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The Exposition Universelle of 1900, better known in English as the 1900 Paris Exposition, was a
world's fair A world's fair is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at a specific site for a period of time, ranging usually from ...
held in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. It was held at the esplanade of
Les Invalides Les Invalides (), formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, also Hôtel des Invalides (literally, "House of the disabled") is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris 7 (seven) is the natural number File:Three Basket ...

Les Invalides
, the
Champ de Mars The Champ de Mars (; en, Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population ...

Champ de Mars
, the
Trocadéro The Trocadéro (), site of the Palais de Chaillot, is an area of Paris, France, in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, 16th arrondissement, across the Seine from the Eiffel Tower. It is also the name of the 1878 palace which was demolished in 1937 ...

Trocadéro
and at the banks of the
Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''lati ...

Seine
between them, with an additional section in the
Bois de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes (), located on the eastern edge of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 resi ...

Bois de Vincennes
, and it was visited by more than 50 million people. Many international congresses and other events were held within the framework of the Exposition, including the
1900 Summer Olympics The 1900 Summer Olympics (french: Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1900), today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multipl ...
. Many technological innovations were displayed at the Fair, including the ''
Grande Roue de Paris The Grande Roue de Paris was a tall Ferris wheel A Ferris wheel (or a big wheel in the United Kingdom) is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating upright wheel with multiple passenger-carrying components (commonly referred to as passen ...
''
ferris wheel A Ferris wheel (or big wheel in the United Kingdom, also called giant wheels or observation wheels) is an amusement ride Amusement rides, sometimes called carnival rides, are mechanical devices or structures that move people to create enjoymen ...

ferris wheel
, the ''
Rue de l'Avenir
Rue de l'Avenir
''
moving sidewalk Moving or Movin' may refer to: Moving of goods * Relocation (personal), the process of leaving one dwelling and settling in another * Relocation of professional sports teams * Relocation (computer science) * Structure relocation Music Al ...
, the first ever regular passenger
trolleybus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tramin the 1910s and 1920sJoyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). ''British Trolleybus Systems'', pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing Ian Alla ...

trolleybus
line,
escalator statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil An escalator is a moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure. It consists of a Electric motor, motor-driven chain of individually linked steps on a track which cycle on a ...

escalator
s,
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the die ...

diesel engine
s,
electric car An electric car or battery electric car is an automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some a ...

electric car
s, dry cell batteries, electric fire engines, talking films, the
telegraphone
telegraphone
(the first magnetic audio recorder), the galalith and the
matryoshka doll Matryoshka dolls ( rus, матрёшка, p=mɐˈtrʲɵʂkə, a=Ru-матрёшка.ogg; also known as babushka dolls, stacking dolls, nesting dolls, Russian tea dolls, or Russian dolls) are a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one ...
s. It also brought international attention to the
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
style. Additionally, it showcased France as a major
colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * American colonial architecture * French Colonial * Spanish Colonial architecture Automobiles * Colonial (1920 auto ...

colonial
power through numerous pavilions built on the hill of the Trocadéro Palace. Major structures built for the Exposition include the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
, the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
, the
Pont Alexandre III The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departments of France, depa ...

Pont Alexandre III
, the
Gare d'Orsay Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris–Orléans Railway). It was the fir ...
railroad station and the entrances of
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the Paris, city, it is known for its density within the capital's territorial limits, uniform ar ...
stations by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially ...
; all of them remaining today, including two original entrances by Guimard.


Organization

The first international exposition was held in London in 1851. The French Emperor
Napoleon III Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 18089 January 1873) was the first President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is t ...

Napoleon III
attended and was deeply impressed. He commissioned the first Paris Universal Exposition of 1855. Its purpose was to promote French commerce, technology and culture. It was followed by another in
1867 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modifi ...
, and, after the Emperor's downfall in 1870, another in
1878 Events January–March * January 5 Events Pre-1600 *1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is defeated and killed in a conflict with René II, Duke of Lorraine; Duchy of Burgundy, Burgundy subsequently becomes part of Fra ...
, celebrating national unity after the defeat of the
Paris Commune The Paris Commune (french: Commune de Paris, ) was a revolutionary government that seized power in Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. During the , Paris had been defended by the , where radicalism grew among soldiers. In March 1871, after th ...
, and then in
1889 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...
, celebrating the centennial of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
.Allwood, John (1977), ''The Great Exhibitions'', Great Britain: Cassell & Collier Macmillan Publishers, pp. 7–107. Planning for the 1900 Exposition began in 1892, under President Carnot, with Alfred Picard as Commissioner-General. Three French Presidents and ten Ministers of Commerce held office before it was completed. President Carnot died shortly before it was completed. Though many of the buildings were not finished, the Exposition was opened on 14 April 1900 by President
Émile Loubet Émile François Loubet (; 30 December 183820 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France from February to December 1892 and later President of France from 1899 to 1906. Trained in law, he became Mayor (France), mayor of Montélimar, whe ...

Émile Loubet
. File:Inauguration de l'exposition, le 14 Avril 1900.jpg, Opening ceremony on 14 April 1900


Participating Nations

Countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and cultures. Of the fifty-six countries invited to participate with official representation, forty accepted, plus an additional number of colonies and protectorates of France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Portugal. Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Hungary participated as independent nations, although belonging to
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
at that time.
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
, although having a national pavilion located at the Rue des Nations, officially participated as part of Russia.
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
, also with an own pavilion, participated as part of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
. The few exhibitors from countries without an official presence at the Fair participated under a joint "International Section". Among the colonies and protectorates present in the Fair were French
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...
,
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
,
Congo Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa ...

Congo
,
Dahomey The Kingdom of Dahomey () was a List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa, West African kingdom located within present-day Benin that existed from approximately 1600 until 1904. Dahomey developed on the Abomey Plateau amongst the Fon people in th ...
,
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
,
Guiana The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Sp ...

Guiana
,
Guinea Guinea (), officially the Republic of Guinea (french: link=no, République de Guinée), is a coastal country in West Africa. Guinea borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Guinea-Bissau to the northwest, Senegal to the north, Mali to the no ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
,
Indochina Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
,
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Côte d'Ivoire's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its largest ...
,
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...
,
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mal ...
,
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
,
Mayotte Mayotte (french: Mayotte, ; Shimaore language, Shimaore: ''Maore'', ; mg, Maiôty) is an overseas department and region, overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (Frenc ...

Mayotte
,
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
,
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...
,
Réunion Réunion (french: La Réunion, ; previously ''Île Bourbon''; rcf, label= Reunionese Creole, La Rénion) is an island in the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or t ...

Réunion
,
Senegal Senegal (; french: link=no, Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Senegaal''; Arabic language, Arabic: السنغال ''As-Sinighal''), officially the Republic of Senegal (french: link=no, République du Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Réew ...
,
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...
,
Sudan Sudan ( or ; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It borders the countries of Central African Republ ...

Sudan
,
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...
,
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...
,
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (), officially the Territorial Collectivity of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (french: link=no, Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon ), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity The French ...

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
, the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
, British Canada,
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
and the Portuguese colonies.


Exposition Site

The site of the Exposition covered along the left and right banks of the Seine from the esplanade of
Les Invalides Les Invalides (), formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, also Hôtel des Invalides (literally, "House of the disabled") is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris 7 (seven) is the natural number File:Three Basket ...

Les Invalides
to the
Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower ( ; french: links=yes, tour Eiffel ) is a wrought-iron Wrought iron is an iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal th ...

Eiffel Tower
(built for the 1889 Exposition) at the
Champ de Mars The Champ de Mars (; en, Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population ...

Champ de Mars
. It also included the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
and
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
on the right bank. An additional section of for agricultural exhibits and other structures was built in the
Bois de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes (), located on the eastern edge of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 resi ...

Bois de Vincennes
. The total area of the Exposition, , was ten times larger than the 1855 Exposition.Ageorges (2006) pages 104-105 The Exposition buildings were meant to be temporary; they were built on iron frames covered with plaster and
staff Staff may refer to: Pole * Staff, a weapon used in stick-fighting Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long, slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden "sticks" for fighting, such as a gun ...
, a kind of inexpensive artificial stone. Many of the buildings were unfinished when the Exposition opened, and most were demolished immediately after it closed. File:Vue panoramique de l'exposition universelle de 1900.jpg, Aerial view of the Exposition Universelle File:Expo 1900 Paris - Plan Pratique.jpg, Map of the Exposition


The Porte Monumentale

The Porte Monumentale de Paris, located on the
Place de la Concorde The Place de la Concorde () is one of the major public squares in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,17 ...

Place de la Concorde
, was the main entrance of the Exposition. The architect was René Binet. It was composed of towering polychrome ceramic decoration in Byzantine motifs, crowned by a statue high called ''La Parisienne''. Unlike classical statues, she was dressed in modern Paris fashion. Below the statue was a sculptural prow of a boat, the symbol of Paris, and friezes depicting the workers who built the Exposition. The central arch was flanked by two slender, candle-like towers, resembling minarets. The gateway was brightly illuminated at night by 3,200 light bulbs and an additional forty arc lamps. Forty thousand visitors an hour could pass beneath the arch to approach the twenty-six ticket booths.Jullian, Philipe (1974), ''The Triumph of Art Nouveau: Paris Exhibition 1900'', New York, New York: Larousse & Co, pp. 38–83. The Gateway, like the Exposition buildings, was intended to be temporary, and was demolished as soon as the Exposition was finished. The ceramic frieze depicting the workers of the Exposition was preserved by the head of the ceramics firm that made it, Émile Müller, and moved to what is now Parc Müller in the town of
Breuillet, Essonne Breuillet () is a Communes of France, commune in the Essonne Departments of France, department in Île-de-France (region), Île-de-France in northern France. It is located between Arpajon and Dourdan. Inhabitants of Breuillet are known as ''Breu ...
. File:Grand entrance, Exposition Universal, 1900, Paris, France.jpg, Porte Monumentale on the
Place de la Concorde The Place de la Concorde () is one of the major public squares in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,17 ...

Place de la Concorde
File:S03 06 01 015 image 9905.jpg, Detail of the Porte Monumentale entrance


The Pont Alexandre III

The
Pont Alexandre III The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departments of France, depa ...

Pont Alexandre III
was an essential link of the Exposition, connecting the pavilions and palaces on the left and right banks of the Seine. It was named after Czar
Alexander III of Russia Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was ...

Alexander III of Russia
, who had died in 1894, and celebrated the recent alliance between France and Russia. The foundation stone was laid by his son, Czar
Nicholas II Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov . ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, . was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until Abdication of Nicholas II ...

Nicholas II
in 1896, and the bridge was finished in 1900. It was the work of engineers Jean Resal and Amédée D'Alby and architect Gaston Cousin. The widest and longest of the Paris bridges at the time, it was constructed on a single arch of steel long. Though it was named after the Russian Czar, the themes of the decoration were almost entirely French. At the ends, the bridge was supported by four massive stone pylons high, decorated with statues of the ''Renomées'' (The Renowned), female figures with trumpets, and gilded statues of the horse
Pegasus Pegasus ( gr, Πήγασος, ''Pḗgasos''; la, Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to t ...

Pegasus
. At the base of the pedestals are allegorical statues representing the France of Charlemagne, the France of the Renaissance, the France of Louis XIV and France in 1900. The Russian element was in the center, with statuary of the Nymphs of the
Neva River The Neva (russian: Нева́, ; fi, Neva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the ...

Neva River
holding a gilded seal of the Russian Empire. At the same time that the Pont Alexander III was built, a similar bridge, the Trinity Bridge was built in Saint-Petersburg, and was dedicated to French-Russian friendship by French President
Félix Faure Félix François Faure (, 30 January 1841 – 16 February 1899) was President of France The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state ...

Félix Faure
. File:Perspective du Pont Alexandre III et de l'esplanade des Invalides.jpg, View of the Pont Alexandre III toward Les Invalides File:Le pont Alexandre III et le Grand Palais, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, The Pont Alexandre III with the Grand Palais (left) and the Petit Palais (right) in the background File:Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14597665097).jpg, View of the Seine from the Pont Alexandre III


Thematic pavilions

To house the industrial, commercial, scientific, technological and cultural exhibitions, the French organization built huge thematic pavilions on the esplanade of Les Invalides and the Champ de Mars and reused the
Galerie des machines#REDIRECT Galerie des machines The Galerie des machines (officially Palais des machines) was a pavilion built for the Exposition Universelle (1889) in Paris. Located in the Grenelle district, the huge pavilion was made of iron, steel and glass. A s ...
from the 1889 Exposition. On the other bank of the Seine, they built the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais for the
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about M ...

fine art
s exhibitions. The 83,047 French and foreign exhibitors at the Fair were divided into 18 groups based on their subject matter, which in turn were divided into 121 classes, and based on the class to which they belonged, they were alocated in the corresponding official thematic pavilion. Each thematic pavilion was divided into national sections, which were the responsibility of the corresponding country and where its exhibitors were located. Some country with a strong presence in a specific sector, at its own request, was even granted a plot adjoining to the main building to built a small pavilion to house its exhibitors.


The Palaces of Optics, Illusions and Aquarium

Twenty-one of the thirty-three official pavilions were devoted to technology and the sciences. Among the most popular was the Palace of Optics, whose main attractions included the Great Paris Exposition Telescope, which enlarged the image of the moon ten thousand times. The image was projected on a screen in size, in a hall which seated two thousand visitors. This telescope was the largest
refracting telescope A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope An optical telescope is a telescope A telescope is an optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light w ...
at that time. The optical tube assembly was long and in diameter, and was fixed in place due to its mass. Light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable mirror. Another very popular feature of the Palace of Optics was the giant
kaleidoscope A kaleidoscope () is an optical instrument An optical instrument (or "optic" for short) is a device that processes light waves (or photons), either to enhance an image for viewing or to analyze and determine their characteristic properties. Comm ...

kaleidoscope
, which attracted three million visitors. Other features of the optics pavilion included demonstrations of X-rays and dancers performing in
phosphorescent Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. When exposed to light (radiation) of a shorter wavelength, a phosphorescent substance will glow, absorbing the light and reemitting it at a longer wavelength. Unlike flu ...

phosphorescent
costumes. The Palais des Illusions (Palace of Illusions), adjoining the Palace of Optics, was an extremely popular exhibition. It was a large hall which used mirrors and electric lighting to create a show of colorful and bizarre optical illusions. It was preserved after the Exposition in the Musée Grévin Another scientific attraction was the aquarium, the largest in the world at the time, viewed from an underground gallery long. The water tanks were each long, wide and deep, and contained a wide selection of exotic marine life. File:Paris Exposition Palace of Optics, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Entrance of the Palace of Optics File:Great Ex Telescope Design.jpg, Diagram of the
Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900 The Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900, with an objective lens of in diameter, was the largest refracting telescope ever constructed. It was built as the centerpiece of the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900. Its construction was instiga ...
File:Le palais des illusions, Exposition Universelle 1900 B.jpg, The Palais des Illusions created a show of optical illusions with mirrors and lighting effects.


The Palace of Electricity and the Water Castle

The Palace of Electricity and the adjoining Water Castle (''Chateau d'Eau''), designed by architects Eugène Hénard and
Edmond Paulin Edmond Jean-Baptiste Paulin (10 September 1848 - 27 November 1915) was a French architect. As a young man, he became known for his reconstruction of the Baths of Diocletian. Later he taught at the National School of Fine Arts, and designed pavilio ...
, were among the most popular sights. The Palace of Electricity was built partly incorporating architectural elements of the old Palace of the Champ de Mars from the 1889 Exposition. The Palace was enormous, long and wide, and its form suggested a giant peacock spreading its tail. The central tower was crowned by an enormous illuminated star and a chariot carrying a statue of the Spirit of Electricity high, holding aloft a torch powered by 50,000 volts of electricity, provided by the steam engines and generators inside the Palace. Electrical lighting was used extensively to keep the Fair open well into the night. Producing the light for the Exposition consumed of oil an hour.Mabire (2000), pg. 116 The facade of the Palace and the Water Castle, across from it, were lit by an additional 7,200 incandescent lamps and seventeen arc lamps. Visitors could go inside to see the steam-powered generators which provided electricity for the buildings of the Exposition. The Water castle, facing the Palace of Electricity, had an equally imposing appearance. It had two large domes, between which was a gigantic fountain, circulating of water a minute. Thanks to the power from Palace of Electricity, the fountain was illuminated at night by continually changing colored lights. File:Paris Exposition Palace of Electricity, Paris, France, 1900 n2.jpg, The Palace of Electricity (behind) and the Water Castle (in front)


The Grand Palais and Petit Palais

The
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
, officially the ''Grand Palais des beaux-arts et des arts decoratifs'', was built on the right bank upon the site of the Palace of Industry of the 1855 Exposition. It was the work of two architects, Henri Deglane for the main body of the building, and Albert Thomas for the west wing, or Palais d'Antin. The iron frame of the Grand Palais was quite modern for its time; it appeared light, but in fact, it used of metal, compared with seven thousand for the construction of the Eiffel Tower. The facade was in the ornate
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or
Neo-Baroque #Redirect Neo-Baroque The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France and Wilhelminism in Germany), was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture and a ...
style. The more modern interior iron framework, huge skylights and stairways offered decorative elements in the new
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
style, particularly in the railings of the staircase, which were intricately woven in fluid, organic forms. During the Fair, the interior served as the setting for the exhibitions of paintings and sculptures. The main body of the Grand Palais housed the ''Exposition décennale des beaux-arts de 1889 à 1900'' with the paintings of French artists in the north wing, the paintings of artists from other countries in the south wing and the sculptures in the central hall, with some outdoor sculptures nearby. The Palais d'Antin, or west wing, housed the ''Exposition centennale de l'art français de 1800 à 1889''. The
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
, that is facing the Grand Palais, was designed by
Charles Girault Charles-Louis Girault (27 December 1851 – 26 December 1932) was a French architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with ...

Charles Girault
. Much like the Grand Palais, the facade is Beaux-Arts and Neo-Baroque, reminiscent of the Grand Trianon and the stable at Chantilly. The interior offers examples of Art Nouveau, particularly in the railings of the curving stairways, the tiles of the floors, the stained glass, and the murals on the ceiling of the arcade around the garden. The entrance murals were painted by
Paul-Albert BesnardPaul-Albert Besnard (2 June 1849 – 4 December 1934) was a French Painting, painter and printmaking, printmaker. Image:Albert Besnard 1913.jpg, ''Albert Besnard'' (1913),photograph by Agence de presse Meurisse. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de Fran ...
and . During the Fair, the Petit Palais housed the ''Exposition rétrospective de l'art français des origines à 1800''. Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14784195265).jpg,
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
central hall with the exhibition of sculptures File:Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14597670517).jpg, Courtyard of the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais


The Palaces of Industry, Decoration and Agriculture

The industrial and commercial exhibits were located inside several large palaces on the esplenade between les Invalides and the Alexander III Bridge. One of the largest and most ornate was the Palais des Manufactures Nationale, whose facade included a colorful ceramic gateway, designed by sculptor Jules Coutan and architect Charles Risler and made by the Sèvres Porcelain manufactory. After the Exposition it was moved to the wall of Square Felix-Déésroulles, next to the
Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin L ...
, where it can be seen today. The Palace of Furniture and Decoration was particularly lavish and presented many displays of the new Art Nouveau style. The Palace of Agriculture and Food was inside the former
Galerie des machines#REDIRECT Galerie des machines The Galerie des machines (officially Palais des machines) was a pavilion built for the Exposition Universelle (1889) in Paris. Located in the Grenelle district, the huge pavilion was made of iron, steel and glass. A s ...
, an enormous iron-framed building from the 1889 Exposition. Its most popular feature was the Champagne Palace, offering displays and samples of French
Champagne Champagne (, ) is a sparkling wine Sparkling wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus ...

Champagne
. File:L'Esplanade des Invalides, Palais des manufactures nationales, Palais de l'Italie, Pont Alexandre III.jpg, The Palace of National Manufacturers (left), with the Italian pavilion in distance File:Paris Exposition United States Pavilion, Industrial Arts Exhibit, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, United States section at the Palace of Furniture and Decoration File:Paris Exposition Austrian Pavilion, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Austrian section at the Palace of Furniture and Decoration File:Paris Exposition Agricultural Section, Paris, France, 1900. Agricultural Section.jpg, Pavilion of Agriculture and Food, inside the former Palace of Machines of the 1889 Exposition. File:Paris Exposition Agricultural Section, Champagne Palais, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, The Champagne Palace at the Palace of Agriculture and Food


National pavilions

Fifty-six countries were invited to the Exposition, and forty accepted. The Rue des Nations was created along the banks of the Seine between the esplanade of
Les Invalides Les Invalides (), formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, also Hôtel des Invalides (literally, "House of the disabled") is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris 7 (seven) is the natural number File:Three Basket ...

Les Invalides
and the
Champ de Mars The Champ de Mars (; en, Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population ...

Champ de Mars
for the national pavilions of the larger countries. Each country paid for its own pavilion. The pavilions were all temporary, made of plaster and ''staff'' on a metal frame and were designed in an architectural style that represented a period in the country's history, often imitating famous national monuments. At the Rue des Nations, on the left bank of the Seine, on the
Quai d'Orsay The Quai d'Orsay ( , ) is a quay A wharf, quay (, also ), or staith(e) is a structure on the shore of a harbour or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or ...

Quai d'Orsay
, overlooking the river, from the
Pont des Invalides The Pont des Invalides is the lowest bridge traversing the Seine in Paris. History The story of this bridge started in 1821, when engineer Claude Navier conceived a technologically revolutionary bridge that crossed the Seine in one single reach ...
towards the
Pont de l'Alma The Pont de l'Alma (English language, English: ''Alma Bridge'') is a road bridge in Paris, France across the Seine. It was named to commemorate the Battle of Alma during the Crimean War, in which the Ottoman-Franco-British alliance achieved victo ...
, were located the national pavilions of Italy, Turkey, the United States, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Great Britain, Belgium, Norway, Germany, Spain, Monaco, Sweden, Greece, Serbia and Mexico. Behind them, in second line, were located the pavilions of Denmark, Portugal, Peru, Persia, Finland, Luxembourg, Bulgaria and Romania. The other nations were located elsewhere in the Exposition site. In addition to their own national pavilion, the countries managed other spaces at the Fair. The industrial, commercial, scientific and cultural exhibitors of each country were distributed among the national sections of the different official thematic pavilions.


The Rue des Nations

The pavilion of Turkey was covering . It was designed by a French architect, Adrien-René Dubuisson, and was a mixture of copies of Islamic architecture from mosques in Istanbul and elsewhere in the Ottoman Empire. The United States pavilion was modest, a variation on the United States Capitol Building designed by Charles Allerton Coolidge and Georges Morin-Goustiaux. The main U.S. presence was in the commercial and industrial palaces. One unusual aspect of the U.S. presence was
The Exhibit of American Negroes The Exhibit of American Negroes was a sociological display within the Palace of Social Economy at the 1900 World's Fair in Paris. The exhibit was a joint effort between Daniel Alexander Payne Murray, Daniel Murray, the Assistant Librarian of Congres ...
at the Palace of Social Economy, a joint project of Daniel Murray, the Assistant Librarian of Congress, Thomas J. Calloway, a lawyer and the primary organizer of the exhibit, and
W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, socialist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Boi ...
. The goal of the exhibition was to demonstrate progress and commemorate the lives of
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
s at the turn of the century.
David Levering Lewis David Levering Lewis (born May 25, 1936) is an American historian, a Julius Silver University Professor, and a professor of history at New York University New York University (NYU) is a private research university in New York City N ...
, "A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois and Black Americans at the Turn of the Twentieth Century", ''A Small Nation of People: W. E. B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress''. New York: Amistad, 2003. 24–49.
The exhibit included a statuette of
Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1817 or 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an American social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort ...

Frederick Douglass
, four bound volumes of nearly 400 official
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s by African Americans, photographs from several educational institutions (
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,
Howard University Howard University (Howard or simply HU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an a ...

Howard University
,
Roger Williams University Roger Williams University (RWU) is a private university Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grant (money), grants. Depending on thei ...
,
Tuskegee Institute Tuskegee University is a private, historically black land-grant university A land-grant university (also called land-grant college or land-grant institution) is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to ...
,
Claflin University Claflin University is a private historically black university in Orangeburg, South Carolina Orangeburg, also known as ''The Garden City'', is the principal city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of gove ...
,
Berea College Berea may refer to: Places Greece * Berea in the Bible, a place mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles, now known as Veria or Veroia Lesotho * Berea District : ''For the city mentioned in the Bible, see Berea (Bible). Berea is a district ...
,
North Carolina A&T North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (also known as North Carolina A&T State University, North Carolina A&T, N.C. A&T, or simply A&T) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of in ...
), and, most memorably, some five hundred photographs of African-American men and women, homes, churches, businesses and landscapes including photographs from Thomas E. Askew. The pavilions of the Austro-Hungarian domains in the Balkans, Bosnia and Herzegovina, offered displays on their lifestyles, consisting of folklore traditions, highlighting peasanthood and the embroidery goods produced in the country. Designed by Karl Panek, it featured murals on the history of Slavic peoples by
Alphonse Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (; 24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known internationally as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech painter, illustrator and graphic artist, living in Paris during the Art Nouveau period, best known for his distinctly stylized and decorat ...
. The pavilion of Hungary was designed by Zoltán Bálint and Lajos Jámbor. Its cupola displayed agricultural produce and hunting equipment. The British Royal pavilion consisted of a mock- Jacobean mansion decorated with pictures and furniture, designed by Sir
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country house An Englis ...

Edwin Lutyens
. It was largely used for receptions for important visitors to the Exposition. The German pavilion was the tallest, at , designed by Johannes Radke and built of wood and stained glass. However, most of the German presence at the Exposition was in the commercial pavilions, where they had important displays of German technology and machinery, as well as models of German steamships and a full-scale model of a German lighthouse. The Pavilion of Spain (1900), Royal Pavilion of Spain was designed in Neo-Plateresque style by José Urioste Velada. It housed the Retrospective Exhibition of Spanish Art formed by the collection of tapestries, in which thirty-seven pieces made between the 15th and 18th centuries from the Spanish royal collection, Royal Collections were exhibited. The pavilion basement housed a Spanish-themed café-restaurant, named ''La Feria'', that was the first restaurant in History with a completely electric kitchen. Sweden's yellow and red structure covered in pine shingles drew attention with its bright colours. It was designed by Ferdinand Boberg. The pavilion of Finland, designed by Gesellius, Lindgren, Saarinen, had clean-cut, modern architecture. File:The Pavilions of the Nations, III, Exposition Universal, 1900, Paris, France.jpg, Rue des Nations. From left to right: Pavilions of Belgium, Norway, Germany, Spain, Monaco, Sweden, Greece and Serbia. File:Le pavillon de l'Italie à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Italy by Carlo Ceppi, Costantino Gilodi and Giacomo Salvadori File:Le pavillon de la Turquie à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
by Adrien-René Dubuisson File:Le pavillon des USA à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of the United States by Coolidge and Morin-Goustiaux File:Palais des nations étrangères, la Bosnie-Herzégovine et la Hongrie.jpg, Pavilions of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Karl Panek (left) and Hungary by Zoltán Bálint and Lajos Jámbor (right) File:Le pavillon de la Belgique à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Belgium by Ernest Acker and Gustave Maukels File:Palais des nations, l'Allemagne.jpg, Pavilion of Germany by Johannes Radke File:La Rue des nations, Exposition Universelle 1900 (cropped). Pavillon royal de l'Espagne.jpg, Pavilion of Spain (1900), Royal Pavilion of Spain by José Urioste Velada File:Palais des nations étrangères, la Principauté de Monaco.jpg, Pavilion of Monaco by Jean Marquet and François Medecin File:Paris Exposition- Swedish Pavilion, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Sweden by Ferdinand Boberg File:Le pavillon de la Grèce à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Greece by Lucien Magne File:Photograph of the Finnish pavilion at Exposition Universelle (1900).jpg, Pavilion of Finland by Gesellius, Lindgren, Saarinen


Nations located elsewhere

Russia had an imposing presence on the Trocadéro hill. The Russian pavilion, designed by Robert Meltzer, was inspired by the towers of the Kremlin and had exhibits and architecture presenting artistic treasures from Samarkand, Bukhara and other Russian dependencies in Central Asia. The Chinese pavilion, designed by Louis Masson-Détourbet, was in the form of a Buddhist temple with staff in Chinese traditional dress. This pavilion suffered some disruption in August 1900, when Yihetuan, anti-Western rebels Siege of the International Legations, seized the International delegations in Beijing in the Boxer Rebellion and held them for several weeks until an expeditionary force from the Eight-Nation Alliance arrived and recaptured the city. During the disruption at the Fair, a Chinese procession was attacked by angered Parisians. The Korean pavilion, designed by Eugène Ferret, was mostly stocked by French Oriental collectors, including Victor Collin de Plancy, with a supplement of Korean goods from Korea. One object of note on display was the ''Jikji'', the oldest extant book printed with movable metal type. Morocco had its pavilion near the Eiffel Tower and was designed by Henri-Jules Saladin. File:Le pavillon de la Russie à l'exposition universelle de Paris en 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Russia by Robert Meltzer File:Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14597572428).jpg, Pavilion of China by Louis Masson-Détourbet File:Les pavillons du Maroc, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, Pavilion of Morocco by Henri-Jules Saladin


Colonial pavilions

An area of several dozen hectares on the hill of the Trocadéro Palace was set aside for the pavilions of the colonies and protectorates of France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Portugal. The largest space was for the French colonies in Africa, the Caribbean, the Pacific and Southeast Asia. These pavilions featured traditional architecture of the countries and displays of local products mixed with modern electric lighting, motion pictures, dioramas, and guides, soldiers, and musicians in local costumes. The French Caribbean islands promoted their rum and other products, while the French colony of
New Caledonia ) , anthem = "Soyons unis, devenons frères" , image_map = New Caledonia on the globe (small islands magnified) (Polynesia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of New Caledonia , map_caption = Location of New Caledonia , mapsize = 290px , s ...

New Caledonia
highlighted its exotic varieties of wood and its rich mineral deposits.Mabire (2000), pp. 62-63 The North African French colonies were especially present; The French protectorate of Tunisia, Tunisian pavilion was a miniature recreation of the Sidi Mahrez Mosque of Tunis.
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,
Sudan Sudan ( or ; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It borders the countries of Central African Republ ...

Sudan
,
Dahomey The Kingdom of Dahomey () was a List of kingdoms in pre-colonial Africa, West African kingdom located within present-day Benin that existed from approximately 1600 until 1904. Dahomey developed on the Abomey Plateau amongst the Fon people in th ...
,
Guinea Guinea (), officially the Republic of Guinea (french: link=no, République de Guinée), is a coastal country in West Africa. Guinea borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Guinea-Bissau to the northwest, Senegal to the north, Mali to the no ...
and the other French African colonies presented pavilions based on their traditional religious architecture and marketplaces, with guides in costume. The French colonies of
Indochina Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula or Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...
,
Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''Tongkin'', ''Tonquin'' or ''Tongking'', is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a ...
and
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
also had an impressive presence, with recreations of pagodas and palaces, musicians and dancers, and a recreation of a riverside village from
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...
. The Netherlands displayed the exotic culture of its crown colony, the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
. The pavilion displayed a faithful reconstruction of 8th-century Sari temple and also Rumah adat, Indonesian vernacular architecture of Rumah Gadang from Minangkabau people, Minangkabau, West Sumatra. File:Le palais officiel de l'Algérie, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, Pavilion of French Algeria by Albert Ballu File:La Tunisie, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, Pavilion of French protectorate of Tunisia, French Tunisia by Henri-Jules Saladin File:Cambodian.in.France.1900s.jpg, Pavilion of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
- Buddhist Temple File:Le Tonkin, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, Pavilion of French Indochina - Replica of the Cổ Loa Citadel, Co Loa Palace in Hanoi File:Paris Exposition Dutch East Indies Pavilion, Paris, France, 1900 n2.jpg, Pavilion of
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
- Replica of Sari Temple in Yogyakarta


Attractions

Besides its official scientific, industrial and artistic palaces, the Exposition offered an extraordinary variety of attractions, amusements and diversions.


Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower, that was built as the main entrance of the 1889 Exposition, was the main and central attraction of the 1900 Exposition. For this Exposition, it was repainted in shaded tones from yellow-orange at the base to light yellow at the top, and was fitted with 7,000 electric lamps. At the same time, the lifts in the east and west legs were replaced by lifts running as far as the second level and the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the first level. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. file:Paris expo uni 1900-.jpg, Aerial view of the Exposition including the Eiffel Tower. file:Paris_Exposition_Champ_de_Mars_and_Eiffel_Tower,_Paris,_France,_1900_n1.jpg, View of the Champ de Mars under the Eiffel Tower


The Grande Roue de Paris

The ''Grande Roue de Paris'' was a very popular attraction. It was a gigantic
ferris wheel A Ferris wheel (or big wheel in the United Kingdom, also called giant wheels or observation wheels) is an amusement ride Amusement rides, sometimes called carnival rides, are mechanical devices or structures that move people to create enjoymen ...

ferris wheel
high, which took its name from a similar wheel created by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It could carry 1,600 passengers in its forty cars in a single voyage. The cost of a ride was one franc for a second class car, and two francs for a more spacious first-class car. Despite the high price, passengers often had to wait an hour for a place. File:La grande roue, Paris, France, ca. 1890-1900.jpg, The Grande Roue at the Paris Exposition could carry 1600 passengers at once


The moving sidewalk, electric train and electrobus

The ''Rue de l'Avenir'' () moving sidewalk was a very popular and useful attraction, given the large size of the Exposition. It ran along the edge of the Exposition, from the esplanade of
Les Invalides Les Invalides (), formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, also Hôtel des Invalides (literally, "House of the disabled") is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris 7 (seven) is the natural number File:Three Basket ...

Les Invalides
to the
Champ de Mars The Champ de Mars (; en, Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population ...

Champ de Mars
, passing through nine stations along the way, where passengers could board. The fare was an average of fifty centimes. The sidewalk was accessed from a platform above the ground level. The passengers stepped from the platform onto the moving sidewalk traveling at , then onto a more rapid sidewalk moving at . The sidewalks had posts with handles which passengers could hold onto, or they could walk. It was designed by architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee and engineer Max E. Schmidt. A Decauville electric train followed the same route, running at an average speed of in the opposite direction of the moving sidewalk. The rail track was sometimes at high like the movable sidewalks, sometimes at ground level and sometimes underground. An experimental passenger Trolleybus, electrobus line, designed by Louis Lombard-Gérin, ran in the Bois de Vincennes from 2 August to 12 November 1900. It was a long circular route connecting the recently opened Porte de Vincennes (Paris Métro), Porte de Vincennes metro station with Lac Daumesnil. It was the first trolleybus in regular passenger service in History. File:Plateforme mobile, station du pont des Invalides.jpg, Quai d'Orsay-Pont des Invalides station of the moving sidewalk near the Pavilion of Italy File:Paris Exposition rolling platform, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Viaducts of the electric train (left) and the moving sidewalk (right) File:Compagnie de Traction par Trolley Automoteur Paris 1900.jpg, The first ever trolleybuses in regular passenger service (Bois de Vincennes)


The Globe Céleste

The ''Globe Céleste'' was an immense globe-shaped planetarium which offered a presentation on the night sky. The globe, designed by Napoléon de Tédesco, was in diameter, and the blue and gold exterior was painted with the constellations and the signs of the zodiac. It was placed atop a masonry support high, supported by four columns. A flower garden on the support surrounded the globe. Spectators seated in armchairs inside watched a presentation on the stars and planets projected overhead. The sphere was the scene of a fatal accident on 29 April 1900 when one of access ramps, hastily made of a newly introduced material, reinforced concrete, collapsed onto the street below, killing nine persons. Following the accident the French government established the first regulations for the use of reinforced concrete. File:Tour Eiffel et le Globe Céleste.jpg, The Globe Céleste and the Eiffel Tower File:Suchard - Globe céleste.jpg, The Globe Céleste was featured in an advertisement for Suchard Chocolate


Motion Pictures

The Lumière brothers, who had made the first public projections of a motion picture in 1895, presented their films on a colossal screen, by , in the Gallery of Machines. Another innovation in motion pictures was presented at the Exposition at the Phono-Cinema Theater; a primitive talking motion picture, where the image on the screen was synchronized to the sound from phonographs.Ageorges (2006) pg. 110-111 An even more ambitious experiment in motion pictures was the ''Cinéorama'' of Raoul Grimoin Sanson, which simulated a voyage in a balloon. The film, projected on a circular screen in circumference by ten synchronized projectors, depicted a landscape passing below. The spectators sat in the center above the projectors, in what resembled the basket suspended beneath a large balloon. Another popular attraction was the ''Mareorama'', which simulated a voyage by ship from Villefranche to Constantinople. The viewers stood on the railing of a ship simulator, watching painted images pass by of the cities and seascapes en route. The illusion was aided by machinery that rocked the ship, and fans which blew gusts of wind. File:Expo1900SoundFilm.jpg, Poster for the Phono-Cinema Theater File:Cineorama.jpg, The ''Cinéorama'', a simulated voyage in a balloon with motion pictures projected on a circular screen. File:Mareorama (Scientific American).jpg, The ''Mareorama'' simulated a sea voyage, complete with rocking ship and unrolling painted scenery.


World live recreations

''L'Andalousie au temps des Maures'' () was a Spanish-themed open air attraction with folkloric live performances at Quai Debilly, at the western end of Trocadéro, on the right bank of the Seine, featuring full-scale moorish architecture reproductions from the Alhambra, Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, Toledo, Spain, Toledo, the Alcázar of Seville and a tall reproduction of the Giralda. It was a French-produced attraction that had no relation with the official representation of Spain at the Fair. File:Andalucía_en_tiempo_de_los_moros.JPG, Poster from a painting by Ulpiano Checa File:Paris Exposition Giralda Tower of Seville, Paris, France, 1900.jpg, Bullring and Giralda File:Paris Exposition unidentified exterior view, Paris, France, 1900 n8.jpg, Recreation of the Alhambra ''Le Vieux Paris'' () was a recreation of the streets of old Paris, from the Middle Ages to the 18th century, with recreations of historic buildings and streets filled with performers and musicians in costumes. It was built following an idea by Albert Robida.Mabire (2000) pg. 177 The Swiss Village, at the edge of the Exposition near Avenue de Sufren and Motte-Piquet, was a recreation of a Swiss mountainside village, complete with a cascade, a lake and collection of thirty-five chalets. The ''Panorama du Tour du Monde'' was an animated panorama journey from Europe to Japan in a building by Alexandre Marcel in the architectural styles of India, China, Cambodia, Japan and Renaissance Europe. It consisted in panoramic paintings by Louis Dumoulin in front of which groups of native people, dressed accordingly, move, play, dance, stroll or work. The visitor traveled through representations of Fuenterrabía (Spain), the Pnyx hill in Athens (Greece), the cemetery of Stamboul and the Golden Horn of Constantinople (Turkey), Syria, the Suez Canal (Egypt), Ceylon, the Angkor Wat temple (Cambodia), Shanghai (China) and Nikkō (Japan). The visit continued by showing dioramas of Rome, Moscow, New York and Amsterdam and ended with a mobile panorama of a boat trip along the coast of Provence, from Marseille to La Ciotat. It was funded and sponsored by the ''Messageries Maritimes, Compagnie des messageries maritimes''. Other recreations with costumed vendors and musicians elsewhere the Exposition included recreations of the bazaars, souks and street markets of Algiers, Tunis and
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...
, a Venetian canal with gondolas, a Russian village and a Japanese tea house. File:Vue sur le Vieux Paris prise du Pont de l'Alma.jpg, Le Vieux Paris exterior File:Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14597564528).jpg, Le Vieux Paris File:Exposition universelle, 1900 - the chefs-d'uvre (1900) (14784205595).jpg, The Swiss Village File:Le Tour du Monde, Exposition Universelle 1900.jpg, Panorama du Tour du Monde


Theatres and Music Halls

The Exposition had several large theatres and music halls, the largest of which was the Palais des Fêtes, which had fifteen thousand seats, and offered programs of music, ballet, historical recreations and diverse spectacles. A separate thoroughfare of the Exposition, the Rue de Paris, was lined with amusements, including music venues, a comedy theater, marionettes, American jazz, a Grand Guignol theater, and the celebrated "Backwards House", which had its furniture on the ceiling, its chandeliers on the floor, and windows which gave reverse images. Other diversions elsewhere in and around the Exposition included an orchestra from Madagascar, a Comedy Theater, and the Columbia Theater at Port Maillot, with acts ranging from panoramas of life in the Orient to a water ballet. These diversions were popular but expensive; entry to the Comedy Theater cost up to five francs. The most celebrated actress during the Exposition was Sarah Bernhardt, who had her own theater, The Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt (now the Théâtre de la Ville), and premiered one of her most famous roles during the Exposition. This was ''L'Aiglon'', a new play by Edmond Rostand in which she played the Duc de Reichstadt, the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, imprisoned by his unloving mother and family until his melancholy death in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. The play ended with a memorable death scene; according to one critic, she died "as dying angels would die if they were allowed to." The play ran for nearly a year, with standing-room places selling for as much as 600 gold francs. Another popular diversion during the Exposition was the theater of the American dancer, Loie Fuller, who performed a famous Serpentine dance in which she waved large silk scarves which seemed to envelop her into a cloud. Her performance was widely reproduced in photographs, paintings and drawings by Art Nouveau artists and sculptors, and were captured in very early motion pictures. She was filmed on ten 70mm projectors that created a 330-degree picture, patented by Cinéorama. File:Loie Fuller.jpg, The dancer Loie Fuller had her own theater in Paris during the 1900 Exposition File:Sarah Bernhardt as L'Aiglon 1900.jpg, Sarah Bernhardt as L'Aiglon, the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, played to full houses in her theater during the Exposition.


Events

Many international congresses and other events were held in Paris in 1900 within the framework of the Exposition. A large area within the
Bois de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes (), located on the eastern edge of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 resi ...

Bois de Vincennes
was set aside for sporting events, which included, among others, many of the events of the 1900 Summer Olympics. A Paris 1900 chess tournament, chess tournament was also held.


1900 Summer Olympics Games

The 1900 Summer Olympics were the second modern Olympics games held, and the first ones held outside Greece. Between 14 May and 28 October 1900, an enormous number of sporting activities were held along the Exposition. The sporting events rarely used the term of "Olympic". Indeed, the term "Olympic Games" was replaced by "''Concours internationaux d'exercices physiques et de sport''" () in the official report of the Exposition. The press reported competitions variously as "International Championships", "International Games", "Paris Championships", "World Championships" and "Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition". The International Olympic Committee had no real control over the organization, no official interpretation has ever been made and various sources list differing events, further adding to the confusion that was Paris 1900. 997 competitors took part in nineteen different sports, including women competing for the first time. A number of events were held for the first and only time in Olympic history, including Motor racing at the 1900 Summer Olympics, automobile and Motorcycle racing at the Summer Olympics, motorcycle racing, Ballooning at the 1900 Summer Olympics, ballooning, Cricket at the 1900 Summer Olympics, cricket, Croquet at the 1900 Summer Olympics, croquet, a Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics – Men's 200 metre obstacle event, swimming obstacle race and Swimming at the 1900 Summer Olympics – Men's underwater swimming, underwater swimming.Journal of Olympic History, Special Issue – December 2008, The Official Publication of the International Society of Olympic Historians, p. 77, by Karl Lennartz, Tony Bijkerk and Volker Kluge France at the 1900 Summer Olympics, France provided 72% of all athletes (720 of the 997) and won the most gold, silver and bronze medal placings. The United States at the 1900 Summer Olympics, United States athletes won the second largest number, with just seventy-five of the 997 athletes. The Pigeon racing at the 1900 Summer Olympics, pigeon race was won by a bird which flew from Paris to its home in Lyon in four and a half hours. The free balloon competition race was won by a balloon which traved from Paris to Russia in 35 hours and 45 minutes.Mabire (2000) pg. 46 File:Cérémonie d'ouverture du concours de gymnastique des JO 1900, à Vincennes.jpg, Gymnasts at opening ceremony (Bois de Vincennes) File:Tennis women 1900.jpg, Hélène Pévost, French women's tennis champion at the 1900 Paris Olympics, the first games in which women competed File:Tug of war.jpg, A combined Swedish-Danish team defeated France in the Olympic Tug of war at the 1900 Summer Olympics, Tug-of-War competition File:Les courses de ballons à Vincennes.jpg, Beginning of the balloon event at the 1900 Summer Olympics (Bois de Vincennes)


Banquet des maires

Another special event at the Exposition was a gigantic banquet hosted by the French President,
Émile Loubet Émile François Loubet (; 30 December 183820 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France from February to December 1892 and later President of France from 1899 to 1906. Trained in law, he became Mayor (France), mayor of Montélimar, whe ...

Émile Loubet
, for 20,777 mayors of France, Algeria and towns in French colonies, hosted on 22 September 1900 in the Tuileries Gardens, inside two enormous tents. The dinner was prepared in eleven kitchens and served to 606 tables, with the orders and needs of each table supervised by telephone and vehicle.


Medals and Awards ceremony

The organizers of the Exposition were not miserly in recognizing the 83,047 exhibitors of products, about half of whom came from France, and 7,161 from the United States. The awards ceremony was held on 18 August 1900, and was attended by 11,500 persons. 3,156 grand prizes were handed out, 8,889 gold medals, 13,300 silver medals, 12,108 bronze medals, and 8,422 honorable mentions. Many of the participants, such as Campbell's Soup or Michigan Stove Company, added the Paris award to the advertisements and labels of their products.


Admission charges and cost

The cost of an admission ticket was one Franc. At the time, the average hourly wage for Paris workers was between 40 and 50 centimes. In addition, most popular attractions charged an admission fee, usually between fifty centimes and Franc. The average cost of a simple meal at the Exposition was 2.50 Francs, the half-day wages of a worker. The amount budgeted for the Paris Exposition was one hundred million French Francs; twenty million from the French State, twenty million from the City of Paris, and the remaining sixty million expected to come from admissions, and backed by French banks and financial institutions.Mabire (2000), pp. 51 The official final cost was 119 million Francs, while the total amount actually collected from admission fees was 126 million Francs. However, there were unplanned expenses of 22 million Francs for the French State, and 6 million Francs for the City of Paris, bringing the total cost to 147 million Francs, or a deficit of 21 million Francs. The deficit was to a degree offset by the long-term additions to the city infrastructure; new buildings and bridges, including the Grand and Petit Palais, the Pont Alexander III and the Passerelle Debilly; and additions to the transport system; The
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the Paris, city, it is known for its density within the capital's territorial limits, uniform ar ...
, the funicular railway on Montmartre, and two new train stations, the
Gare d'Orsay Gare d'Orsay is a former Paris railway station and hotel, built in 1900 to designs by Victor Laloux, Lucien Magne and Émile Bénard; it served as a terminus for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans (Paris–Orléans Railway). It was the fir ...
and the Gare des Invalides, and the new facade and enlargement and redecoration of the Gare de Lyon and other stations. The Exposition was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred francs more than the price of admission. The exhibition lost a grand total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event and therefore lost their investment. With a much larger than expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated. The concessionaires then went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a fractional refund of the rent they had paid.


Art Nouveau at the Exposition

The
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
("New Art") style began to appear in Belgium and France in the 1880s and became fashionable in Europe and the United States during the 1890s.Gontar, Cybele. (2006), "Art Nouveau", Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/artn/hd_artn.htm It was highly decorative and took its inspiration from the natural world, particularly from the curving lines of plants and flowers and other vegetal forms. The architecture of the Exposition was largely of the Paris architecture of the Belle Époque, Belle Epoque style and Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts style, or of eclectic national styles. Art Nouveau decoration appeared in the interiors and decoration of many of the buildings, notably the interior ironwork and decoration of the Monumental gateway of the Exposition, the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
and the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
, and in the portal of the Palace of National Industries. The Art Nouveau style was very popular in the pavilions of decorative arts. The jewelry firm of Fouquet and the glass and crystal manufactory of Lalique all presented collections of Art Nouveau objects. The Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory created a series of monumental swan vases for the Exposition, as well as the monumental entrance to the Palace of National Manufacturers. Many Exposition posters also made use of the Art Nouveau style. The work of the most famous Art Nouveau poster artist, Alfons Mucha, had many forms at the Exposition. He designed the posters for the official Austrian participation in the Exposition, painting murals depicting scenes from the history of Bosnia as well as the menu for the restaurant at the Bosnian pavilion, and designed the menu for the official opening banquet. He produced displays for the jeweler Georges Fouquet and the perfume maker Houbigant Parfum, Houbigant, with statuettes and panels of women depicting the scents of rose, orange blossom, violet and buttercup. His more serious art works, including his drawings for ''Le Pater'', were shown in the Austrian pavilion and in the Austrian section of the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
. Some of his murals can be seen now in the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
. The most famous appearance was in the Paris Métro entrances by Hector Guimard, edicules, or entrance coverings, of the stations of the
Paris Métro The Paris Métro (french: Métro de Paris ; short for Métropolitain ) is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the Paris, city, it is known for its density within the capital's territorial limits, uniform ar ...
designed by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially ...
. Most were removed not long after the Exposition, but two original edicules remain. It also appeared in the interior decoration of many popular restaurants, notably the Pavillon Bleu at the Exposition, Maxim's, and the Le Train Bleu (restaurant), Le Train Bleu restaurant of the Gare de Lyon,Philippe Jullian, ''The Triumph of Art Nouveau: Paris exhibition, 1900'' (London: Phaidon, 1974). and in the portal of the Palace of National Manufacturers made by the Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory. The Exposition was a showcase not only of French Art Nouveau, but also the variations that had appeared in other parts of Europe, including the furniture of the Belgian architect and designer Victor Horta, designs of the German Jugendstil by Bruno Möhring, and of the Vienna Secession of Otto Wagner. Their display at the Exposition brought the new style international attention. Abbesses.JPG, Paris metro station entrance at Abbesses (Paris Métro), Abbesses designed by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially ...
for the Exposition File:Sevres World Fair Vase.jpg,
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
swan vase by the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Sèvres Manufactory made for the Exposition File:Egide Rombaux & François Hoosemans, De Nymfenlamp (ca. 1900), KBS-FRB.jpg, Nymph lamp by Egide Rombaux & François Hoosemans made for the Exposition File:Menu for Bosnia Pavillion by Alfons Mucha 1900.jpg, Menu by Alfons Mucha for the restaurant of the Bosnia and Herzegovina pavilion File:Alfons Mucha (Paris 1900, musée du Petit Palais) (14524535382).jpg, Bosnia and Herzegovina pavilion murals by Alfons Mucha (1900), now in
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
File:The Bigot-pavilion at the Paris Universal Exposition, 1900.jpg, The Bigot pavilion, showcasing the work of Art Nouveau ceramics manufacturer Alexandre Bigot File:Traubensaal.jpg, Jugendstil hallway from the German pavilion, by Bruno Möhring, now in Mainz File:Le Train Bleu.jpg, The 1900 interior of the Le Train Bleu (restaurant), Train Bleu at the Gare de Lyon File:Maxim's 1.jpg, 1893 facade of Maxim's restaurant


Legacy

Most of the palaces and buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the Exposition and all items and materials that could be salvaged were sold or recycled. They were built largely of wood and covered with
staff Staff may refer to: Pole * Staff, a weapon used in stick-fighting Stick-fighting, stickfighting, or stick fighting is a variety of martial arts which use simple long, slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden "sticks" for fighting, such as a gun ...
, which was formed into columns, statuary, walls, stairs. A few of the major structures built for the Exposition were preserved, including the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
and the
Petit Palais The Petit Palais (; en, Small Palace) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous an ...

Petit Palais
, and the two major bridges, the
Pont Alexandre III The Pont Alexandre III is a deck arch bridge that spans the Seine ) , mouth_location = Le Havre Le Havre (, ; nrf, Lé Hâvre) is an urban French Communes of France, commune and city in the Seine-Maritime Departments of France, depa ...

Pont Alexandre III
and the Passerelle Debilly, though the latter was later dismantled and moved a few dozen meters from its original placement. Most of the Art Nouveau metro station edicules designed by
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially ...
were removed soon after the Exposition closed, but two of the originals still exist, including one at its original location, at the Porte Dauphine (Paris Métro), Porte Dauphine metro station. The monumental portal of the Palace of National Manufacturers, made by the Sèvres Manufactory, was preserved and moved to Square Felix-Desruelles, next to the
Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés An abbey is a type of monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin L ...
. A copy of the Statue of Liberty by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi exhibited at the Fair, was placed in the Luxembourg Gardens in 1905 at the request of his widow. After visiting the ''Panorama du Tour du Monde'', King Leopold II of Belgium commissioned its architect, Alexandre Marcel, to build a Japanese tower and a Chinese pavilion in the Palace of Laeken, Royal Garden of Laeken, City of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium. Marcel rebuilt there the Japanese red pagoda of the ''Tour du Monde'' and moved the original entry pavilion to the tower from Paris. He also built the Chinese Pavilion whose wooden panelling was sculpted in Shanghai. Both structures are now part of the Museums of the Far East. One of the most curious vestiges is La Ruche (residence), La Ruche, at 2 Passage de Dantzig (15th .). This is a three-story building constructed entirely out of bits and pieces of Exposition buildings, purchased at auctions by sculptor Alfred Boucher. The iron roof, made by Gustave Eiffel, originally covered the kiosk of the Wines of Médoc, in the palace of agriculture and foods. The statues of women in theatrical costumes by the front door came from the Indochina pavilion, while the ornamental iron gate at the entrance was part of the Palace of Women. In the years after the Exposition, La Ruche served as the temporary studio and home of dozens of young artists and writers including Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Fernand Léger and the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. It was threatened with demolition in the 1960s but was saved by culture minister André Malraux. It is now a historical monument.Ageorges (2006) pp. 124-125 Laken Japanese Tower from Palace Gardens 04.jpg, Japanese pagoda. Museums of the Far East in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium Portique Sèvres, square Félix-Desruelles, Paris 6e.jpg, Ceramic gateway of Sèvres Porcelain from the Palace of National Manufacturers, now on Square Félx-Desruelles File:EdiculePorteDauphine.jpg,
Hector Guimard Hector Guimard (10 March 1867 – 20 May 1942) was a French architect and designer, and a prominent figure of the Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style (visual arts), style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially ...
's original
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
entrance of the Paris Métro at Porte Dauphine (Paris Métro), Porte Dauphine Métro Station File:Statue de la liberte.jpg, A copy of the Statue of Liberty by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, Bartholdi, exhibited in 1900, placed in the Luxembourg Gardens in 1905 File:Entrance to the "La Ruche" in Paris.jpg, La Ruche, an artist's colony composed of pieces of different Exposition buildings


Criticism

The Exposition had numerous critics from different points of view. The monumental gateway was described as "lacking in taste" and was considered by some critics to be the ugliest of all the exhibits. Adding to their dislike of La Porte Monumentale Paris was the Parisienne, made by Moreau-Vauthier. The Parisienne was referred to by some as "the triumph of prostitution" because of her flowing robe and modernized figure and was criticized by many visitors to the triumphal gateway. The structure of the entrance tower as a whole was adorned with Byzantine motifs and Persian ceramic ornamentation, but the true inspiration behind the piece was not of cultural background. Binet sought inspiration from science, tucking the vertebrae of a dinosaur, the cells of a beehive, rams, peacocks, and poppies into the design alongside other animalistic stimuli. La Porte Monumental Paris is considered to be a structure of the Salammbô style and 'the most typically 1900 monument of the entire exhibition'. The controversial gateway became known as ''La Salamanda'' among the public because it resembled the stocky and intricately designed salamander-stoves of the time, only adding to its ridicule.


Motion picture footage

Short silent film, silent actuality films documenting the Exposition by French director Georges Méliès and by Edison Manufacturing Company producer James H. White, have survived.


See also

* Art Nouveau in Paris * French colonial empire, French Colonial Empire * Paris in the Belle Époque


References


Bibliography

* Ageorges, Sylvain (2006), ''Sur les traces des Expositions Universelles'' (in French), Parigramme. * Fahr-Becker, Gabriele (2015). L'Art Nouveau (in French). H.F. Ullmann. . * Lahor, Jean (2007) [1901]. L'Art nouveau (in French). Baseline Co. Ltd. . * Mabire, Jean-Christophe, ''L'Exposition Universelle de 1900'' (in French) (2019), L.Harmattan. *


Further reading

* Alexander C. T. Geppert: ''Fleeting Cities. Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe'', Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. * Richard D. Mandell, ''Paris 1900: The great world's fair'' (1967) * *


External links


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L'Art NouveauUniversal and International Exhibition of Paris 1900
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worldfairs.infoInventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies: "exposition universelle internationale de 1900 paris, france"
(search results). A set of films by Edison from the Expo 1900 * 1 minute film pan shot from
Champ de Mars The Champ de Mars (; en, Field of Mars) is a large public greenspace in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population ...

Champ de Mars
* 1 minute 39 seconds film pan shot from
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Place de la Concorde
* 2 minute film pan shot from Les Invalides, Esplanade des Invalides and 10 seconds of Chateau d'Eau from Tour Eiffel
"Unrecognizable Paris: The Monuments that Vanished"
an article a
Messy Nessy Cabinet of Chic CuriositiesThe Burton Holmes lectures; v.2. Round about Paris. Paris exposition
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Internet Archive
{{coord, 48.8561, N, 2.2978, E, source:wikidata, display=title Exposition Universelle (1900), World's fairs in Paris 1900 in France 1900 Summer Olympics Art Nouveau exhibitions 1900s in Paris Festivals established in 1900 1900 festivals