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The gens Fabia was one of the most ancient
patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
families at
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
. The
gens In ancient Rome, a gens ( or ), plural gentes, was a family consisting of individuals who shared the same Roman naming conventions#Nomen, nomen and who claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a ''stirps'' (plural ''s ...
played a prominent part in history soon after the establishment of the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
, and three brothers were invested with seven successive consulships, from 485 to 479 BC, thereby cementing the high repute of the family. Overall, the Fabii received 45 consulships during the Republic. The house derived its greatest lustre from the patriotic courage and tragic fate of the 306 Fabii in the
Battle of the Cremera The Battle of the Cremera was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). It most likely occurred on 18 July, although Ovid gives a different date of 13 February. Background Sin ...
, 477 BC. But the Fabii were not distinguished as warriors alone; several members of the gens were also important in the history of
Roman literature Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
and the arts.''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'', vol. II, p. 131 ("
Fabia Gens The gens Fabia was one of the most ancient patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europ ...
").
Homo, pp. 7 ''ff''.Smith, ''The Roman Clan'', pp. 290 ''ff''.


Background

The family is generally thought to have been counted amongst the , the most prominent of the patrician houses at Rome, together with the
Aemilii The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Pa ...
,
Claudii The gens Claudia (), sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usa ...
,
Cornelii The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), ...
,
Manlii The gens Manlia was one of the oldest and noblest Patrician (ancient Rome), patrician houses at Ancient Rome, Rome, from the earliest days of the Roman Republic, Republic until imperial times. The first of the gens to obtain the Roman consul, con ...
, and
Valerii The gens Valeria was a patrician (ancient Rome), patrician family at ancient Rome, prominent from the very beginning of the Roman Republic, Republic to the latest period of the Roman Empire, Empire. Publius Valerius Poplicola was one of the Rom ...
; but no list of the ''gentes maiores'' has survived, and even the number of families so designated is a complete mystery. Until 480 BC, the Fabii were staunch supporters of the aristocratic policies favoring the patricians and the
senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

senate
against the
plebs In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian ...
. However, following a great battle that year against the
Veientes Veii (also Veius; it, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the Comuni of the Province of Rome, co ...

Veientes
, in which victory was achieved only by cooperation between the generals and their soldiers, the Fabii aligned themselves with the plebs. One of the thirty-five voting ''
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living o ...
'' into which the Roman people were divided was named after the Fabii; several tribes were named after important gentes, including the tribes ''Aemilia, Claudia, Cornelia, Fabia, Papiria, Publilia, Sergia'', and ''Veturia''. Several of the others appear to have been named after lesser families. The most famous legend of the Fabii asserts that, following the last of the seven consecutive consulships in 479 BC, the gens undertook the war with
Veii Veii (also Veius; it, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy. It now lies in Isola Farnese, in the Comuni of the Province of Rome, c ...

Veii
as a private obligation. A militia consisting of over three hundred men of the gens, together with their friends and clients, amounting to a total of some four thousand men, took up arms and stationed itself on a hill overlooking the Cremera, a little river between Rome and Veii. The cause of this secession is said to have been the enmity between the Fabii and the patricians, who regarded them as traitors for advocating the causes of the plebeians. The Fabian militia remained in their camp on the Cremera for two years, successfully opposing the Veientes, until at last they were lured into an ambush, and destroyed. Three hundred and six Fabii of fighting age were said to have perished in the disaster, leaving only a single survivor to return home. By some accounts he was the only survivor of the entire gens; but it seems unlikely that the camp of the Fabii included not only all of the men, but the women and children of the family as well. They and the elders of the gens probably remained at Rome. The day on which the Fabii perished was forever remembered, as it was the same day that the
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS ...
defeated the Roman army at the
Battle of the Allia The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought between the Senones – a Gauls, Gallic tribe led by Brennus (4th century BC), Brennus who had invaded northern Italy – and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber a ...
in 390 BC. This was the fifteenth day before the kalends of Sextilis, or July 18, according to the modern calendar.Ovid, ''Fasti'', ii. 237. The story was considerably embellished at a later date in order to present it as a counterpart of the
Battle of Thermopylae The Battle of Thermopylae ( ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
, which took place in 479 BC (hence the number of 306 Fabii, similar to the 300
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
ns of
Leonidas Leonidas I (; Doric , '; Ionic and Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it ...
). However,
Tim Cornell Timothy J. Cornell (born 1946) is a British historian specializing in ancient Rome. He is Emeritus Professor of Ancient History at the University of Manchester, having retired from his teaching position in 2011. Cornell received his bachelor's degr ...
states that there is no reason to doubt the historicity of the battle, because the ''tribus Fabia''—presumably where the Fabii had their country estates—was located near the Cremera, on the border with Veii. Throughout the history of the Republic, the Fabii made several alliances with other prominent families, especially plebeian and Italian ones, which partly explains their long prominence. The first of such alliances that can be traced dates from the middle of the fifth century and was with the Poetelii; it lasted for at least a century. In the fourth century, the Fabii were allied to the patrician Manlii and the plebeian Genucii and Licinii, whom they supported during the
Conflict of the Orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
. They then occupied an unprecedented leading position in the third century, as three generations of Fabii were ''
princeps senatus The ''princeps senatus'' (plural ''principes senatus'') was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. Although officially out of the ''cursus honorum The ''cursus honorum'' (; , or more colloquially 'ladder of offices') was the sequ ...
''—a unique occurrence during the Republic. During this period, they allied with the plebeian Atilii from
Campania it, Campano (man) it, Campana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 ...
, where the Fabii had significant estates, the
Fulvii The gens Fulvia, originally Foulvia, was one of the most illustrious plebeian families at ancient Rome. Members of this gens first came to prominence during the middle Roman Republic, Republic; the first to attain the Roman consul, consulship was L ...
and Mamilii from
Tusculum Tusculum is a ruined Classical Rome, Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy. Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, yet a comfortable distanc ...
, the Otacili from , the Ogulnii from
Etruria Etruria () was a region of Central Italy Central Italy ( it, Italia centrale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ) ...

Etruria
, and the
Marcii The gens Marcia, occasionally written Martia, was one of the oldest and noblest houses at ancient Rome. They claimed descent from the second and fourth King of Rome, Roman Kings, and the first of the Marcii appearing in the history of the Roman Re ...
. They also sponsored the emergence of the Caecilii Metelli and
Porcii The gens Porcia, rarely written Portia, was a plebeian In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizenship, Roman citizens who were not Patrician (ancient Rome), patricians, as determined by the ...
, who owed their first consulate to the Fabii, as well as the re-emergence of the patrician Quinctii. The main direction of the against Carthage was disputed between the Fabii and the Cornelii Scipiones. The death of Fabius Verrucosus in 203 marks the end of the Fabian leadership on Roman politics, by now assumed by their rivals:
Scipio Africanus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (, , ; 236/235–183 BC) was a Roman general and statesman, most notable as one of the main architects of Rome's victory against Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side ...
and his family. After the consulship of Fabius Maximus Eburnus in 116, the Fabii entered a century-long eclipse, until their temporary revival under
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
. The name of the Fabii was associated with one of the two colleges of the ''Luperci'', the priests who carried on the sacred rites of the ancient religious festival of the
Lupercalia Lupercalia was a pastoral festival of Ancient Rome observed annually on February 15 to purify the city, promoting health and fertility. Lupercalia was also known as ''dies Februatus'', after the purification instruments called ''februa'', the b ...
. The other college bore the name of the Quinctilii, suggesting that in the earliest times these two gentes superintended these rites as a ''sacrum gentilicum'', much as the Pinarii and Potitii maintained the worship of
Hercules Hercules (, ) is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed p ...

Hercules
. Such sacred rites were gradually transferred to the state, or opened to the Roman ''populus;'' a well-known legend attributed the destruction of the Potitii to the abandonment of its religious office. In later times the privilege of the Lupercalia had ceased to be confined to the Fabii and the Quinctilii.


Origin

According to legend, the Fabii claimed descent from Hercules, who visited Italy a generation before the
Trojan War In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
, and from Evander, his host. This brought the Fabii into the same tradition as the Pinarii and Potitii, who were said to have welcomed Hercules and learned from him the sacred rites which for centuries afterward they performed in his honor. Another early legend stated that at the founding of Rome, the followers of the brothers
Romulus and Remus In Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' m ...

Romulus and Remus
were called the Quinctilii and the Fabii, respectively. The brothers were said to have offered up sacrifices in the cave of the
Lupercal : The she-wolf is of unknown origin, the suckling twins were added circa 1500 The Lupercal (from Latin '' wikt:lupa, lupa'' "female wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to ...
at the base of the
Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill, (; la, Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; it, Palatino ) which is the centremost of the seven hills of Rome The seven hills of Rome ( la, Septem colles/montes Romae, it, Sette colli di Roma ) east of the river Tiber ...

Palatine Hill
, which became the origin of the Lupercalia. This story is certainly connected with the tradition that the two colleges of the Luperci bore the names of these ancient gentes. The
nomen Nomen may refer to: *Nomen (Roman name) The (or simply ) was a hereditary name borne by the peoples of ancient Italy and later by the citizens of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. It was originally the name of one's (family or clan) by p ...
of the Fabii is said originally to have been ''Fovius, Favius'', or ''Fodius;'' stated that it was derived from ''
faba ''Vicia faba'', also known in the culinary Culinary arts, in which ''wikt:culinary, culinary'' means "related to cooking", are the cuisine arts of outline of food preparation, food preparation, cooking, and presentation of food, usually in ...

faba
'', a bean, a vegetable which the Fabii were said to have first cultivated. A more fanciful explanation derives the name from ''fovea'', ditches, which the ancestors of the Fabii were said to have used in order to capture wolves. It is uncertain whether the Fabii were of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
or
Sabine The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; it, Sabini, all exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sou ...
origin. , followed by Göttling, considered them Sabines. However, other scholars are unsatisfied with their reasoning, and point out that the legend associating the Fabii with Romulus and Remus would place them at Rome before the incorporation of the Sabines into the nascent Roman state. It may nonetheless be noted that, even supposing this tradition to be based on actual historical events, the followers of the brothers were described as "shepherds," and presumably included many of the people then living in the countryside where the city of Rome was to be built. The hills of Rome were already inhabited at the time of the city's legendary founding, and they stood in the hinterland between the Latins, Sabines, and
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of ancient Italy The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civilization, Etruscans, and Celts ha ...
. Even if many the followers of Romulus and Remus were Latins from the ancient city of
Alba Longa Alba Longa (occasionally written Albalonga in Italian sources) was an ancient Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication ...
, many may also have been Sabines already living in the surrounding countryside.


Praenomina

The earliest generations of the Fabii favored the
praenomina The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the '' dies lustricus'' (day of lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or the ninth day after the birth of ...
'' Caeso,
Quintus Quintus is a male given name derived from ''Quintus (praenomen), Quintus'', a common Latin language, Latin forename (''praenomen'') found in the culture of ancient Rome. Quintus derives from Latin word ''quintus'', meaning "fifth". Quintus is an ...
'', and '' Marcus''. They were the only patrician gens to make regular use of '' Numerius'', which appears in the family after the destruction of the Fabii at the Cremera. According to the tradition related by Festus, this praenomen entered the gens when Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, the consul of 467, married a daughter of Numerius Otacilius of Maleventum, and bestowed his father-in-law's name on his son.Festus, s. v. Numerius, pp. 170, 173, ed. Müller. Although the Fabii Ambusti and some later branches of the family used the praenomen ''
Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, ...
'', ''Quintus'' is the name most frequently associated with the Fabii of the later Republic. The Fabii Maximi used it almost to the exclusion of all other names until the end of the Republic, when they revived the ancient praenomen '' Paullus''. This was done in honor of the
Aemilii The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Pa ...
Paulli, from whom the later Fabii Maximi were descended, having been adopted into the Fabia gens at the end of the 3rd century BC. A variety of surnames associated with the Aemilii were also used by this family, and one of the Fabii was called ''Africanus Fabius Maximus'', although his proper name was ''Quintus Fabius Maximus Africanus''. In a manuscript of Cicero, ''
Servius Servius is the name of: * Servius (praenomen) Servius () is a Latin ''praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child. It was first bestowed on the '' dies lustricus'' (day of lustration ...
'' appears among the Fabii Pictores, but this seems to have been a corruption in the manuscript, which originally read ''Numerius''.
Ernst Badian Ernst Badian (August 8, 1925 – February 1, 2011) was an Austrian-born classical scholar who served as a professor at Harvard University from 1971 to 1998. Early life and education Born in Vienna in 1925, in 1938 he fled Nazi Europe with his fa ...
,
reviews of ''Cicero. Scripta Quae Manserunt Omnia. Fasc. 4. Brutus'', E. Malcovati; ''Cicero. Brutus'', A. E. Douglas
, ''Journal of Roman Studies'', Vol. 57, No. 1/2 (1967), pp. 223–230.


Branches and cognomina

The
cognomina A ''cognomen'' (, ; Latin plural ''cognomina''; from ''con-'' "together with" and ''(g)nomen'' "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions. Initially, it was a nickname, but lost that purpose when it beca ...
of the Fabii under the Republic were ''Ambustus, Buteo, Dorso'' or ''Dorsuo, Labeo, Licinus, Maximus'' (with the agnomina ''Aemilianus, Allobrogicus, Eburnus, Gurges, Rullianus, Servilianus'', and ''Verrucosus''), ''Pictor'', and ''Vibulanus''. Other cognomina belonged to persons who were not, strictly speaking, members of the gens, but who were
freedmen A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, enslaved people were freed by manumission (granted freedom by their captor-owners), abolitionism, emancipation (gr ...

freedmen
or the descendants of freedmen, or who had been enrolled as
Roman citizens Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its c ...
under the Fabii. The only cognomina appearing on coins are ''Hispaniensis, Labeo, Maximus'', and ''Pictor''. In it becomes difficult to distinguish between members of the gens and unrelated persons sharing the same nomen. Members of the gens are known as late as the second century, but persons bearing the name of ''Fabius'' continue to appear into the latest period of the Empire. The eldest branch of the Fabii bore the cognomen ''Vibulanus'', which may allude to an ancestral home of the gens. The surname ''Ambustus'', meaning "burnt", replaced ''Vibulanus'' at the end of the 5th century BC; the first of the Fabii to be called ''Ambustus'' was a descendant of the Vibulani. The most celebrated ''stirps'' of the Fabia gens, which bore the surname ''Maximus'', was in turn descended from the Fabii Ambusti. This family was famous for its statesmen and its military exploits, which lasted from the
Samnite Wars The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the , run through of the . Beginning with t ...
, in the 4th century BC until the wars with the Germanic invaders of the 2nd century BC. Most, if not all of the later Fabii Maximi were descendants of
Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus was a Roman statesman and consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important ...
, one of the
Aemilii The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Pa ...
Paulli, who as a child was adopted into that illustrious family. ''Buteo'', which described a type of hawk, was originally given to a member of the Fabia gens because such a bird on one occasion settled upon his ship with a favorable omen. This tradition, related by Plinius, does not indicate which of the Fabii first obtained this surname, but it was probably one of the Fabii Ambusti. Crawford suggests that the ''buteo'' of the legend was not a hawk, but a
flamingo Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird FIle:Vadare - Ystad-2021.jpg, 245px, A flock of Dunlins and Red knots Waders are birds of the order Charadriiformes commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wikt:wade#Etymology 1, ...

flamingo
, based on the appearance of a bird resembling a flamingo on the coins of Gaius Fabius Hadrianus, who may have sought to associate himself with that family by the use of such a symbol. Hadrianus and his descendants form the last distinguishable family of the Fabii. Their surname was probably derived from the Latin colony of Hatria, and it is likely that they were not lineal descendants of the Fabii Buteones, but newly-enfranchised citizens. The flamingo might also allude to the family's coastal origins.Crawford, ''Roman Republican Coinage'', pp. 326, 327. The surname ''Pictor'', borne by another family of the Fabii, signifies a painter, and the earliest known member of this family was indeed a painter, famed for his work in the temple of
Salus Salus ( la, salus, "safety", "salvation", "welfare") was the Ancient Rome, Roman goddess of safety and well-being (welfare, health and prosperity) of both the individual and the state. She is sometimes interpretatio graeca, equated with the Greek ...

Salus
, built by
Gaius Junius Bubulcus BrutusGaius Junius Bubulcus Brutus ( late 4th century BC) was a Roman general and statesman, he was elected Roman consul, consul of the Roman Republic thrice, he was also appointed ''Roman dictator, dictator'' or ''magister equitum'' thrice, and Roman cens ...
between 307 and 302 BC. The later members of this family, several of whom were distinguished in the arts, appear to have been his descendants, and must have taken their cognomen from this ancestor. The cognomen ''Labeo'' ("the one with large lips") appears at the beginning of the second century BC; Quintus Fabius Labeo, the first of that name, was also a poet, but his line vanished before the end of the century.


Members


Fabii Vibulani et Ambusti

* Caeso Fabius Vibulanus, father of Quintus, Caeso, and Marcus, consuls from 485 to 479 BC. * Quintus Fabius K. f. Vibulanus, consul in 485 and 482 BC. He waged war against the
Volsci The Volsci (, , ) were an Italic Osco-Umbrian The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before being replaced ...

Volsci
and
Aequi 300px, Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi ( grc, Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe The Italic peoples were an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is ...
. He fell in battle against the Veientes in 480. * Caeso Fabius K. f. Vibulanus, quaestor in 485 BC, he prosecuted Spurius Cassius Vecellinus, consul of the preceding year, on a charge of treason. Consul in 484, 481, and 479, Fabius continued the war against the Aequi and Veii. He led the Fabii at the
Battle of the Cremera The Battle of the Cremera was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan civilization, Etruscan city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC). It most likely occurred on 18 July, although Ovid gives a different date of 13 February. Background Sin ...
, where he died. * Marcus Fabius K. f. Vibulanus, consul in 483 and 480 BC. He resigned two months before the end of his second consulship, after sustaining injuries in a battle against Veii, during which his brother Quintus was slain. * Quintus Fabius M. f. K. n. Vibulanus, consul in 467, 465, and 459. The only survivor of the Battle of the Cremera. He fought against the Aequi in each of his consulships, and was awarded a triumph during the last one. He was finally a member of the second
Decemvirate The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
in 450, and also urban prefect in 462 and 458. * Marcus Fabius Vibulanus, named by
Diodorus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
as one of the consuls in 457 BC, together with
Cincinnatus Lucius Quinctius (or Quintius) Cincinnatus (; – BC) was a Roman patrician, statesman, and military leader Military ranks are a system of hierarchy, hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other instit ...

Cincinnatus
. The majority of ancient sources name
Gaius Horatius Pulvillus Gaius Horatius Pulvillus (died 453 BC) was a Roman politician during the 5th century BC, and was consul in 477 and 457 BC. Family Ancient sources disagree on his ''praenomen''. Livy and Diodorus Siculus give ''Gaius'' for the year 477 BC, but '' ...
and Quintus Minucius Esquilinus as the consuls of this year. * Marcus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 442 BC, legate during the war against Veii in 437,
consular tribune The ("military tribunes with consular power"), in English also called consular tribunes, were tribunes elected with Roman consul, consular power during the so-called "Conflict of the Orders" in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BC and then conti ...
in 433, and legate in 431. * Numerius Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 421, and consular tribune in 415 and 407 BC. * Quintus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Vibulanus, consul in 423 and consular tribune in 416 and 414 BC. * Quintus Fabius M. f. Q. n. Vibulanus Ambustus, consul in 412 BC.Livy, iv. 52. * Caeso Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, consular tribune in 404, 401, 395, and 390 BC.Plutarch, "The Life of Camillus", 17. * Numerius Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, consular tribune in 406 and 390 BC. * Quintus Fabius M. f. Q. n. Ambustus, consular tribune in 390 BC. * Marcus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Ambustus,
pontifex maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
in 390 BC.Livy, v. 35, 36, 41. * Marcus Fabius K. f. M. n. Ambustus, consular tribune in 381 and 369 BC, and censor in 363; supported the ''
lex Licinia Sextia The Sextian-Licinian Rogations were a series of laws proposed by tribunes of the plebs Tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people or plebeian tribune ( la, tribunus plebis) was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians ...
'', which granted the plebeians the right to hold the consulship.''
Fasti Capitolini The ''Fasti Capitolini'', or Capitoline Fasti, are a list of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, extending from the early fifth century BC down to the reign of Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the ...
''.
* Fabia M. f. K. n., married Servius Sulpicius Praetextatus, consular tribune in 377, 376, 370, and 368 BC.Livy, vi. 34.Zonaras, vii. 24.Aurelius Victor, ''De Viris Illustribus'', 20. * Fabia M. f. K. n., married Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo, consul in 364 and 361 BC. * Marcus Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus, consul in 360, 356, and 354 BC, ''
princeps senatus The ''princeps senatus'' (plural ''principes senatus'') was the first member by precedence of the Roman Senate. Although officially out of the ''cursus honorum The ''cursus honorum'' (; , or more colloquially 'ladder of offices') was the sequ ...
'' triumphed over the Tiburtines. * Gaius Fabius N. f. M. n. Ambustus, consul in 358 BC. * Marcus Fabius Ambustus (magister equitum 322 BC), Marcus Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, ''Master of the Horse, magister equitum'' in 322 BC. * Quintus Fabius Ambustus (dictator), Quintus Fabius Ambustus, nominated Roman dictator, dictator in 321 BC, but compelled to resign due to a fault in the auspices. * Gaius Fabius Ambustus (magister equitum 315 BC), Gaius Fabius M. f. N. n. Ambustus, appointed ''magister equitum'' in 315 BC, in place of Quintus Aulius Cerretanus, Quintus Aulius, who fell in battle.


Fabii Dorsuones et Licini

* Gaius Fabius Dorsuo, bravely left the Capitoline Hill to perform a sacrifice when Rome was occupied by the
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS ...
following the
Battle of the Allia The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought between the Senones – a Gauls, Gallic tribe led by Brennus (4th century BC), Brennus who had invaded northern Italy – and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber a ...
in 390 BC, eluding the Gallic sentries both on his departure and his return. * Marcus Fabius Dorsuo, Marcus Fabius (C. f.) Dorsuo, consul in 345 BC, carried on the war against the Volsci and captured Sora (FR), Sora. * Gaius Fabius Dorsuo Licinus, Gaius Fabius M. f. M. n. Dorsuo Licinus, consul in 273 BC, died during his year of office. * Marcus Fabius Licinus, Marcus Fabius C. f. M. n. Licinus, consul in 246 BC.


Fabii Maximi

* Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, Quintus Fabius M. f. N. n. Maximus Rullianus, consul in 322, 310, 308, 297, and 295 BC, dictator in 315 and Roman censor, censor in 304, ''princeps senatus''; triumphed in 322 and 295. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges (consul 292 BC), Quintus Fabius Q. f. M. n. Maximus Gurges, consul in 292, 276, and 265 BC, ''princeps senatus''; triumphed in 291 and 276. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges (consul 265 BC), Quintus Fabius (Maximus), aedile in 266 BC, he assaulted the ambassadors of Apollonia (Epirus), Apollonia, and was remanded to the custody of the Apolloniates, but was dismissed unharmed. *Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Verrucosus, nicknamed ''Cunctator'', consul in 233, 228, 215, 214 and 209 BC, censor in 230, and dictator in 221 and 217, ''princeps senatus''; triumphed in 233. * Quintus Fabius Maximus (consul 213 BC), Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, consul in 213 BC. * Quintus Fabius Maximus (augur 203 BC), Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, appointed augur in 203 BC. * Quintus Fabius Maximus (praetor 181 BC), Quintus Fabius Maximus, praetor ''peregrinus'' in 181 BC. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Aemilianus, consul in 145 BC, the son of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, conqueror of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia; as a child he was adopted by Quintus Fabius Maximus the praetor. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Allobrogicus, consul in 121 BC, and censor in 108; triumphed over the Allobroges. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus (son), Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Allobrogicus, son of the consul of 121 BC; remarkable only for his vices. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus, Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Servilianus, consul in 142 BC. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Eburnus, consul in 116 BC, he condemned one of his sons to death; being accused by Pompeius Strabo, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, he went into exile. * Quintus Fabius Maximus (consul 45 BC), Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, legatus, legate of Julius Caesar, Caesar, and consul ''suffectus'' in 45 BC. * Paullus Fabius Maximus, Paullus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus, consul in 11 BC. * Quintus Fabius Maximus Africanus, Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Africanus, better known as ''Africanus Fabius Maximus,'' consul in 10 BC. * Quintus Fabius Allobrogicinus Maximus, named in an inscription from the Augustan era, now lost. * Paullus Fabius Persicus, Paullus Fabius Paulli f. Q. n. Persicus, consul in AD 34. * (Fabia) Eburna, inferred by Ronald Syme from an inscription naming Eutychia, the slave-girl of a woman named Eburna; another inscription names a slave-woman named Alexa, perhaps belonging to the same Eburna. * Fabius Numantinus, one of eight young men admitted to an undetermined sacerdotal college, possibly the ''sodales Titii'', between AD 59 and 64.


Fabii Pictores

* Gaius Fabius Pictor (painter), Gaius Fabius M. f. Pictor, painted the interior of the temple of Hygieia, Salus, dedicated in 302 BC. * Gaius Fabius Pictor (consul 269 BC), Gaius Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor, consul in 269 BC. * Numerius Fabius Pictor (consul 266 BC), Numerius Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor, ambassador in 273 BC, he accompanied Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges to the court of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Ptolemy II Philadelphos. Consul in 266, he triumphed over the Sarsina, Sassinates, and again over the Iapyges, Sallentini and Messapii. * Quintus Fabius Pictor, Quintus Fabius C. f. C. n. Pictor, ambassador in 216 BC, he was sent to consult the Pythia, oracle of Delphi in order to find ways to appease the gods after the Battle of Cannae, disaster of Cannae. Pictor is known as the earliest of the Latin historians, although he wrote in Greek; he was an important source for later annalists, but most of his own work has been lost. * Quintus Fabius Pictor (praetor 189 BC), Quintus Fabius Q. f. C. n. Pictor, praetor in 189 BC, received Sardinia as his province, but was compelled by the
pontifex maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
to remain at Rome, because he was Flamen Quirinalis; his abdication was rejected by the senate, which designated him praetor ''peregrinus''. He died in 167. * Numerius Fabius Pictor (antiquarian), Numerius Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Pictor, an annalist and antiquarian of the second century BC. * Numerius Fabius N. f. Q. n. Pictor, ''triumvir monetalis'' in 126 BC.


Fabii Buteones

* Numerius Fabius Buteo (consul 247 BC), Numerius Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, consul in 247 BC, during the First Punic War. * Marcus Fabius Buteo, Marcus Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, consul in 245 BC, censor, probably in 241; appointed dictator in 216 to fill the vacancies in the
senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

senate
after the Battle of Cannae. * Fabius M. f. M. n. Buteo, according to Paulus Orosius, Orosius, accused of theft, and slain in consequence by his own father. * Marcus Fabius Buteo (praetor 201 BC), Marcus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 201 BC, obtained Sardinia as his province. * Quintus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 196 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Ulterior. * Quintus Fabius Buteo (praetor 181 BC), Quintus Fabius Buteo, praetor in 181 BC, obtained Gallia Cisalpina as his province. * Numerius Fabius Buteo, praetor in 173 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Citerior, but died at Marseille, Massilia on his way to his province. * Quintus Fabius Buteo (quaestor 134 BC), Quintus Fabius Buteo, quaestor in 134 BC; apparently the son of Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, and nephew of Scipio Aemilianus, by whom he was entrusted with the command of four thousand volunteers during the Numantine War.


Fabii Labeones

* Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Labeo, quaestor urbanus in 196 BC. Praetor then promagistrate, propraetor in 189 and 188, he defeated the naval forces of Antiochus III the Great, Antiochus III, for which he received a naval triumph the following year. He was triumvir for establishing the colonies of Potenza, Potentia and Pesaro, Pisaurum in 184, and Saturnia in 183. He was consul in 183, and proconsul in Liguria the following year. He also became pontiff in 180, and was part of a commission of ten men sent to advise Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Aemilius Paullus on the settlement of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia in 167. He was also a poet, according to Suetonius. * Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Labeo, a learned orator known whose eloquence is mentioned by Cicero. He must have lived about the middle of the second century BC, and either he or more probably his son was proconsul in Spain, where the name occurs on some milestones., .Crawford, ''Roman Republican Coinage'', p. 294. * Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Labeo, ''triumvir monetalis'' in 124 BC. He was probably proconsul in Spain between 120 and 100 BC.


Fabii Hadriani

* Gaius Fabius Hadrianus, Gaius Fabius C. f. Q. n. Hadrianus, ''triumvir monetalis'' in 102 BC. A supporter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo (consul 85 BC), Carbo during the Sulla's civil war, Civil War against Sulla, he was appointed praetor of Africa (Roman province), Africa in 84 BC. He remained there as propraetor for two years, but his government was so oppressive that the colonists and merchants at Utica, Tunisia, Utica burnt him to death in his own praetorium. * Marcus Fabius C. f. C. n. Hadrianus, legate between 72 and 68 BC under Lucius Licinius Lucullus (consul 74 BC), Lucius Licinius Lucullus during the Third Mithridatic War. He was defeated by Mithradates Eupator, Mithridates in 68. * Gaius Fabius M. f. C. n. Hadrianus, praetor in 58 BC, and subsequently proconsul in Asia (Roman province), Asia, where he minted coins.


Others

* Dorsennus, Fabius Dorsennus, a Latin comic playwright, whose style and care was criticized by Horace, Quintus Horatius Flaccus. * Fabius, an hypothetical tribune of the plebs in 64 BC. He might have carried a bill reducing the number of attendants a candidate could bring with him at an election. * Gaius Fabius, tribune of the plebs in 55 BC, passed a law complementing Julius Caesar, Caesar's agrarian law. He served under Caesar as a legate from 54 to 49 BC, during the second half of the Gallic Wars and at the start of the Caesar's Civil War, Civil War. * Quintus Fabius Sanga, warned Cicero about the conspiracy of Catiline, after being informed by the ambassadors of the Allobroges. * Quintus Fabius Vergilianus, legate of Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 54 BC), Appius Claudius Pulcher in Cilicia in 51 BC; during the Caesar's Civil War, Civil War, he espoused the cause of Pompey, Pompeius. * Fabius Rusticus, a historian of the mid-first century AD, frequently quoted by Tacitus on the life of Nero. * Fabius Fabullus, legate of Legio V Alaudae, chosen as a leader of the soldiers who mutinied against Aulus Caecina Alienus in AD 69; perhaps the same man to whom the murder of the emperor Galba was attributed. * Fabius Valens, Gaius Fabius Valens, one of the principal generals of Vitellius, and consul ''suffectus ex kal. Sept.'' in AD 69. * Fabius Priscus, one of the legates sent against Gaius Julius Civilis, Civilis in AD 70. *Roman graffiti#Outside the shop of Fabius Ululitremulus, Fabius Ululitremulus, a shopkeeper in Pompeii. A Roman graffiti, graffito from the doorpost of his shop alludes to the Aeneid, and praises Minerva as the patron of the fullones. *Marcus Fabius Rufus, the last owner of a rich villa in Pompeii. * Quintilian, Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, the most celebrated of Roman rhetoricians, granted the insignia and title of consul by Domitian. * Lucius Fabius Tuscus, consul ''suffectus'' in 100. * Lucius Fabius Justus, a distinguished rhetorician, and a friend of both Tacitus and the younger Pliny the Younger, Pliny. * Lucius Julius Gainius Fabius Agrippa. A Roman descendant of the Herodian dynasty, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), gymnasiarch of Apamea, Syria, Apamea and one of the most prominent citizens of the city in the 110s. Possibly an ancestor to Roman usurper, usurper Jotapianus, though it is unclear if the initial "F." in Jotapianus' name stands for "Fabius". * Ceionia Fabia, an adoptive granddaughter of Hadrian, and sister of the emperor Lucius Verus. Her name indicates descent from the gens Fabia, though her ancestry is obscure. * Quintus Fabius Catullinus, consul in AD 130. * Fabius Cornelius Repentinus, appointed ''praetorian prefect, praefectus praetorio'' in the reign of Antoninus Pius. * Fabius Mela, an eminent jurist, probably of the mid-2nd century. * Lucius Fabius Cilo, Lucius Fabius Cilo Septimianus, consul ''suffectus'' in AD 193 and consul in 204. * Fabius Sabinus, one of the ''consiliarii'' of Alexander Severus, perhaps the same Sabinus later driven out of Rome by order of Elagabalus.Aelius Lampridius, ''The Life of Alexander Severus'', c. 68, ''The Life of Elagabalus'', c. 16. * Fabia Orestilla, supposedly the wife of Gordian I, and mother of his children. Her name appears only in the ''Augustan History''. * Quintus Fabius Clodius Agrippianus Celsinus, Proconsul of Caria in 249. * Pope Fabian, Fabianus, Pope from 236 to 250. Supposedly of noble Roman birth, his father's name was reportedly Fabius. * Titus Fabius Titianus, consul in AD 337. * Aconia Fabia Paulina, a pagan priestess during the late fourth century, wife of Vettius Agorius Praetextatus. * Saint Fabiola, a Christian ascetic of the late fourth century, she was later declared a saint. * Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus, a politician of the late fourth and early fifth century, who was appointed Quaestor at the age of ten. Possibly a pagan, he was alleged to have built a temple to Flora (deity), Flora. * Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, a Latin grammarian, probably not earlier than the sixth century. * Fabia Eudokia, Fabia Eudocia, first Byzantine Empress, empress-consort of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius. She was born in the Exarchate of Africa, and died in AD 612, reportedly due to epilepsy. One of her two known children was Constantine III (Byzantine emperor), Constantine III.


See also

* List of Roman gentes


Footnotes


References


Bibliography


Ancient sources

* Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, ''Brutus (Cicero), Brutus'', ''Cato Maior de Senectute'', ''De Natura Deorum'', ''De Officiis'', ''De Oratore'', ''Epistulae ad Brutum'', ''Epistulae ad Familiares'', ''In Pisonem'', ''In Vatinium Testem'', ''In Verrem'', ''Philippicae'', ''Pro Balbo'', ''Pro Caelio, Pro Murena'', ''Tusculanae Quaestiones''. * Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar, (attributed), ''De Bello Hispaniensis'' (On the War in Spain). * Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust), ''Bellum Catilinae'' (The Conspiracy of Catiline). * Diodorus Siculus, ''Bibliotheca historica, Bibliotheca Historica'' (Library of History). * Propertius, Sextus Aurelius Propertius, ''Elegiae'' (Elegies). * Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace), ''Epistles (Horace), Epistulae'' (Letters). * Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ''Romaike Archaiologia'' (Roman Antiquities). * Titus Livius (Livy), ''Ab Urbe Condita Libri, History of Rome''. * Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), ''Fasti (poem), Fasti'', ''Ex Ponto'' (From Pontus). * Marcus Velleius Paterculus, ''Compendium of Roman History''. * Valerius Maximus, ''Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium'' (Memorable Facts and Sayings). * Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger), ''Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium'' (Moral Letters to Lucilius). * Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder), ''Natural History (Pliny), Naturalis Historia'' (Natural History). * Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger), ''Epistulae (Pliny), Epistulae'' (Letters). * Sextus Julius Frontinus, ''Strategemata'' (Stratagems). * Tacitus, Publius Cornelius Tacitus, ''Histories (Tacitus), Historiae'', ''Agricola (book), De Vita et Moribus Iulii Agricolae'' (On the Life and Mores of Julius Agricola), ''Dialogus de oratoribus, Dialogus de Oratoribus'' (Dialogue on Oratory). * Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Plutarch), ''Parallel Lives, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans''. * Suetonius, Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, ''De Viris Illustribus''. * Juvenal, Decimus Junius Juvenalis, ''Satires of Juvenal, Satirae'' (Satires). * Aulus Gellius, ''Noctes Atticae'' (Attic Nights). * Appianus Alexandrinus (Appian), ''Bellum Civile'' (The Civil War), ''Hispanica'' (The Spanish Wars), ''Iberica''. * Sextus Pompeius Festus, ''Epitome de M. Verrio Flacco de Verborum Significatu'' (Epitome of Marcus Verrius Flaccus: On the Meaning of Words). * Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (Cassius Dio), ''Roman History''. * Aelius Lampridius, Aelius Spartianus, Flavius Vopiscus, Julius Capitolinus, Trebellius Pollio, and Vulcatius Gallicanus, ''Historia Augusta'' (Augustan History). * Aurelius Victor, Sextus Aurelius Victor (attributed), ''De Origo Gentis Romanae'' (On the Origin of the Roman People), ''De Viris Illustribus'' (On Famous Men), ''Epitome de Caesaribus'' (Epitome of the Lives of the Caesars). * Eutropius (historian), Eutropius, ''Breviarium Historiae Romanae'' (Abridgement of the History of Rome). * Orosius, Paulus Orosius, ''Historiarum Adversum Paganos'' (History Against the Pagans). * ''Digesta seu Pandectae'' (Digest (Roman law), The Digest). * Paul the Deacon, Paulus Diaconus, ''Epitome de Sex. Pompeio Festo de Significatu Verborum'' (Epitome of Sextus Pompeius Festus, Festus' ''De Significatu Verborum''), ed. Karl Otfried Müller. * John Zonaras, Joannes Zonaras, ''Epitome Historiarum'' (Epitome of History).


Modern sources

* Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, ''Doctrina Numorum Veterum'' (The Study of Ancient Coins, 1792–1798). * Barthold Georg Niebuhr, ''The History of Rome'', Julius Charles Hare and Connop Thirlwall, trans., John Smith, Cambridge (1828). * Wilhelm Adolf Becker, ''Handbuch der Römischen Alterhümer'' (Handbook of Roman Antiquities), Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Leipzig (1846). * Karl Wilhelm Göttling, ''Geschichte der Römischen Staatsverfassung von Erbauung der Stadt bis zu C. Cäsar's Tod'' (History of the Roman State from the Founding of the City to the Death of Caesar), Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, Halle (1840). * ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology'', William Smith (lexicographer), William Smith, ed., Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1849). * Theodor Mommsen ''et alii'', ''Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum'' (The Body of Latin Inscriptions, abbreviated ''CIL''), Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften (1853–present). * August Pauly, Georg Wissowa, ''et alii'', ''Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft'', J. B. Metzler, Stuttgart (1894–1980). * Paul von Rohden, Elimar Klebs, & Hermann Dessau, ''Prosopographia Imperii Romani'' (The Prosopography of the Roman Empire, abbreviated ''PIR''), Berlin (1898). * Friedrich Münzer, ''Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families'', translated by Thérèse Ridley, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 (originally published in 1920). * Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, T. Robert S. Broughton, ''The Magistrates of the Roman Republic'', American Philological Association (1952). * Attilio Degrassi, ''Inscriptiones Latinae Liberae Rei Publicae'' (abbreviated ''ILLRP''), Florence (1957–1963). * Lily Ross Taylor, ''The Voting Districts of the Roman Republic'', University of Michigan Press (1960). * D.P. Simpson, ''Cassell's Latin and English Dictionary'', Macmillan Publishing Company, New York (1963). * Robert Maxwell Ogilvie, ''Commentary on Livy, books 1–5'', Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1965. * Graham Vincent Sumner, ''The Orators in Cicero's Brutus: Prosopography and Chronology'', (Phoenix Supplementary Volume XI.), Toronto and Buffalo, University of Toronto Press (1973). * Michael Crawford (historian), Michael Crawford, ''Roman Republican Coinage'', Cambridge University Press (1974, 2001). * J. A. Crook, F. W. Walbank, M. W. Frederiksen, R. M. Ogilvie (editors), ''The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. VIII, Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 B.C.'', Cambridge University Press, 1989. * Ronald Syme, ''The Augustan Aristocracy'', Clarendon Press, Oxford (1989). * Tim Cornell, T. J. Cornell, ''The Beginnings of Rome'', London and New York, Routledge, 1995. * Francis X. Ryan, ''Rank and Participation in the Republican Senate'', Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998. * Sander M. Goldberg, ''Constructing Literature in the Roman Republic, Poetry and its Reception'', Cambridge University Press, 2005. * C. J. Smith, ''The Roman Clan: the Gens from Ancient Ideology to Modern Anthropology'', Cambridge University Press (2006), . * Léon Homo, ''Roman Political Institutions'', Routledge (2013), . {{Refend Fabii, Characters in Book VI of the Aeneid Roman gentes