' is a British science fiction television programme broadcast by the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London Lond ...

Doctor Who
.


Sports

A sports fan can be an enthusiast for a particular athlete, team, sport, or all of organized sports as a whole. Sports fans often attend sporting events in
stadiums A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stan ...
, in sports bars, or watch them at home on television, and follow news through newspapers, websites, and social media. The mentality of the sports fan is often such that they will experience a game, or event while living vicariously through players or teams whom the fan favors. This behavior manifests itself in a number of different ways, depending on the venue. At a stadium or arena, sports fans will voice their pleasure with a particular incident, player, or team by
cheering Cheering involves the uttering or making of sounds and may be used to encourage, excite to action, indicate approval or welcome. The word cheer originally meant face, countenance, or expression, and came through Old French Old French (, , ...

cheering
, which consists of clapping, fist-pumping, or shouting positive exclamations toward the field of play and ultimately, the favorable object. Likewise, displeasure toward a particular incident, player, or team may be met by fans with booing, shouting of expletives, and sometimes throwing of objects onto the field. This violent type of fan reaction is often called
hooliganism Hooliganism is disruptive or unlawful behavior such as riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or so ...
. Lighter, more harmless objects are also occasionally thrown onto certain fields of play as a form of celebration of a favorable sports feat. This is most common when a member of the home team scores a
hat trick A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

hat trick
in hockey. Other, more mild forms of displeasure shown by sports fans at sporting events involve simple groans of disappointment, and silence. These actions often denote that the favored home team is being outperformed by, or has lost to the much less-favored road team. In North America, extremely enthusiastic fans are often called "superfans": fans who dress up in outrageous and ostentatious costumes or outfits showing their devotion. Fanbases well known for their tenacious love and undying support are called '' rabid fans'' or fanatics. These fans often congregate hours before kickoff in what is known as a tailgation or tailgating. At sports bars, sports fans will gather together, often while consuming food and alcoholic beverages, with the purpose of following a particular sporting event on television as a group. Sports bars often advertise in hopes of drawing fans of a particular player or team to watch together to increase bonds between fans and prevent fights. This can create the sense of unity in a sports bar as all cheers and boos will appear to be synchronized due to similar feelings and reactions by nearly all fans at the fortunes and misfortunes of the favored team or athlete. Due to the level of devotion and intensity of feeling towards the favored team or athlete by sports bar patrons, as well as partially due to the alcohol being served, behavior that would be seen as unruly or fanatical outside a sports bar is generally more common inside of one. The intensity of cheering and jeering at a sports bar by sports fans can often range from equal to stronger than that of fans actually at the sporting event for particularly significant games and matches. At home, sports fans may have few fellow fans but also more freedom. This is sometimes where the most intense cheering or jeering will take place. In the fan's own home, unbridled and lengthy screaming, crying, acts of destruction to household objects, and other manifestations of joy or anguish, are perhaps seen as most acceptable in comparison to the sports bar or sporting venue simply because such acts taken to such an extreme can be seen as disruptive to a large number of fellow fans even if they share the same sentiment if it is of less intensity. The greatest variables of the reaction of a sports fan in their own home are the intensity of the fan's desire to see their team win or perform well, and the presence of another: often a wife, children, or friends who may be significantly less ardent sports fans or not sports fans at all, which may significantly temper the fan's reaction to a highly positive or negative moment due to the fear of causing a scene or scaring those close to the fan, or alienating themselves from said others. Often sports fans will invite other fans of relatively similar rooting intensity over to their house to experience a sporting event together so that all involved can voice pleasure or displeasure to their heart's content and increase shared bonds in the process. It is becoming common for this type of bonding to take place over sports-related
social networks A social networking service A social networking service or SNS (sometimes called a social networking site) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relation In social science, a social relation or social ...

social networks
.


Fan psychology and motives


Sports

The drivers that make people fans, and in particular sports fans, have been studied by psychologists, such as Dan Wann at
Murray State University Murray State University (MSU) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives sig ...
, and communication scholars, such as Adam Earnheardt at
Youngstown State University Youngstown State University (YSU or Youngstown State) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a nationa ...
. They attribute people becoming fans to the following factors: One element is entertainment, because sports spectatorship is a form of leisure. Sports is also a form of escapism, and being a fan gives one an excuse to yell at something, an activity that may be constrained in other areas of one's life. Fan activities give participants a combination of euphoria and stress (about the potential for their team to lose) for which they coin the name "eustress". Fans experience euphoria during moments when play is going well for their team, and stress when play is going against their team. This tension between the two emotions generates an unusual sense of pleasure or heightened sensations. Aesthetics are another draw for some fans, who appreciate the precision or skill of play, or of the coordinated movement of the players during a pre-planned "play". Family bonding is a reason for some fan activities. Some families watch televised sports on a regular basis and go to sports games as a family outing to watch events and form a
psychological bond Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between two or more homo sapiens sapiens, people. It most commonly takes place between family members or friends, but can also develop among groups, such as sportin ...
with one another and as a family. Going to sports events can create a borrowed sense of self-esteem if fans identify with their teams to the extent that they consider themselves to be successful when their teams have been successful (e.g., as seen in the phrase "we have won"). If a fan identifies strongly with a favorite team, they will respond to the performance of the team as if team success were a personal success and team failure a personal failure.


Loyalty

Fan loyalty is the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism. Allegiances can be strong or weak. The loyalties of sports fans have been studied by psychologists and have often been reviewed. Fangirls and fanboys in fandoms sometimes, with various meanings, consider their fandom to be their "family," and feel very loyal to it, usually.


"Stan" fans

A stan is an excessively avid fan and supporter of a
celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a celebrity status from having great wealth, their participation in sports ...
, TV show, group, musical artist, film or film series. The object of the stan's affection is often called "bias" (or "fave", although that is an outdated term). Based on the 2000 song "
Stan Stan may refer to: People * Stan (given name), a list of people with the given name * Stan (surname), a Romanian surname * Stan! (born 1964), an American author, cartoonist and games designer Steven Brown * Stan (singer) (born 1987), a Greek sin ...
" by American rapper
Eminem Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), known professionally as Eminem (; formerly stylized as EMINƎM), is an American rapper, songwriter, and record producer. Eminem is among the best-selling music artists of all time, with est ...

Eminem
, the term has frequently been used to describe artist devotees whose fanaticism matches the severity of the obsessive character in the song. The word has been described as a portmanteau of "stalker" and "fan". A website known as "Stan Wars" or "stanipedia" sprouted up to host discussions and
flame war Flaming or roasting is the online act of posting insults, often laced with profanity or other offensive language on social networking sites. This term should not be confused with the term trolling, which is the act of someone going online, or in pe ...
s between rival fanbases. The Korean equivalent for a stan is a sasaeng. Stan culture has been criticized for being toxic.


Usage

Colloquially, the term can be used as both a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
or a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
. Stans of a particular artist are often given more detailed names, such as "Arianators" for fans of
Ariana Grande Ariana Grande-Butera () (born June 26, 1993) is an American singer and actress. Born in Boca Raton, Florida, Grande began her career at age 15 in the 2008 Broadway theatre, Broadway musical ''13 (musical), 13''. She rose to fame for her role ...

Ariana Grande
and " Directioner" for fans of
One Direction One Direction, often shortened to 1D, are an English-Irish pop Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Rom ...
. Some artists, however, do not have specific titles attributed to their stans; fans of
Kylie Minogue Kylie Ann Minogue (; born 28 May 1968), also known mononymously A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, who may have orig ...
have been called Kylie Stans. Even for fandoms with specific titles, the "artist stan" formula still applies.


Prevalence

Some of these monikers are almost universally known and used by fans of the artists as well as outsiders. Other nicknames are not commonly used, neither by outsiders nor by the concerning fan-base, such as
Kylie Minogue Kylie Ann Minogue (; born 28 May 1968), also known mononymously A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, who may have orig ...
's so called "Kylie Stans",
Madonna Madonna Louise Ciccone (; ; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is considered Cultural impact of Madonna, one of the most influential figures in popular culture and has often been referred to as the "Honor ...

Madonna
's so called "Madonna Fans"
Maroon 5 Maroon 5 is an American pop rock Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a ...

Maroon 5
's so called "Maroon 5 Stans" or
Nick Jonas Nicholas Jerry Jonas (born September 16, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter and actor. Jonas began acting in Broadway at the age of seven, and released his debut single in 2002 which caught the attention of Columbia Records where Jonas f ...

Nick Jonas
's so called "Nick Jonas Fans" usually appearing on
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
networks such as Twitter and
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
, The term "stan" is also used to describe fans of K-pop. The term is not to be confused with Sasaeng fans, which are overly obsessed fans who stalk and sometimes bring harm to idols. Stans, however, are merely highly dedicated fans. The term was added to the ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' in 2017.


Celebrity reaction

Celebrities have positively reacted to their "stan" followings. Notably, English singer-songwriter
Jessie J Jessica Ellen Cornish (born 27 March 1988), known professionally as Jessie J, is an English singer-songwriter. Born and raised in London, she began her career on stage, aged 11, with a role in the West End West End most commonly refers to: * ...

Jessie J
had this to say about her stans, "They support me and buy my albums and singles, and they stand outside hotels, and they come to shows, and they get tattoos of my lyrics and they cut their hair like me. You have to love your fans. That's why I call them my Heartbeats, because without them I wouldn't be here". In 2012, after Jessie J broke her own leg, a stan broke her own leg to emulate the injury. The fan tracked down Jessie J's personal address and sent her a photograph of the self-inflicted injury. The singer was horrified and decided to increase her security. Singer-songwriter
Lorde Ella Marija Lani Yelich-O'Connor (born 7 November 1996), known professionally as Lorde ( ), is a New Zealand singer-songwriter. Taking inspiration from aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and ...

Lorde
has a different opinion on the matter of giving her followers a nickname. She discouraged it by saying "I find it grating to lump everyone into a really awkward, pun-centric name" and affirmed she will never name her fanbase.


Gender stereotypes


Societal gender roles


Discrimination against females

Women tend to be "more restricted in their leisure choices and opportunities than men," and their experiences within fandoms are typically demeaned to a more sexualized, emotional, or bodily experience, as opposed to intellectual interests.Cline, Cheryl. "Essays from Bitch: The Women's Rock Newsletter with Bite." Ed. Lewis, Lisa A. ''The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media.'' New York; London: Routledge, 1992. Print. 69-83.Railton, Diane. "The Gendered Carnival of Pop." ''Popular Music: Gender and Sexuality.'' 20, 3. (Oct. 2001): 321-331. JStor. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.Crawford, G. and Gosling, V.K. "The Myth of the Puck Bunny: Female Fans and Men's Ice Hockey." ''Sociology'': 38 (3), 2004. 477-493. For example, in music, women are more predominant, and accepted, within pop music fandoms, which Diane Railton describes as evoking an emotional and physical response, in contrast with the 'masculine' rock music, which is defined as 'serious' music with a 'meaning', focusing on political, cultural, and psychological discussion. Due to this, women are rarely given space or voice within the intellectual realm of music. According to
Frank Zappa Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American musician, singer, composer, songwriter and bandleader. His work is characterized by nonconformity Nonconformity or nonconformism may refer to: Culture and soci ...

Frank Zappa
, "men come to hear the music and chicks come for the sex thrills," implying that women's involvement in fan communities is purely sexual, and that they are incapable of displaying intellectual or artistic interest in the music itself. Those who do manage to become involved within the world of 'serious' music are often relegated to the realm of a 'groupie'. A groupie, according to Cheryl Cline, is
person (a woman, usually), who 'chases after' rock stars, as my mother would say. But 'groupie' is also used more or less synonymously with 'girl Rock fan', 'female journalist', and 'woman Rock musician'; it's used to mean anyone working in the music field who isn't actually a Rock musician; it's used as an all-purpose insult and a slut on one's professionalism; it's used as a cute term for 'hero worship'; and it's used interchangeably with 'fan'.
In other words, the term 'groupie' (used synonymously with the term 'fan' or 'fangirl') is frequently used to shame women involved within the music community, restricting their involvement to sexual relations with band members or worshipping male rock stars. This trend can also be observed within other fan communities, such as comic book fandoms, where women are frequently portrayed as "Fake Geek Girls", only interested in comic books to impress guys or to view the attractive men present within their content, or sports communities, where women are often made uncomfortable at live sporting events due to the overt sexism and aggressive masculinity displayed by male spectators, and then labelled as 'inauthentic' for viewing the games via television instead. Within hockey, female fans are often called "Puck Bunnies", defined as,
meone who hangs around the players, always on the lookout for the chance to get that autograph / photograph / quick pint
rink Rink may refer to: * Ice rink An ice rink (or ice skating rink) is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, bandy, rin ...

rink
/ quick knee trem-bler round the back of the Arena from the player or players (or even coach) of their choice, heck let's face it even the water carrier is in with a chance here.
Such discrimination against female fans can become violent at times in an effort to police "authenticity". The recent events known as
GamerGate The Gamergate controversy concerned an online harassment campaign, primarily conducted through the use of the hashtag #GamerGate, that centered on issues of Sexism and video games, sexism and anti-progressivism in video game culture. ''Gamerg ...
provide a good example of such attacks, whereby multiple women working within the gaming industry were victims of sexual harassment and violent threats, some even forced to leave their homes for fear of a physical confrontation. The fangirls', often stereotyped as female, so-called 'hysteria' is described as the product of sexual repression. However, while it is expected for women to be involved in certain fandoms for physical or sexual reasons, this is also viewed as undesirable and driven by hormonal changes. These acts of adoration are societally limited to adolescent youth, or menopausal women, in both instances blaming "these two periods of hormonal lunacy" on the irrational, overtly sexual behaviour. For instance, Cheryl Cline, in her text entitled "Essays from Bitch: The Women's Rock Newsletter with Bite", discusses how women need to keep their interests hidden once they pass adolescence. In her own words, " 's a sign of maturity to pack up all the posters, photos, magazines, scrapbooks, and unauthorized biographies you so lovingly collected and shove them in the back of the closet. These conflicting accounts of fangirl behaviour are due to the belief that women are not supposed to express such sexual fantasies unless influenced by some hormonal induced craziness, while for men it is normal to be sexual regardless of age. As Cheryl Cline summarizes,
It's much easier for a man to be indulgent about the crushes of teenage girls than it is for him to be fair-minded about the sexual fantasies of the woman he loves when they're about someone else. And the same guy who'll leave ''Penthouse'' in the bathroom will yell, 'No woman of mine is gonna hang a poster of Prince naked to the waist on the inside of the closet of the spare room where no one will see it!' til you reach the age when everybody thinks you're crazy anyway, so why not admit to an intense hankering to run your fingers through Willie Nelson's whiskers?


Discrimination against males

According to Jackson Katz in the documentary ''Tough Guise 2'', boys are taught early on that to be "real men" they need to be tough and not to show their feelings.''Tough Guise 2.'' Writ./Dir. Jackson Katz and Jeremy Earp. Media Education Foundation Production, 2013.
can't show any emotion except anger. We can't think too much or seem too intellectual. We can't back down when someone disrespects us. We have to show we're tough enough to inflict physical pain and take it in turn. We're supposed to be sexually aggressive with women. And then we're taught that if we step out of this box, we risk being seen as soft, weak, feminine, or gay.
He later elaborates, stating that,
Qualities like compassion, caring, empathy, intellectual curiosity, fear, vulnerability, even love – basic human qualities that boys have inside them every bit as much as girls do – get methodically driven out of them by a sexist and homophobic culture that labels these things as 'unmanly,' 'feminine,' 'womanly,' and 'gay,' and teaches boys to avoid them at all costs. And, most importantly, they're taught that real men turn to violence not as a last resort, but as the go-to method of resolving disputes – and also as a primary means of winning respect and establishing masculine credibility.
In the predecessor to this documentary, ''Tough Guise'', Katz also addresses the issue of body image, using multiple movies, such as '' Terminator'' and ''
Rambo Rambo is a surname with Norwegian (Vestfold) and Swedish origins. It possibly originated with '':wikt:ramn#Old Swedish, ramn'' + '':wikt:bo#Swedish, bo'', meaning "raven's nest". It has variants in French (''Rambeau'' and ''Rimbaud'') and German ('' ...
'', as well as action figures like
G.I. Joe G.I. Joe is an American media franchise and a line of action figures An action figure is a poseable character (arts), character toy figurine made most commonly of plastic, and often based upon characters from a film, comic book, military, vide ...
, to illustrate how 'real men' are defined as big, strong, and muscular. Fanboy portrayals, by definition, do not fit into this mold of a 'real man', with the exception of sports fans. In a study by Gerard Jones on comic book fans, he described the comic book fanboys as "small, anxious, withdrawn, and terrified of the opposite sex." Quite the opposite of the 'real man' previously described by Katz. Their interests may also be considered as a deviation from societal gender roles, according to Noah Berlastsky, such as playing ''
Dungeons and Dragons ''Dungeons & Dragons'' (commonly abbreviated as ''D&D'' or ''DnD'') is a fantasy Fantasy is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventi ...
'' instead of football. This lack of traditional masculine traits warrants them much teasing from peers, parental figures, coaches, or older male role models for not conforming to these ideas of masculinity. A popular example of such treatment in mainstream media is shown on the sitcom ''
The Big Bang Theory ''The Big Bang Theory'' is an American television sitcom created by Chuck Lorre and Bill Prady, both of whom served as executive producers on the series, along with Steven Molaro, all of whom also served as head writers. It premiered on CBS ...
'', where, multiple times throughout the show's run, the four main characters, portrayed as 'nerdy fanboys', are humiliated by larger 'real men'. For instance, in the show pilot, the two main characters, Leonard and Sheldon, get their pants taken by the main female character's ex-boyfriend, who is portrayed as big, strong, tough, confident, and successful with women. Furthermore, fanboys also deal with issues of gender discrimination in relation to their fandom interests. For example, Bronies, a group of young men enthralled by the TV show '' My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic'', a show typically geared towards young girls, are often the target of ridicule. Their interest in a 'feminine' media item can be the cause of great shame, causing many to become 'private' bronies, enjoying the show in secret out of fear.


Fangirl

Fangirls are often portrayed as teenagers obsessed with something to a frightening degree. The term is often used in a demeaning, derogatory fashion and is said to describe the fans that give "normal" fans a bad name. In fact, the term "fangirling" is used to describe anyone who obsessively follows a certain
fandom A fandom is a subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, belief ...

fandom
to the point where it interferes with their daily lives. Such a trend of 'authentic' versus 'inauthentic' fan is common within fan communities, and is particularly pertinent to gender discrimination and misogynistic ideals. However, on the other hand of the spectrum, some fangirls have embraced the title, considering it a compliment rather than a derogatory term.


Immaturity in fangirls

In terms of their involvement within fandoms, fangirls are typically portrayed as losing all control, fainting, sobbing, and dashing about in mobs.Ehrenreich, Barbara, Elizabeth Hess, and Gloria Jacobs. "Beatlemania: Girls Just Want to Have Fun." Ed. Lewis, Lisa A. ''The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media.'' New York; London: Routledge, 1992. Print. 84-106. For instance, while describing the phenomenon of Beatlemania, fan activity is described by stating that:
The appropriate reaction to contact with he Beatles– such as occupying the same auditorium or city block – was to sob uncontrollably while screaming, 'I'm gonna die, I'm gonna die,' or, more optimistically, the name of a favorite Beatle, until the onset of either unconsciousness or laryngitis. Girls peed in their pants, fainted, or simply collapsed from the emotional strain.
Furthermore, while discussing Beatlemania and the crazed Beatles fangirl behaviour, Barbara Ehrenreich, Elizabeth Heiss, and Gloria Jacobs mention how the 'only cure' for what was at the time considered an affliction was age, and that similarly to "the girls who had screamed for Frank Sinatra," the Beatles fangirls would "up to be responsible, settled " individuals.


Fanboy

Fanboys are frequently portrayed as "angry nerds", over-aggressive, derogatory, and protective of the object of their obsession, or as bespectacled, geekoid, obsessive fans. The term
nerd A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Critical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex; several different Critical thinking#Def ...
, defined as "insignificant, foolish, or socially inept person; a person who is boringly conventional or studious; a person who pursues an unfashionable or highly technical interest with obsessive or exclusive dedication," as well as the term
geek The word ''geek'' is a slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental ...
, defined as " person who is regarded as foolish, offensive, worthless; an overly diligent, unsociable student; any unsociable person obsessively devoted to a particular pursuit," are often used to describe stereotypical fanboys. In regards to chosen fandoms, they are typically associated with comic books, video games, science fiction movies or television series, or technology (such as computer or smartphone brands). An exception to this portrayal is the sports fan, who is expected to be overtly sexual, and aggressive.Gosling, Victoria K. "Girls Allowed? The Marginalization of Female Sports Fans." Eds. Gray, Jonathan, et al. ''Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World.'' New York: New York University Press, 2007. Print. 250-260. This portrayal is particularly dominant within the sports arena, which provides a legitimate site for people to act in hyper masculinized ways. According to Williams, "Many want to be overtly sexist and racist. They need to have this exaggerated sense of their sexuality to defend themselves from potential accusations that they are not real men."Coddington, A. ''One of the Lads: Women who Follow Football.'' London: Harper Collins, 1997. Print.


Immaturity in fanboys

Fanboys are often portrayed as quite angry, violent, and offensive while defending the objects of their affection, such as the smartphone fanboys who frequently verbally attack anybody saying anything the slightest bit offensive about their chosen technological product through online anonymous sites. In fact, the term 'fanboy' is often used as an insult towards other fans, deemed unreasonable, arrogant, or overly loyal to their chosen token of affection. Such defensiveness is particularly prominent against women who are interested in their chosen fandoms or who pose a "threat" to their community. For example, in 2012, male gamers created a Flash game in which players could physically assault
Anita Sarkeesian Anita Sarkeesian (; born 1983) is a Canadian-American feminist Feminism is a range of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they a ...
, a woman who launched a Kickstarter to create a series of documentaries on women tropes in video games. These violent acts against Sarkeesian continued in 2014, during the controversial event or movement known as
GamerGate The Gamergate controversy concerned an online harassment campaign, primarily conducted through the use of the hashtag #GamerGate, that centered on issues of Sexism and video games, sexism and anti-progressivism in video game culture. ''Gamerg ...
, during which Sarkeesian received numerous threats by fanboys due to her Tropes vs Women series on YouTube, where she analyzes the alleged limited and sexist female roles available in video games. These threats escalated dangerously, requiring her to leave her home in fear for her safety, as well as cancel a speaking engagement at Utah State University after there were threats of a mass shooting on campus due to her presence. Such discriminatory acts of violence towards women are not isolated cases. For instance, male comic book fans frequently harass women frequenting comic book shops, either by demeaning them or by hitting on them, causing them to feel uncomfortable and excluded from the fan community.


See also

*
Fan activismFan activism involves “forms of civic engagement and political participation that emerge from within fan culture itself, often in response to the shared interests of fans, often conducted through the infrastructure of existing fan practices and rel ...
*
Fan art Fan art or fanart is artwork created by Fan (person), fans of a work of fiction and derived from a series Character (arts), character or other aspect of that work. As fan labor, fan art refers to artworks that are neither created nor (normally) ...
*
Fan club A fan club is an organized group of fans, generally of a celebrity Celebrity is a condition of fame and broad public recognition of an individual or group as a result of the attention given to them by mass media. A person may attain a ...
*
Fansite A fansite, fan site, fan blog or fan page is a website created and maintained by a fan (person), fan or devotee about a celebrity, thing, or particular cultural phenomenon. Fansites may offer specialized information on the subject (e.g., episode ...
* Fan studies


References

* * Tucker, Bob. ''The Neo-Fan's Guide To Science Fiction Fandom''. 8th Edition, 1996. KaCSFFS Press. No ISBN listed. * Fuschillo, Gregorio (2020)
Fans, fandoms, or fanaticism
. Journal of Consumer Culture, 20(3), 347-365.


External links


Merriam-Webster: fan

Oxford Dictionary: fan


{{DEFAULTSORT:Fan (Person) * Hobbyists