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Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'nation') is an academic field that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different
peoples A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of s ...

peoples
and the relationships between them (compare
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
,
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
, or
sociocultural anthropology Sociocultural anthropology is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
).


Scientific discipline

Compared to
ethnography Ethnography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...

ethnography
, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures. The term ''ethnologia'' (''ethnology'') is credited to Adam Franz Kollár (1718-1783) who used and defined it in his ''Historiae ivrisqve pvblici Regni Vngariae amoenitates'' published in
Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of Austria, W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone ...

Vienna
in 1783. as: “the science of nations and peoples, or, that study of learned men in which they inquire into the origins, languages, customs, and institutions of various nations, and finally into the fatherland and ancient seats, in order to be able better to judge the nations and peoples in their own times.” Kollár's interest in linguistic and cultural diversity was aroused by the situation in his native multi-ethnic and multilingual
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...
and his roots among its
Slovaks The Slovaks ( sk, Slováci, singular: ''Slovák'', feminine: ''Slovenka'', plural: ''Slovenky'') are a West Slavic ethnic group and nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a comm ...
, and by the shifts that began to emerge after the gradual retreat of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
in the more distant
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather ...
.Gheorghiţă Geană, "Discovering the whole of humankind: the genesis of anthropology through the Hegelian looking-glass." In: Han F. Vermeulen and Arturo Alvarez Roldán, eds. Fieldwork and Footnotes: Studies in the History of European Anthropology.'' 1995. Among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of
human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary and ...
, and the formulation of
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...
invariants, such as the
incest taboo An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy) Norms are concepts ( sentences) of prac ...
and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "
human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British E ...

human nature
", a concept which has been criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers (
Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (; ; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Hegel
,
Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Marx
,
structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, emp ...
, etc.). In some parts of the world, ethnology has developed along independent paths of investigation and
pedagogical Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to concepts, such as a person, ...
doctrine, with ''
cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairle ...
'' becoming dominant especially in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
, and ''
social anthropology Social anthropology is the study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures. It is the dominant constituent of anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous a ...
'' in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
. The distinction between the three terms is increasingly blurry. Ethnology has been considered an academic field since the late 18th century, especially in Europe and is sometimes conceived of as any comparative study of human groups. The 15th-century exploration of America by European explorers had an important role in formulating new notions of the Occident (the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
), such as the notion of the "
Other Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * ''The Other'' (short story), a 1972 short st ...
". This term was used in conjunction with "savages", which was either seen as a brutal barbarian, or alternatively, as the "
noble savage#REDIRECT Noble savage A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an " other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any comple ...
". Thus,
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation. The concept ...

civilization
was opposed in a dualist manner to
barbary The terms Barbary Coast, Barbary, Berbery or Berber Coast were used in English-language sources (similarly to equivalent terms in other languages) from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa North A ...
, a classic opposition constitutive of the even more commonly shared
ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism in social science and anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past ...
. The progress of ethnology, for example with
Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (, ; 28 November 1908 – 30 October 2009) was a French anthropologist and Ethnology, ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theories of structuralism and structural anthropology. He held the chair of Soc ...
's
structural anthropology A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as o ...
, led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear
progress upright=1.14, alt=Painting depicting a woman draped in white robes flying westward across the land with settlers and following her on foot, John Gast, ''American Progress'', Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise de ...
, or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of
history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 millio ...

history
as constituted by accumulative growth. Lévi-Strauss often referred to
Montaigne 270px, The coat of arms of Michel Eyquem, Lord of Montaigne Michel Eyquem de Montaigne ( ; ; 28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592), also known as Lord of Montaigne, was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissanc ...

Montaigne
's
essay An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a Letter (message), letter, a term paper, paper, an article (publishing), article, a pamphlet, and a short ...

essay
on
cannibalism Cannibalism is the act of consuming another individual of the same species as food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμ ...

cannibalism
as an early example of ethnology. Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a structural method, at discovering universal invariants in human society, chief among which he believed to be the
incest taboo An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy) Norms are concepts ( sentences) of prac ...
. However, the claims of such cultural
universalism Universalism is the philosophical and theological concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability. A belief in one fundamental truth is another important tenet in universalism. The living truth is seen as more far-reaching th ...
have been criticized by various 19th- and 20th-century social thinkers, including
Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Marx
,
Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, writer, and philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the ...

Nietzsche
,
Foucault
Foucault
,
Derrida Derrida is a surname shared by notable people listed below. * Bernard Derrida (born 1952), French theoretical physicist * Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), French philosopher ** Derrida (film), ''Derrida'' (film), a 2002 American documentary film * Ma ...
,
Althusser Louis Pierre Althusser (, ; ; 16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher. He was born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital ...
, and Deleuze. The French school of ethnology was particularly significant for the development of the discipline, since the early 1950s. Important figures in this movement have included Lévi-Strauss,
Paul Rivet Paul Rivet (7 May 1876, Wasigny, Ardennes (department), Ardennes – 21 March 1958) was a French people, French ethnologist; he founded the Musée de l'Homme in 1937. In his professional work, Rivet is known for his theory that South America w ...
,
Marcel Griaule An art dealer in Sangha, Mali professes to be the grandson of Ogotemmeli, known from Griaules publications, 1990 Marcel Griaule (16 May 1898 – 23 February 1956) was a French author and anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged i ...
,
Germaine Dieterlen Germaine Dieterlen (15 May 1903 in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 ...
, and
Jean Rouch Jean Rouch (; 31 May 1917 – 18 February 2004) was a French filmmaker and anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, soc ...

Jean Rouch
.


Scholars

See: List of scholars of ethnology


See also

*
Anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture ...
*
Cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairle ...
*
Comparative cultural studies Comparative cultural studies is a contextual approach to the study of culture in a global and intercultural context. Focus is placed on the theory, method, and application of the study process(es) rather than on the "what" of the object(s) of study. ...
*
Cross-cultural studies Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread sp ...
*
Ethnography Ethnography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...

Ethnography
*
Folklore studies Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Us ...
*
Cultural survival Cultural Survival (founded 1972) is a nonprofit group based in Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London. At the United Kingdom C ...
*
Culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in ...

Culture
*
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism in social science and anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past ...
*
Evolutionism Evolutionism is a term used (often derogatorily) to denote the theory of evolution. Its exact meaning has changed over time as the study of evolution has progressed. In the 19th century, it was used to describe the belief that organisms deliberatel ...
*
Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ''indigenous'' was first, in its modern contex ...
*
Intangible cultural heritage An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies po ...
*
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a Economic materialism, materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social class, class relations and social conflict as well ...
*
Meta-analysis A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple Randomized controlled trial, scientific studies. Meta-analyses can be performed when there are multiple scientific studies addressing the same question, with each i ...
* Critical theory *
Modernism , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The moveme ...
*
Postmodernism Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism ( American and Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language Eng ...
*
Postcolonial Postcolonialism is the critical academic study of the cultural legacy of colonialism Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colony, colonies and generally with the a ...
* Decoloniality *
Primitive culture ''Primitive Culture'' is an 1871 book by Edward Burnett Tylor Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 18322 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology. Tylor's ideas typify 19th-century cultural evolutio ...
*
Primitivism Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience. In Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 16 ...
*
Scientific Racism Scientific racism, sometimes termed biological racism, is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding ...
*
Secondary research Secondary research involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research. Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary resea ...
*
Society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be ...

Society
*
Structural anthropology A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized. Material structures include man-made objects such as buildings and machines and natural objects such as o ...
*
Structural functionalism Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system A complex system is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
*
Ethnobiology] Ethnobiology is the Science, scientific study of the way living things are treated or used by different human cultures. It studies the System dynamics, dynamic relationships between people, Biota (ecology), biota, and environments, from the distan ...
*
Ethnopoetics Ethnopoetics is a method of recording text versions of oral poetry Oral poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rh ...
*
Ethnic studies Ethnic studies, in the United States, is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge fro ...

Ethnic studies
* Critical race studies *
Cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, con ...


References


Bibliography

* Forster, Johann Georg Adam. '' Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5'' (2 vols), London (1777). * Lévi-Strauss, Claude. ''The Elementary Structures of Kinship'', (1949), ''Structural Anthropology'' (1958) *
Mauss, Marcel
Mauss, Marcel
. originally published as ''Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques'' in 1925, this classic text on
gift economy A gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuables are not sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. Social norms and customs govern giving a gift in a gift culture, gifts are not giv ...
appears in the English edition as '' The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies''. * Maybury-Lewis, David. ''Akwe-Shavante society'' (1967), ''The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States'' (2003). * Clastres, Pierre. '' Society Against the State'' (1974). *Pop, Mihai and Glauco Sanga
"Problemi generali dell'etnologia europea"
''La Ricerca Folklorica'', No. 1, ''La cultura popolare. Questioni teoriche'' (April 1980), pp. 89–96.


External links


What is European Ethnology?

Webpage "History of German Anthropology/Ethnology 1945/49-1990

Languages
describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state.

- Over 160,000 objects from Pacific, North American, African, Asian ethnographic collections with images and detailed description, linked to the original catalogue pages, field notebooks, and photographs are available online.
National Museum of Ethnology
-
Osaka is a Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan, designated city in the Kansai region of Honshu in Japan. It is the capital and the most populous city in Osaka Prefecture, and the List of cities in Japan, third most populous city in Ja ...

Osaka
,
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
* {{Authority control Ethnicity Cultural anthropology Sociological theories Sociology of culture