An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''
An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term '' ex officio'' is Latin, meaning literally 'from the office', and the sense intended is 'by righ ...
Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
, meaning literally 'from the office', and the sense intended is 'by right of office'; its use dates back to the
The Roman Republic ( la, Res publica Romana ) was a form of government of Rome and the era of the classical Roman civilization when it was run through public representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the overthrow of the Roman K ...
According to '' Robert's Rules of Order
'', the term denotes only how one becomes a member of a body. Accordingly, the rights of an ''ex officio'' member are exactly the same as other members unless otherwise stated in regulations or bylaws. It relates to the notion that the position refers to the position the ex officio holds, rather than the individual that holds the position. In some groups, ''ex officio'' members may frequently abstain from voting.
Opposite notions are dual mandate
, when the same person happens to hold two offices or more, although these offices are not in themselves associated; and personal union
, when two states share the same monarch.
For profit and nonprofit use
Any ''ex officio'' membership (for example, of committees, or of the board) is as defined by the nonprofit association's bylaws
or other documents of authority. For example, the bylaws quite often provide that the organization's
President most commonly refers to:
* President (corporate title)
*President (education), a leader of a college or university
* President (government title)
President may also refer to:
* Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese f ...
will be ''ex officio'' a member of all committees, except the nominating committee.
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Do ...
, some princes became members by right of the Imperial Senate
once they turned 25.
According to the
Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
The Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party has 53 articles and its contents describe the program of the Party, as well as its organizational structure and Party symbolism.
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP)'s constitution curr ...
, the General Secretary of the Central Committee
must be a member of
Politburo Standing Committee
The Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), officially the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China Central Committee, is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Histor ...
, the Executive Council
Hong Kong ( (US) or (UK); , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (abbr. Hong Kong SAR or HKSAR), is a city and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delt ...
is still composed of ''ex officio'' members (official members since 1997) and unofficial members (non-official members since 1997). By practice the ''ex officio'' members include the secretaries of departments
, i.e. the Chief Secretary
, the Financial Secretary
and the Secretary for Justice
. Since 2002 all secretaries of bureaux
are also appointed by the Chief Executive
to be official members of the Executive Council. But since 2005 the secretaries of bureaux attend only when items on the agenda concern their portfolios.
The President of the French Republic
and the Catholic Bishop of Urgell
are by virtue of office (''ex officio'') appointed Co-Princes of Andorra
The Vice-President of India
is ''ex officio'' Chairman of Rajya Sabha
, the Upper House of the Indian Parliament.
The Prime Minister of India
is ''ex officio'' Chairman of
The NITI Aayog (; abbreviation for National Institution for Transforming India) serves as the apex public policy think tank of the Government of India, and the nodal agency tasked with catalyzing economic development, and fostering cooperati ...
. Other ''ex officio'' members of NITI Aayog are the Minister of Home Affairs
, the Minister of Finance
, the Minister of Railways
, and the
Minister of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare
The Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare ( Hindi: ''Krishi Avam Kisaan Kalyaan Mantralaya''), formerly the Ministry of Agriculture, is a branch of the Government of India and the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules a ...
, the presiding officers and their deputies, and the majority and minority leaders, are ''ex officio'' members of all committees. The chairman on each chamber's committee on rules is the majority leader. The Senate President
is the ''ex officio'' chairman of the
Commission on Appointments
The Commission on Appointments ( fil, Komisyon sa Paghirang, abbreviated as CA) is a constitutional body which confirms or rejects certain political appointments made by the President of the Philippines. The current commission was created by t ...
, but can only vote on ties. In the Judicial and Bar Council
, several positions are due to occupying another office.
In provincial boards
, the provincial presidents of the League of Barangays
(villages), Sangguniang Kabataan
(youth councils) and of the
Philippine Councilors League
The Philippine Councilors League – or more simply the PCL – is a formal organization of all the municipal and city councilors in the Philippines.
Last February 27, 2020, the outgoing national board declared a failure of elections after the ...
sit as ''ex officio'' board members. In
A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be def ...
and municipal councils
, the city and municipal presidents of the League of Barangays and the youth councils sit as ''ex officio'' councilors. In barangays, the youth council chairman is an ''ex officio'' member of the barangay council
. The ''ex officio'' members have the same rights and privileges as the regular members of each legislature. The deputies of local chief executives (vice governors and vice mayors) are ''ex officio'' presiding officers of their respective legislatures, but can only vote when there is a tie
A prime minister, premier or chief of cabinet is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. Under those systems, a prime minister is ...
, chairmans of
The State Duma (russian: Госуда́рственная ду́ма, r=Gosudárstvennaja dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma ( rus, Госду́ма), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house ...
and Federation Council
Chief of Staff
The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization such as the armed forces, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporti ...
and heads of federal subjects
are ''ex officio'' members of State Council
(an advisory body to the head of state).
President of Russia
The president of the Russian Federation ( rus, Президент Российской Федерации, Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the head of state of the Russian Federation. The president leads the executive branch of the federal ...
is an ''ex officio'' chairman of it.
House of Lords
House of Lords
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminst ...
, the bishops of the five Great Sees of Canterbury
London is the capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary dow ...
Durham Durham most commonly refers to:
*Durham, England, a cathedral city and the county town of County Durham
*County Durham, an English county
*Durham County, North Carolina, a county in North Carolina, United States
*Durham, North Carolina, a city in No ...
Winchester is a cathedral city in Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, at the western end of the South Downs National Park, on the River Itchen. It is south-west of Lon ...
are ''ex officio'' members, and are entitled to vote just as any other Lord Spiritual.
Formerly, anyone holding a title in the
Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Peerage of the United Kingdom is one of the five Peerages in the United Kingdom. It comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Acts of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great ...
was ''ex officio'' a member of the House of Lords. This entitlement was abolished in 1999
. Since then, only the Earl Marshal
Lord Great Chamberlain
The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster (tho ...
(offices that are themselves hereditary) remain ''ex officio''; another 90 hereditary peers are elected by and from among those eligible.
The Lord President of the Court of Session
is by virtue of office appointed as Lord Justice General of Scotland. As such, he is both head of the
judiciary of Scotland
The judiciary of Scotland are the judicial office holders who sit in the courts of Scotland and make decisions in both civil and criminal cases. Judges make sure that cases and verdicts are within the parameters set by Scots law, and they ...
, president of the Court of Session
(the most senior civil court
Scotland (, ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a Anglo-Scottish border, border with England to the southeast ...
), and president of the
High Court of Justiciary
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The High Court is both a trial court and a court of appeal. As a trial court, the High Court sits on circuit at Parliament House or in the adjacent former Sheriff Cou ...
(the most senior criminal court
The Vice President of the United States
, who also serves as President of the Senate
, may vote in the Senate on matters decided by a majority vote
(as opposed to a three-fifths vote or two-thirds vote
), if the votes for passage and rejection are equally divided. Also the leader of the parties in both houses are ''ex officio'' members of the House
and Senate intelligence committees
. Many committee chairs in the House of Representatives are ''ex officio'' members of subcommittees
Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
counties, the county
A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous, although independently developed, office in Iceland that is commonly transl ...
is elected by the citizens of the county. However, in the City and County of Denver
, the mayor of Denver appoints a "Manager of Safety" who oversees the Department of Safety (including the Fire, Police, and Sheriff Departments) and is the ''ex officio'' sheriff of the jurisdiction. Similarly, in the City and County of Broomfield, Colorado
, near Denver, the police chief (an appointed position) also acts ''ex officio'' as the county sheriff.
New York City
The Speaker of the New York City Council
, and its Majority and Minority Leaders, are all ''ex officio'' members of each of its committees. Furthermore, each member of the Council is a non-voting ''ex officio'' member of each community board
whose boundaries include any of the council member's constituents.