EtymologyThe name Αἰθιοπία (from , ''Aithiops'', "an Ethiopian") is a compound word, derived from the two Greek words, from + (''aithō'' "I burn" + ''ōps'' "face"). According to the Liddell-Scott Jones Greek-English Lexicon, the designation properly translates as ''Burnt-face'' in noun form and ''red-brown'' in adjectival form. The historian used the appellation to denote those parts of Africa South of the that were then known within the (inhabitable world).For all references to Ethiopia in Herodotus, see
PrehistorySeveral important finds have propelled Ethiopia and the surrounding region to the forefront of palaeontology. The oldest Hominidae, hominid discovered to date in Ethiopia is the 4.2 million year old ''Ardipithecus, Ardipithicus ramidus'' (Ardi) found by Tim D. White in 1994. The most well-known hominid discovery is ''Australopithecus afarensis'' (Lucy (Australopithecus), Lucy). Known locally as ''Dinkinesh'', the specimen was found in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Region in 1974 by Donald Johanson, and is one of the most complete and best preserved adult Australopithecus, Australopithecine fossils ever uncovered. Lucy's taxonomic name refers to the region where the discovery was made. This hominid is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. Ethiopia is also considered one of the earliest sites of the emergence of anatomically modern humans, ''Homo sapiens''. The oldest of these local fossil finds, the Omo remains, were excavated in the southwestern Omo Kibish area and have been dated to the , around 200,000 years ago. Additionally, skeletons of ''Homo sapiens idaltu'' were found at a site in the Middle Awash valley. Dated to approximately 160,000 years ago, they may represent an extinct subspecies of ''Homo sapiens'', or the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Archaic ''Homo sapiens'' fossils excavated at the Jebel Irhoud site in Morocco have since been dated to an earlier period, about 300,000 years ago, while Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) from southern Ethiopia is the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeleton currently known (196 ± 5 ka). According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing era from the family's proposed Afroasiatic Urheimat, urheimat ("original homeland") in the , or the . Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. In 2019, archaeologists discovered a 30,000-year-old Middle Stone Age, Middle-Stone Age rock shelter at the Fincha Habera, Ethiopia, Fincha Habera site in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia at an elevation of 3,469 metres above sea level. At this high altitude humans are susceptible both to Hypoxemia#Environmental oxygen, hypoxia and to extreme weather. According to a study published in the journal ''Science (journal), Science'', this dwelling is proof of the earliest permanent human occupation at high altitude yet discovered. Thousands of animal bones, hundreds of stone tools, and ancient fireplaces were discovered, revealing a diet that featured giant Spalacidae, mole rats. Evidence of some of the earliest known stone-tipped projectile weapons (a characteristic tool of ''Homo sapiens''), the stone tips of javelins or throwing spears, were discovered in 2013 at the Ethiopian site of Gademotta, and date to around 279,000 years ago. In 2019, further evidence of complex, Middle Stone Age, projectile weapons was found at Aduma, dated 100,000–80,000 years ago, in the form of points considered likely to belong to darts delivered by spear throwers.
AntiquityAround the 8th century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in Tigray Region, Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, and Eritrea. This polity's capital was located at Yeha, in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native Ethiopian one, although in earlier times many suggested it was Sabaeans, Sabaean-influenced because of the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea.#Munro-Hay, Munro-Hay, p. 57 Other scholars regard Dʿmt as the result of a union of Afroasiatic-speaking cultures of the Cushitic and Semitic branches; namely, local Agaw peoples and Sabaeans from South Arabia. However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is thought to have developed independently from Sabaean language, Sabaean, one of the South Semitic languages. As early as 2000 BCE, other Semitic speakers were living in Ethiopia and Eritrea where Ge'ez developed. Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century. It may have been a trading or military colony in alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Axumite state. After the fall of Dʿmt during the fourth century BC, the Ethiopian plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms. In the first century AD, the emerged in what is now Tigray Region, Tigray and Eritrea. According to the medieval '' Book of Axum'', the kingdom's first capital, Mazaber, was built by Itiyopis, son of Cush. Aksum would later at times extend its rule into Yemen on the other side of the Red Sea. The Persian prophet Mani (prophet), Mani listed Axum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his era, during the 3rd century. It is also believed that there is a connection between Egyptian and Ethiopian churches at a time. There is diminutive evidence that Aksumite were associated with Queen of Sheba, via their royal inscription. Around 316 AD, Frumentius and his brother Edesius from Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre accompanied their uncle on a voyage to Ethiopia. When the vessel stopped at a Red Sea port, the natives killed all the travellers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court as Slavery in Ethiopia, slaves. They were given positions of trust by the monarch, and they converted members of the royal court to Christianity. Frumentius became the first bishop of Aksum. A coin dated to 324 shows that Ethiopia was the second country to officially adopt Christianity (after Armenia did so in 301), although the religion may have been at first confined to court circles; it was the first major power to do so. At earlier, the Aksumite accustomed Greco-Roman sphere of influence, embarked significant cultural ties and trade connection between them. Axumite were the first kingdom minting their own Aksumite currency, coin in the 3rd century.
Middle AgesThe Nine Saints particularly were the first missionaries to spread Orthodox Christianity after banished from Byzantine Empire. They also built several churches and monasteries in Tigray Province. Debre Damo is established by one of these saint named Abuna Aregawi in the 6th century. These saints also worked with Alexandrian church to maintain Monophysite doctrine after excommunicated by Council of Chalcedon in 451. The kingdom adapted the name "Ethiopia" at the reign of in the 4th century from which the 13th century Solomonic dynasty expansionism linked this paradigm. By 350, Aksum conquered Kingdom of Kush, but their overseas territory at South Arabia was risky. Beginning with the 6th century, Dhu Nuwas, a Jews, Jewish Himyarite Kingdom, Himyarite ruler of Yemen launched attacks on Axumite Christians enticing King Kaleb of Axum, Kaleb to sent military expedition. The long-standing conflict ended with Aksumite victory, Yemen fell under an Aksumite viceroy named Abraha and declared himself as independent ruler of Himyarite Kingdom, Himyar Kingdom from ca 530 to 570, prescribing Christian faith. Upon his death, his son Masruq ibn Abraha cut off Himyarite-Aksum kingdom and merged to the Kingdom of Aksum. Meanwhile Masuq's half-brother Maʽd-Karib revolted against him to depose. He had consulted Byzantine emperor Justinian II despite his rejection to do so, and finally succeeded from Khosrow I of the Sasanian Empire. The Aksumite–Persian wars took place for 8 years starting from 570 to 578, and Sassanid decisively defeated Aksumite powers, with the latter relatively deployed small amount of troops (6,000 to 10,000) whereas Sassanid amounts 24,000 troops (8,000 calvary and 16,000 infantry). Yemen was absorbed into the empire, Khosrow I installed Wahrez as governor of the empire until conferring the raise of Islamic Golden Age, Islamic age during Mohammed. Historian Munro-Hay noted that Plague of Justinian greatly affected the war, caused by bubonic plague.
Islamic interaction to fall of AksumThe first interaction that the Islamic prophet Muhammad had with Ethiopia was during the reign of Aṣḥama ibn Abjar, who was at the time the Emperor of Axum and gave refuge to several Muslims in the Kingdom of Aksum in 614 CE. According to other authors, Ashama may have been the same person as king Armah, or his father or son. Taddesse Tamrat records that the inhabitants of Wiqro, where the ruler is known as ''Ashamat al-Negashi'', claim that his tomb is located in their village. Muhammad's second interaction with Ethiopia was during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma), Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha, when he sent Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri to the King of Ethiopia (then Abyssinia). The weakened Axumite dynasty came to an end in the 9th century when Yodit defeated the last king of the dynasty. Empress Yodit's reign, which lasted for 40 years, aimed to abolish Christianity (a religion first accepted by King Ezana of the Axumite dynasty) by burning down churches and crucifying people who remained faithful to the Orthodox Tewahedo church, which at the time was considered as the religion of the state. The Empress tried to force many people to change their religion and destroyed much historical heritage of the Axumite dynasty earning her the epithet of Yodit Gudit (in Amharic: ዮዲት ጉዲት a play on words approximating to Judith the Evil One). Hence, this interval followed by so-called "Dark Ages of Ethiopia".
Zagwe dynasty and Ethiopian EmpireThe remnant of devastation shifted toward southward and formed , a kingdom that was ruled by Agaw people, Agaw ethnic group from circa 912 until 1270. The kingdom capital moved from Axum to Lalibela. Post-Aksumite culture barely preserved in now Zagwe settled areas such as Lasta, Wag Province, Wag, Angot, and eventually Amhara Province. The Zagwe dynasty began synthesizing Christianity by mid 13th century, later spread to Shewan region from what Amharan influence flourished. During this era, the Ethiopian Orthodox church isolated from the rest Oriental ecclesiastical branch; most highlander people able to contact with Coptic church to dispatch patriarch. Zagwe's existence was contemporaneously unknown; the most attributable king in this period is Lalibela (Emperor of Ethiopia), Gebre Meskel Lalibela, who was well-known for carving monolithic churches in Adefa. The Zagwe's rule ended after its last king was defeated from Battle of Ansata, battle by one aristocrat called , establishing the in 1270. The claimed to be descended from Biblical Israelite king and , under their child . The dynasty largely ruled by Habesha people, Abyssinians. Yekuno Amlak considered his succession to Aksumite heritage, meaning Aksumite and the Solomonic people mutually shared kin with the House of Solomon. In the early 15th century, Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since the Aksumite era. A letter from Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives. In 1428, Yeshaq I sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent his own emissaries that failed to complete the return trip home to Aragon. The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Dawit II (Lebna Dengel), who had just inherited the throne from his father. In 1487, King John II of Portugal sent two emissaries to the Orient, Pero da Covilhã and Afonso de Paiva; Afonso would die on this mission.
=Abyssinian-Adal war= In early 13th century, the Empire sought territorial evolution to the south, encircled by variety of kingdoms, notably Sultanate of Showa and Kingdom of Damot, Damot – the both eventually conquered by Christian Ethiopia. Territorial expansion was carried out by three emperors Amda Seyon I (1314–1344), Yeshaq I (1414–1429) and Zara Yaqob (1434–1468). The Showa Sultanate also aided Yekuno Amlak to depose Zagwe's last king. Makhzumi was the earliest Muslim state established in the Horn of Africa with its capital Wahal, in Hararghe region. In 1415, the Somali polity was established as successor of Sultanate of Ifat, Ifat Sultanate where Zelia had served as capital of the Sultanate and was prosperous town ever in the east region. This era borne the Walashma Dynasty influentially to dominate the Sultanate. In order to aid strength of their social group, Adal Sultanate required endogamy to then-Harla people, Harla (Harari people, Harari), Somalis, Somali and Argobba people, Argobba people. In early 15th century, its capital was moved to Dakkar at the time of Sa'ad ad-Din II reign; inaugurating realm extension at the cost of equilibrial Abyssinian conquest. One reason of impairing religious war is the capitulation of Hadiya Sultanate, Hadiya princess Eleni of Ethiopia, Eleni, who then offered to Zara Yacob for engagement after conversion to Christianity. The Ethiopian–Adal war broke out in 1529; Dawit II (Lebna Dengel) was killed by fortuitous Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gran). The Adals successfully penetrated the Ethiopian kingdom, sacking various properties including churches and heritages, massacring Christians. The allied war, in which Abyssinians was supported by Portuguese Empire, Portuguese armies and Adals by Ottoman Turks, resulted in Ethiopian victory and repulsion by Emperor Gelawdewos from their land at the Battle of Wayna Daga, Battle of Wayna Dega, ultimately reaching status quo ante bellum between the two sides. the Imam was killed, and the Adals temporarily weekend, paved the way of 16th century Oromo migrations to the north. However, his nephew Emir Nur ibn Mujahid succession helped Adals resurrection, marrying Bati del Wambara, previously been Ahmed's wife. During his reign, Bati prompt him to ravage the Ethiopian Empire in retaliation of her former husband death. This was succeeded so in 1559, when Nur's campaigned to the Abyssinia and beheaded Gelawdewos at Battle of Fatagar, Fatagar before sent to Sa'ad ad-Din II country.
Great Oromo ExpansionsToward the end of the Middle Ages in 16th century, an influx of migration by ethnic Oromo people, Oromo into northern parts of the region culminating Oromo migrations, Great Oromo Expansions. They embarked from current Guji Zone, Guji and Borena Zone. By the second half of 16th century, the Oromo kingdom seized the Shewa region of Amhara Province, the northern Ethiopia, eastern and southern parts previously occupied by Muslim settlers. Since then, Oromo began spreading its culture such as introducing indigenous mediation system called Gadaa, and flourished its Oromo language, language and pastoral way of life. Intermarriage and interculturalism, interculture with other groups changed the Oromo identity, especially in the Christian highland zone inhabitants. The Shewan Oromo were coalesced with Amhara people: quickly Christianized in order to seize the Ethiopian Empire. To the south, the Sidama people frequently countered Oromo extortion and in the east they sacked Adal's capital Harar, contributing the kingdom to decline slowly.
Aussa SultanateThe Sultanate of Aussa or "Afar Sultanate" succeeded the earlier Imamate of Aussa. The latter polity had come into existence in 1577 when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa (Asaita) with the split of the into the Sultanate of Aussa and the Sultanate of Harar. At some point after 1672, the Sultanate of Aussa declined and temporarily came to an end in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam's recorded ascension to the throne. The Sultanate was subsequently re-established by Kedafu around the year 1734. It was thereafter ruled by his Mudaito Dynasty. The primary symbol of the Sultan was a silver Baton (military), baton, which was considered to have magical properties.
Zemene MesafintBetween 1769 and 1855, Ethiopia experienced a period of isolation referred to as the '' '' or "Age of Princes". The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by regional lords and noblemen like Ras (title), ''Ras'' Mikael Sehul of Tigray Province, Tigray, ''Ras'' Wolde Selassie of Tigray, and by the Yejju Oromo tribe, Yejju Oromo dynasty of the Zemene Mesafint#Wara Sheh rulers (Yejju) (1784–1855), Wara Sheh, such as ''Ras'' Gugsa of Yejju. Prior to the Zemene Mesafint, Emperor Iyoas I had introduced the Oromo language (''Afaan Oromo'') at court, instead of Amharic. Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations, but it was not until 1855 that the Amhara kingdoms of northern Ethiopia (Gondar, Gojjam, Shewa) were briefly united after the power of the Emperor was restored beginning with the reign of . Tewodros had been born in Begemder from a nobleman of Qwara Province, Qwara, where the Qwara dialect of the Agaw language is spoken. Upon his ascent, he began Modernization theory, modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power to the Emperor. Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again. Tewodros II began a process of consolidation, centralisation, and state-building that would be continued by succeeding Emperors. This process reduced the power of regional rulers, restructured the Empire's administration, and created a professional army. These changes created the basis for establishing the effective sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Ethiopian state. Conversely, Tewodros suffered several rebellions inside his empire. Northern Oromo militias, Tigrayan rebellions, and the constant incursion of Ottoman Empire and Egyptian forces near the Red Sea brought the weakening and the final downfall of Tewodros II. He killed himself in 1868 during his last fight with the British Expedition to Abyssinia at the Battle of Magdala. After Tewodros' death, Tekle Giyorgis II was proclaimed Emperor but was defeated in the Battles of Zulawu (21 June 1871) and Battle of Adwa (1871), Adwa (11 July 1871). The victorious Mercha Kassai was subsequently declared Yohannes IV on 21 January 1872. In 1875 and 1876, Turkish/Egyptian forces, accompanied by many European and American 'advisors', twice Ethiopian–Egyptian War, invaded Abyssinia but were initially defeated: once at the Battle of Gundit losing 800 men, and then in the second invasion, decisively defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV at the Battle of Gura on 7March 1875, where the invading forces lost at least 3000 men by death or capture. At the council of Boru Meda in 1878, Yohannes came out with a decree that Ethiopian Muslims must accept Christianity or be banned. Those that refused were executed on the spot. Tens of thousands were killed and more left their land and belongings to flee to Harar, Bale, Arsi, Jimma, and even to Sudan. From 1885 to 1889, Ethiopia joined the Mahdist War allied to Britain, Turkey, and Egypt against the Sudanese Mahdist State. In 1887, Menelik II, King of Shewa invaded the Emirate of Harar after his victory at the Battle of Chelenqo. On 10 March 1889, Yohannes IV was killed by the Sudanese Khalifah Abdullah's army whilst leading his army in the Battle of Gallabat (also called Battle of Metemma).
From Menelik II to Adwa (1889–1913)Ethiopia in roughly its current form began under the reign of Menelik II, who was Emperor from 1889 until his death in 1913. From his base in the central province of Shewa, Menelik set out to annex territories to the south, east and west — areas inhabited by the Oromo, Sidama people, Sidama, Gurage, Welayta people, Welayta, and other peoples. He achieved this with the help of ''Ras'' Gobana Dacche's Shewan Oromo militia, which occupied lands that had not been held since Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi's war, as well as other areas that had never been under Ethiopian rule. During the conquest of the Oromo, the Ethiopian Army carried out atrocities against the Oromo population including mass mutilation, mass killings and large-scale slavery.Conquest, Tyranny, and Ethnocide against the Oromo: A Historical Assessment of Human Rights Conditions in Ethiopia, ca. 1880s–2002 by Mohammed Hassen, Northeast African Studies Volume 9, Number 3, 2002 (New Series) Some estimates of the number of people killed as a result of the conquest are in the millions.Power and Powerlessness in Contemporary Ethiopia by Alemayehu Kumsa, Charles University in Prague Large-scale atrocities were also committed against the Dizi people and the people of the Kingdom of Kaffa. Menelik's campaign against Oromos outside his army was largely in retaliation for centuries of Oromo expansionism and the ''Zemene Mesafint'', a period during which a succession of Oromo feudal rulers dominated the highlanders. Chief among these was the Yejju dynasty, which included Aligaz of Yejju and his brother Ali I of Yejju. The latter founded the town of Debre Tabor, in the Amhara Region, which became the dynasty's capital. Menelik II was the son of Haile Melekot, Negus of Shewa, and Ejegayehu Lema Adeyamo, a palace servant."Ethiopia's Personalities Of The Millennium – Emperor Menelik II."
Haile Selassie I era (1916–1974)The early 20th century was marked by the reign of Emperor ''(Ras Tafari)''. Haile Selassie I was born to parents with ethnic links to three of Afroasiatic-speaking populations of Ethiopia: the Oromo and Amhara, the country's two largest ethnic groups, as well as the Gurage people, Gurage. He came to power after ''Lij'' Lij Iyasu of Ethiopia, Iyasu was deposed, and undertook Modernization under Haile Selassie I, a nationwide modernization campaign from 1916, when he was made a ''Ras'' and Regent (''Inderase'') for the Queen regnant, Empress Regnant, Zewditu, and became the ''de facto'' ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death, on 2November 1930, he succeeded her as emperor. In 1931, Haile Selassie endowed Ethiopia with its first-ever 1931 Constitution of Ethiopia, Constitution in emulation of Imperial Japan's Meiji Constitution, 1890 Constitution, through which the Central European model of unitary and homogenous ethnic nationalism, ethnolinguistic nation state, nation-state was adopted for the Ethiopian Empire.
Italian annexationThe independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, beginning when it was invaded by Kingdom of Italy#Fascist regime (1922–1943), Fascist Italy in early October 1935, and by subsequent Italian rule of the country (1936–1941) after Italian victory in the war. During this time, Haile Selassie appealed to the in 1935, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure, and the 1935 Time Person of the Year, ''Time'' Man of the Year. As the majority of the Ethiopian population lived in rural towns, Italy faced continued resistance and ambushes in urban centres throughout its rule over Ethiopia. Haile Selassie fled into exile in Fairfield House, Bath, England. Mussolini was able to proclaim Italian Ethiopia and the assumption of the imperial title by the Italian king Vittorio Emanuele III. In 1937, the Italian massacre of Yekatit 12 took place, in which as many as 30,000 civilians were killed and many others imprisoned. This massacre was a reprisal for the attempted assassination of Rodolfo Graziani, the viceroy of . The Italians employed the use of asphyxiating chemical weapons in their Ethiopian invasion. The Italians regularly dropped bombs throughout Ethiopia that carried mustard gas and debilitated the Ethiopian forces. On the whole, the Italians dropped about 300 tons of mustard gas as well as thousands of other artillery. This use of chemical weapons amounted to egregious war crimes. The Italians made investments in Ethiopian infrastructure development during their rule over Ethiopia. They created the so-called "imperial road" between Addis Ababa and Massaua. More than 900 km of railways were reconstructed, dams and hydroelectric plants were built, and many public and private companies were established. The Italian government abolished Slavery in Ethiopia, slavery, a practice that existed in the country for centuries.Shivley, K. "Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Eritrea conflictIn 1952, Haile Selassie orchestrated a Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea, federation with Eritrea. He dissolved this in 1962 and Annexation, annexed Eritrea, resulting in the Eritrean War of Independence. Haile Selassie played a leading role in the formation of the (OAU) in 1963. Opinion within Ethiopia turned against Haile Selassie owing to the worldwide 1973 oil crisis causing a sharp increase in gasoline prices starting on 13 February 1974. The high gasoline prices motivated taxi drivers and teachers to go on strike on 18 February 1974, and students and workers in Addis Ababa began demonstrating against the government on 20 February 1974. There were resulting food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.''The Black Book of Communism'', pp. 687–95 The feudal oligarchical cabinet of Akilou Habte Wolde was toppled, and a new government was formed with Endelkachew Makonnen serving as Prime Minister.
The Derg era (1974–1991)Haile Selassie's rule ended on 12 September 1974, when he was deposed by the , a nonideological committee made up of military and police officers led by Aman Andom. After the execution of Massacre of the Sixty, 60 former government and military officials including Aman in November 1974, the new Provisional Military Administrative Council now led by Tafari Benti, General Tafari Benti abolished the monarchy in March 1975 and established Ethiopia as a Marxist-Leninist state with itself as the vanguard party in a provisional government. The abolition of feudalism, increased literacy, nationalization, and sweeping land reform including the Resettlement and villagization in Ethiopia, resettlement and villagization from the Ethiopian Highlands became priorities. After internal conflicts that resulted in the execution of Tafari Benti, chairman Tafari Benti and several of his supporters in February 1977, and the execution of Atnafu Abate, vice-chairman Atnafu Abate in November 1977, Mengistu Haile Mariam, Mengistu Halie Mariam gained undisputed leadership of the Derg. The Derg suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought and a huge refugee problem. In 1977, Somalia, which had previously been receiving assistance and arms from the USSR, invaded Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, capturing part of the Ogaden region. Ethiopia recovered it after it began receiving massive military aid from the Soviet bloc countries of the USSR, Cuba, South Yemen, East Germany, and North Korea. This included around 15,000 Cuban combat troops. In 1976–78, up to 500,000 were killed as a result of the Red Terror (Ethiopia), Red Terror, a violent political repression campaign by the Derg against various opposition groups most notably the Marxist–Leninist Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP). The Red Terror was carried out in response to what the Derg termed the 'White Terror', a chain of violent events, assassinations, and killings carried out by what it called "Petite bourgeoisie, petty bourgeois reactionaries" who desired a reversal of the 1974 revolution. In 1987, the Derg dissolved itself and established the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) upon the adoption of the 1987 Constitution of Ethiopia modelled on the 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union with modified provisions. The 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia affected around eight million people, resulting in one million dead. Insurrections against Authoritarianism, authoritarian rule sprang up, particularly in the northern regions of Eritrea and Tigray. The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other ethnically based opposition movements in 1989, to form the coalition known as the (EPRDF). Concurrently, under Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Union began to retreat from building world communism towards ''glasnost'' and ''perestroika'' policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist Bloc countries. This resulted in more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north. The collapse of Marxism–Leninism in general, and in eastern Europe during the revolutions of 1989, coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in 1990. To garner international support Mengistu embraced a and an end to one party rule but it was far too late to save his regime. EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa in May 1991, and the Soviet Union did not intervene to save the government side. Mengistu fled the country and was granted asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides. In 2006, after a trial that lasted 12 years, Ethiopia's Federal High Court in Addis Ababa found Mengistu guilty of Genocides in history#Ethiopia, genocide ''in absentia''. Numerous other top leaders of his government were also found guilty of war crimes. Mengistu and others who had fled the country were tried and sentenced ''in absentia''. Numerous former officials received the death sentence and tens of others spent the next 20 years in jail, before being pardoned from life sentences.
Federal Democratic Republic (1991–present)In July 1991, the EPRDF convened a National Conference to establish the Transitional Government of Ethiopia composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution. In June 1992, the Oromo Liberation Front withdrew from the government; in March 1993, members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalition also left the government. In April 1993, gained independence from Ethiopia after a 1993 Eritrean independence referendum, national referendum. In 1994, a new constitution was written that established a parliamentary republic with a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The Ethiopian general election, 1995, first multiparty election took place in May 1995, which was won by the EPRDF. The president of the transitional government, EPRDF leader Meles Zenawi, became the first of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and Negasso Gidada was elected its president. In post-Derg Ethiopia's 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, Constitution (promulgated in 1995), the EPRDF not only took over the Derg's Soviet-inspired promise of cultural and administrative autonomy for the country's over 80 ethnic groups, but also borrowed the right to independence (secession) from the 1977 Constitution of the Soviet Union, Soviet Constitution. In this manner, an ethnic federalism, ethnoterritorial federal model of statehood was adopted for Ethiopia (as originally developed in the Central European empire of Austria-Hungary and in the Korenizatsiya, interwar Soviet Union). In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War, which lasted until June 2000 and cost both countries an estimated $1 million a day. This had a negative effect on Ethiopia's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. Ethiopia's Ethiopian general election, 2005, 3rd multiparty election on 15 May 2005 was highly disputed, with many opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center approved the pre-election conditions, it expressed its dissatisfaction with post-election events. European Union election observers cited state support for the EPRDF campaign, as well as irregularities in ballot counting and results publishing. The opposition parties gained more than 200 parliamentary seats, compared with just 12 in the Ethiopian general election, 2000, 2000 elections. While most of the opposition representatives joined the parliament, some leaders of the Coalition for Unity and Democracy, CUD party who refused to take up their parliamentary seats were accused of inciting the post-election violence and were imprisoned. Amnesty International considered them "prisoner of conscience, prisoners of conscience" and they were subsequently released. A coalition of List of political parties in Ethiopia, opposition parties and some individuals was established in 2009 to oust the government of the EPRDF in Ethiopian general election, 2010, legislative elections of 2010. Meles' party, which has been in power since 1991, published its 65-page manifesto in Addis Ababa on 10 October 2009. The opposition won most votes in Addis Ababa, but the EPRDF halted counting of votes for several days. After it ensued, it claimed the election, amidst charges of fraud and intimidation. Some of the eight member parties of the Medrek (Forum for Democratic Dialogue) included the Oromo Federalist Congress (organized by the Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement and the Oromo People's Congress), the Arena Tigray (organized by former members of the ruling party TPLF), the Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ, whose leader was imprisoned), and the Coalition of Somali Democratic Forces. In mid-2011, two consecutively missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst 2011 East Africa drought, drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. Full recovery from the drought's effects did not occur until 2012, with long-term strategies by the national government in conjunction with development agencies believed to offer the most sustainable results. Meles died on 20 August 2012 in Brussels, where he was being treated for an unspecified illness. Deputy Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn was appointed as a new prime minister until the Ethiopian general election, 2015, 2015 elections, and remained so afterwards with his party in control of every parliamentary seat. 2016 Ethiopian protests, Protests broke out across the country on 5 August 2016 and hundreds of protesters were subsequently shot and killed by police. The protesters demanded an end to human rights abuses, the release of political prisoners, a fairer redistribution of the wealth generated by over a decade of economic growth, and a return of Wolqayt, Wolqayt District to the Amhara Region. The events were the most violent crackdown against protesters in Sub-Saharan Africa since the Ethiopian government killed at least 75 people during protests in the Oromia Region in November and December 2015. Following these protests, Ethiopia declared a Ethiopia State of Emergency 2016, state of emergency on 6October 2016. The state of emergency was lifted in August 2017. On 16 February 2018, the government of Ethiopia declared a six-month nationwide state of emergency following the resignation of Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn. Hailemariam is the first ruler in modern Ethiopian history to step down; previous leaders have died in office or been overthrown. He said he wanted to clear the way for reforms.
Abiy Ahmed and the Prosperity Party (2018–present)The new Prime Minister was , who made an 2018 Eritrea–Ethiopia summit, historic visit to Eritrea in 2018, ending the Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict, state of conflict between the two countries. For his efforts in ending the 20-year-long war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, Abiy Ahmed was awarded the Nobel prize for peace in 2019. After taking office in April 2018, -year-old Abiy released political prisoners, promised fair elections for 2019 and announced sweeping economic reforms. all the previously censored websites were made accessible again, over 13,000 political prisoners were released and hundreds of administrative staff were fired as part of the reforms. Human rights in Ethiopia#Ethnic violence, Ethnic violence rose with the political unrest. There were Oromo–Somali clashes between the Oromo, who make up the largest ethnic group in the country, and the ethnic Somalis, leading to up to 400,000 have been displaced in 2017. Gedeo–Oromo clashes between the Oromo and the Gedeo people in the south of the country led to Ethiopia having the largest number of people to flee their homes in the world in 2018, with 1.4 million newly displaced people. Starting in 2019, in the Metekel conflict, fighting in the Metekel Zone of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region in Ethiopia has reportedly involved militias from the Gumuz people, Gumuz people against Amharas and Agaws. However, in March 2020, the leader of one of the groups called ''Fano'', Solomon Atanaw, stated that the ''Fano (nationalist movement), Fano'' would not disarm until Benishangul-Gumuz Region's Metekel zones and the Tigray Region districts of Welkait and Raya Azebo, Raya were returned to the control of Amhara Region. In September 2018, in the minorities protest that took place in the Oromia Special Zone Surrounding Finfinne, Special Zone of Oromia near the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, 23 people were killed. The authorities stated that 35 people were killed in Addis Ababa and in the Oromia Special Zone, of which some were killed by the police. On 22 June 2019, factions of the security forces of the region attempted a 2019 Amhara Region coup d'état attempt, coup d'état against the Amhara Region, regional government, during which the President of the Amhara Region, Ambachew Mekonnen, was assassinated. A bodyguard siding with the nationalist factions assassinated General Se'are Mekonnen – the Chief of General Staff (Ethiopia), Chief of the General Staff of the Ethiopian National Defense Force – as well as his aide, Major General Gizae Aberra. The Prime Minister's Office accused Brigadier General Asaminew Tsige, head of the Amhara region security forces, of leading the plot, and Tsige was shot dead by police near Bahir Dar on 24 June. On 29 July 2019, according to officials, Ethiopia set a world record by planting more than 353 million trees. This burst of tree planting was part of a campaign towards extensive reforestation called "Green Legacy". The ''Fano'' militia is an Amhara people, Amharan youth group in Ethiopia, perceived as either a protest group or an armed militia. ''Fano'' units are accused of participating in ethnic massacres, including that of 58 Qemant people in Metemma during 10–11 January 2019, and of armed actions in Humera in November 2020 during the Tigray conflict. Hachalu Hundessa riots, Protests broke out across Ethiopia following the assassination of Oromo people, Oromo musician Hachalu Hundessa on 29 June 2020, leading to the deaths of at least 239 people. The dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam escalated in 2020. Egypt opposed the dam, fearing that it would reduce the amount of water it received from the Nile. Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed warned that "No force can stop Ethiopia from building a dam. If there is need to go to war, we could get millions readied." The federal government, under the , requested that the National Election Board of Ethiopia cancel elections for 2020 due to health and safety concerns about COVID-19. No official date was set for the next election at that time, but the government promised that once a vaccine was developed for COVID-19 that elections would move forward. The Tigrayan ruling party, or TPLF, opposed cancelling the elections and, when their request to the federal government to hold elections was rejected, the TPLF proceeded to hold elections anyway on 9 September 2020. They worked with regional opposition parties and included international observers in the election process. It was estimated that 2.7 million people participated in the election. Relations between the federal government and the Tigray regional government deteriorated after the election, and on 4 November 2020, Abiy began a military offensive in the Tigray Region in response to attacks on army units stationed there, causing thousands of refugees to flee to neighbouring Sudan and triggering the . According to local media, up to 500 civilians may have been killed in a Mai Kadra massacre, massacre in the town of Mai Kadra on 9 November 2020.
Government and politicsThe politics of Ethiopia takes place in the framework of a Federalism, federal parliamentary republic, wherein the is the head of government. The President of Ethiopia, President is the head of state but with largely ceremonial powers. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The House of Federation is the seat of bicameral legislature with 108 seats, 547-seat in the House of Peoples' Representatives (HoPR). The House of Federation chosen by regional council whereas MPs of HoPR elected directly, in turn they elect president for six-years term. On the basis o
GovernanceFor many years, Ethiopia was highly centralized government under monarchy. The constitution which adopted in 2005 brought Ethiopia to federal government system described by Annex I shaped the economic structure and stabilization, typically brought command economy to a market-oriented. The government also fostered long time macroeconomic assessment, and planned wide-scale development agenda. The first 1994 Ethiopian Constituent Assembly election, election of 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the Constitution of Ethiopia, constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995. Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. The first government of Ethiopia under the new constitution was installed in August 1995 with Negasso Gidada as president. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities. Ethiopia today has eleven semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under past governments, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, were circumscribed. Citizens had little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggled to remain open and suffered periodic harassment from the government. Starting from the 2005 elections, at least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government, were arrested on genocide and treason charges. The government used press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who were critical of its policies. Meles' government was elected in 2000 in the first-ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Meles to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections. Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital , in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre. The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia Region the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC). The government has been engaged in a conflict with rebels in the Ogaden region since 2007. The biggest opposition party in 2005 was the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD). After various internal divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa. A member of the country's Oromo people, Oromo ethnic group, Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia. In 2008, the top five opposition parties were the Unity for Democracy and Justice led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa, United Ethiopian Democratic Forces led by Beyene Petros, Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement led by Bulcha Demeksa, Oromo People's Congress led by Merera Gudina, and Ethiopian Democratic Party, United Ethiopian Democratic Party – Medhin Party led by Lidetu Ayalew. After the 2015 elections, Ethiopia lost its single remaining opposition MP; there are now no opposition MPs in the Ethiopian parliament.
Foreign relationsThe foreign relations of Ethiopia is safest to most countries including the Western world, West as well as neighboring countries except , and Egypt owing to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project. The relationship with US certainly cordial, in addition Ethiopia is a strategic partner of Global War on Terrorism and African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). Ethiopia had about 200,000 diaspora as of 2016, and surpassed ethnic enclave in the US. Former President of the United States, President Barack Obama was the first incumbent to visit Ethiopia in July 2015, while delivering speech in the Africa Union, he highlighted combatting the Islamic terrorism. Ethiopia had concentrated emigrant to countries in Europe mainly in Italian Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, Ethiopian Canadians, Canada, Sweden and Ethiopian Australians, Australia. Ethiopia has Jewish emigrant in Israel about 155,300 as of 2019. They are collectively known as Beta Israel.
MilitaryHistorically, Ethiopia was heavily built on military and saw decisive invasions against external powers. Despite modern weapons equipped with assistance of European countries such as Portugal, Russia, France and Britain, the Ethiopian army largely relied on feudal system, so its army nearly consisted of peasant militia. Under Amda Seyon I, a legion named Chewa regiments was formed in 14th century, became dominant military force in medieval times. It was normally composed up to several thousand men. The modern military dates back in 1917 created by Haile Selassie, Tafari Makonnen which was called Kebur Zabagna. The Ethiopian National Defense Force is the largest military in Africa and is directed by Ministry of Defense (Ethiopia), Ministry of Defense. Other military branches include Ethiopian Ground Forces, ground forces, Ethiopian Air Force, air force and formerly Ethiopian Navy, naval force. Since 1996, landlocked Ethiopia has had no navy but in 2018 Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed said on state TV: "We built one of the strongest ground and air forces in Africa... we should build our naval force capacity in the future." The army was relatively small with about 170,000 volunteers on active duty.
Human rightsHuman rights violations often accompany with Ethnic discrimination in Ethiopia, endured ethnic and communal violence in the country. In a 2014–2016 Oromo protests, 2016 demonstration, 100 peaceful protestors were killed by direct government gunfire in the Oromia and Amhara Region, Amhara regions. The UN has called for UN observers on the ground in Ethiopia to investigate this incident, however the EPRDF-dominated Ethiopian government has refused this call. The protestors are protesting land grabs and lack of basic human rights such as the freedom to elect their representatives. The TPLF-dominated EPRDF won 100% in an election marked by fraud which has resulted in Ethiopian civilians protesting on scale unseen in prior post-election protests. Merera Gudina, leader of the Oromo People's Congress, said the East African country was at a "crossroads". He added in the interview with Reuters: "People are demanding their rights," he said. "People are fed up with what the regime has been doing for a quarter of a century. They're protesting against land grabs, reparations, stolen elections, the rising cost of living, many things. "If the government continue to repress while the people are demanding their rights in the millions that (civil war) is one of the likely scenarios." According to surveys in 2003 by the National Committee on Traditional Practices in Ethiopia, bride kidnapping, marriage by abduction accounts for 69% of the nation's marriages, with around 80% in the largest region, Oromia, and as high as 92% in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region. Journalists and activists have been threatened or Misinformation related to the COVID-19 pandemic#Efforts to combat misinformation, arrested for their coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. Among the Omotic Karo language (Ethiopia), Karo-speaking and Hamer peoples in southern Ethiopia, adults and children with physical abnormalities are considered to be mingi, "ritually impure". The latter are believed to exert an evil influence upon others; disabled infants have traditionally been murdered without a proper burial. The Karo officially banned the practice in July 2012. In 2013, the Oakland Institute released a report accusing the Ethiopian government of forcing the relocation of "hundreds of thousands of indigenous people from their lands" in the Gambela Region. According to several reports by the organization, those who refused were the subject of a variety of intimidation techniques including physical and sexual abuse, which sometimes led to deaths. A similar 2012 report by Human Rights Watch also describes the Ethiopian government's 2010–2011 villagization program in Gambela, with plans to carry out similar resettlements in other regions. The Ethiopian government has denied the accusations of land grabbing and instead pointed to the positive trajectory of the country's economy as evidence of the development program's benefits. A nationwide October 2019 Ethiopian clashes, series of violent protests, concentrated in the Oromia Region, broke out starting on 23 October 2019, sparked by activist and media owner Jawar Mohammed's allegation that security forces had attempted to detain him. According to official reports, 86 people were killed. On 29 May 2020, Amnesty International released a report accusing the Ethiopian National Defense Force, security forces of Ethiopia of Detention (imprisonment), mass detentions and extrajudicial killings. The report stated that in 2019, at least 25 people, suspected of supporting the Oromo Liberation Front, Oromo Liberation Army, were killed by the forces in parts the Oromia Region. Besides, between January and September 2019, at least 10,000 people were detained under suspicion, where most were "subjected to brutal beatings".
LGBT rightsHomosexuality, Homosexual acts are illegal in Ethiopia. According to penal code Article 629, same-sex activity is punished up to 15 years to life in prison. Ethiopia has been a socially conservative country. Majority of people are hostile towards LGBT people and persecution is commonplace on the grounds of religious and societal norms. Homosexuality came to light in the country since the failed 2008 appeal to the Council of Ministers, and the LGBT scene began to thrive slightly in major metropolitan locations, such as Addis Ababa. Some notable hotels like Sheraton Addis and Hilton Hotel became hotbeds of accusations for alleged lobbying. The Ethiopian Orthodox church plays a frontal role in opposition; some of its members formed anti-gay organizations. For example, Dereje Negash, one prominent activist, founded "Zim Anlem" in 2014, which is a traditionalism and anti-gender movement. According to the 2007 Pew Global Attitudes Project, 97 percent of Ethiopians believe homosexuality is a way of life that society should not accept. This was the second-highest rate of non-acceptance in the 45 countries surveyed.
Administrative divisionsBefore 1996, Ethiopia was divided into thirteen Provinces of Ethiopia, provinces, many derived from historical regions. The nation now has a tiered governmental system consisting of a federal government overseeing regional states, zones, Districts of Ethiopia, districts (''woreda''), and ''kebeles'' ("neighbourhoods"). Ethiopia is divided into eleven ethnically based and politically autonomous Regions of Ethiopia, regional states (''kililoch'', singular ''kilil'' ) and two chartered cities (''astedader akababiwoch'', singular ''astedader akababi'' ), the latter being and Dire Dawa. The ''kililoch'' are subdivided into sixty-eight Zones of Ethiopia, zones, and then further into 550 ''woredas'' and several special ''woredas''. The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states, which can establish their own government and democracy as long as it is in line with the federal government's constitution. Each region has at its apex a regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Furthermore, Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such an elaborate structure of council, executive and sectoral public institutions is replicated at the next level (''woreda'').
GeographyAt , Ethiopia is the world's 28th-largest country, comparable in size to Bolivia. It lies between the 3rd parallel north and the 15th parallel north and longitudes 33rd meridian east and 48th meridian east. The major portion of Ethiopia lies in the , which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. The territories that have frontiers with Ethiopia are Eritrea to the north and then, moving in a clockwise direction, Djibouti, Somaliland, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan and Sudan. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. There is a great diversity of terrain with wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation and settlement patterns. Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has many endemism, endemic species, notably the gelada, the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf ("Simien fox"). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, and this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation. The nation is a land of geographical contrasts, ranging from the vast fertile west, with its forests and numerous rivers, to the world's hottest settlement of Dallol, Ethiopia, Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are the largest continuous mountain ranges in Africa, and the Sof Omar Caves contains the largest cave on the continent. Ethiopia also has the second-largest number of List of World Heritage Sites in Africa, UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.
ClimateThe predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country's major cities are located at elevations of around above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum. The modern capital, Addis Ababa, is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto at an elevation of around . It experiences a mild climate year round. With temperatures fairly uniform year round, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall: a dry season from October to February, a light rainy season from March to May, and a heavy rainy season from June to September. The average annual rainfall is approximately . There are on average seven hours of sunshine per day. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine. The average annual temperature in Addis Ababa is , with daily maximum temperatures averaging throughout the year, and overnight lows averaging . Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate. In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of Ethiopia, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. Dallol, Ethiopia, Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest average annual temperature of . Ethiopia is vulnerable to many of the effects of climate change. These include increases in temperature and changes in precipitation. Climate change in these forms threatens food security and the economy, which is agriculture based. Many Ethiopians have been forced to leave their homes and travel as far as the Gulf, Southern Africa and Europe. Since April 2019, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has promoted Beautifying Sheger, a development project that aims to reduce the negative effects of climate change – among other things – in the capital city Addis Ababa. In the following May, the government held "Dine for Sheger", a fundraising event in order to cover some of the $1 billion needed through the public. $25 million was raised through the expensive event, both through the cost of attending and donations. Two Chinese railway companies under the Belt and Road Initiative between China and Ethiopia had supplied funds to develop 12 of the total 56 kilometres.
BiodiversityEthiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. The African wild dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in the territory. However, with last sightings at Finicha'a, this canid is thought to be potentially local extinction, locally extinct. The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a global centre of avian diversity. To date more than 856 bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, twenty of which are endemic to the country. Sixteen species are endangered or critically endangered. Many of these birds feed on butterflies, like the ''Bicyclus anynana''. Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching, and other human factors. A 17-year-long civil war, along with severe drought, negatively affected Ethiopia's environmental conditions, leading to even greater habitat degradation. Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases. With carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 of 6,494,000 tonnes, Ethiopia contributes just 0.02% to the annual human-caused release of greenhouse gases. Ethiopia has many species listed as critically endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories (based on IUCN ratings): critically endangered, endangered species, endangered, and vulnerable species, vulnerable.Massicot, Paul (2005)
EconomyEthiopia registered the fastest economic growth under Premiership of Meles Zenawi, Meles Zenawi's administration. According to the IMF, Ethiopia was one of the fastest growing economies in the world, registering over 10% economic growth from 2004 through 2009. It was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African economy in the years 2007 and 2008. In 2015, the World Bank highlighted that Ethiopia had witnessed rapid economic growth with real domestic product (GDP) growth averaging 10.9% between 2004 and 2014. In 2008 and 2011, Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains were challenged by high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation. Inflation surged to 40% in August 2011 because of loose monetary policy, large civil service wage increase in early 2011, and high food prices. For 2011/12, end-year inflation was projected to be about 22%, and single digit inflation is projected in 2012/13 with the implementation of tight monetary and fiscal policies. In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. However, with a focused investment in public infrastructure and industrial parks, Ethiopia's economy is addressing its structural problems to become a hub for light manufacturing in Africa. In 2019 a law was passed allowing expatriate Ethiopians to invest in Ethiopia's financial service industry. The Ethiopian constitution specifies that rights to own land belong only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land for up to 99 years, but are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting out land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user. Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues. As there is no land ownership, infrastructural projects are most often simply done without asking the land users, which then end up being displaced and without a home or land. A lot of anger and distrust sometimes results in public protests. In addition, agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country, also leading to internal displacement.
Energy and hydropowerEthiopia has 14 major rivers flowing from its highlands, including the Nile. It has the largest water reserves in Africa. , hydroelectric plants represented around 88.2% of the total installed electricity generating capacity. The remaining electrical power was generated from fossil fuels (8.3%) and renewable sources (3.6%). The electrification rate for the total population in 2016 was 42%, with 85% coverage in urban areas and 26% coverage in rural areas. , total electricity production was 11.15 TW⋅h and consumption was 9.062 TW⋅h. There were 0.166 TW⋅h of electricity exported, 0 kW⋅h imported, and 2.784 GW of installed generating capacity. Ethiopia delivers roughly 81% of water volume to the Nile through the river basins of the Blue Nile, Sobat River and Atbara. In 1959, Egypt and Sudan signed a bilateral treaty, the Water politics in the Nile Basin, 1959 Nile Waters Agreement, which gave both countries exclusive maritime rights over the Nile waters. Ever since, Egypt has discouraged almost all projects in Ethiopia that sought to utilize the local Nile tributaries. This had the effect of discouraging external financing of hydropower and irrigation projects in western Ethiopia, thereby impeding water resource-based economic development projects. However, Ethiopia is in the process of constructing a large 6,450 MW hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile river. When completed, this Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power station in Africa. The Gilgel Gibe III Dam, Gibe III hydroelectric project is so far the largest in the country with an installed capacity of 1,870 MW. For the year 2017–18 (2010 E.C) this hydroelectric dam generated 4,900 GW⋅h.
AgricultureAgriculture constitutes around 85% of the labour force. However, the service sector represents the largest portion of the gross domestic product, GDP. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises, and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffea, coffee, legumes, rapeseed, oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Ethiopia is also a Center of origin, Vavilov centre of diversity for domesticated crops, including Ensete ventricosum, enset, Coffee bean, coffee and teff. Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities (with the exception of Gold exports), and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. According to UN estimations the per capita GDP of Ethiopia has reached $357 .
ExportsEthiopia is often considered as the birthplace of coffee since cultivation began in the ninth century. Exports from Ethiopia in the 2009/2010 financial year totalled US$1.4 billion. Ethiopia produces more coffee than any other nation on the continent. "Coffee provides a livelihood for close to 15 million Ethiopians, 16% of the population. Farmers in the eastern part of the country, where a warming climate is already impacting production, have struggled in recent years, and many are currently reporting largely failed harvests as a result of a prolonged drought". Ethiopia also has the 5th largest inventory of Arado cattle, cattle. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world. Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. In East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels. The unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep, and goats from Ethiopia sold to , , and generates an estimated total value of between 250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure).Pavanello, Sara 2010
TransportEthiopia has 926 km of electrified standard gauge railways, 656 km for the Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway between Addis Ababa and the Port of Djibouti (via Awash, Ethiopia, Awash) and 270 km for the Awash–Hara Gebeya Railway between Addis Ababa and the twin cities of Dessie/Kombolcha (also via Awash). Both railways are either in trial service or still under construction . Once commissioned and fully operational in 2018/2019, both railways will allow passenger transport with a designated speed of 120 km/hour and freight transport with a speed of ~80 km/hour. Expected travel time from Addis Ababa to Djibouti City for passengers would be less than twelve hours and travel time from Addis Ababa to Dessie/Kombolcha would be around six hours. Beyond the first 270 km of the Awash–Hara Gebeya Railway, a second construction phase over 120 km foresees the extension of this railway from Dessie/Kombolcha to Hara Gebeya/Woldiya. It is not clear, when this section will be built and opened. A third, northern 216 km long railway is also under construction between Mek'ele and Woldiya, but it is also not clear when this railway will be commissioned and opened. All railways are part of a future railway network of more than 5,000 km of railways, the National Railway Network of Ethiopia. As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between 1997 and 2002 the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads. As a result, Ethiopia has a total (Federal and Regional) of 100,000 km of roads, both paved and gravel. Ethiopia had 58 airports , and 61 . Among these, the Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa and the Aba Tenna Dejazmach Yilma International Airport in Dire Dawa accommodate international flights. Ethiopian Airlines, a member of the Star Alliance, is the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia. From its hub at the Bole International Airport, the airline serves a network of 102 international passenger, 20 domestic passenger, and 44 cargo destinations. It is also one of the fastest-growing carriers in the industry and continent.
DemographicsEthiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world. Its total population has grown from 38.1 million in 1983 to 109.5 million in 2018. The population was only about nine million in the 19th century. The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the population of Ethiopia grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994 and 2007, down from 2.8% during the period 1983–1994. Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world. The population is forecast to grow to over 210 million by 2060, which would be an increase from 2011 estimates by a factor of about 2.5. According to UN estimations, life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years with male life expectancy reported to be 56 years and for women 60 years. Ethiopia's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo people, Oromo, Amhara people, Amhara, Somalis, Somali and Tigrayans. According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo people, Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at 34.4% of the nation's population. The Amhara people, Amhara represent 27.0% of the country's inhabitants, while Somalis and Tigrayans represent 6.2% and 6.1% of the population respectively. Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama people, Sidama 4.0%, Gurage people, Gurage 2.5%, Welayta people, Welayta 2.3%, Afar people, Afar 1.7%, Hadiya people, Hadiya 1.7%, Gamo people, Gamo 1.5% and List of ethnic groups in Ethiopia, Others 12.6%. Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic-speaking communities make up the majority of the population. Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people. The Arabic form of this term (''al-Ḥabasha'') is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages. Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan-speaking ethnic minorities inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas of the Gambela Region which borders . The largest ethnic groups among these include the Nuer people, Nuer and Anuak people, Anuak. In addition, Ethiopia had over 75,000 Italians of Ethiopia, Italian settlers during the Italian occupation of the country. After independence, many Italians remained for decades after receiving full pardons from Emperor Selassie, as he saw the opportunity to continue modernization efforts. However, due to the Ethiopian Civil War in 1974, nearly 22,000 Italo-Ethiopians left the country. In the 2000s, some Italian companies returned to operate in Ethiopia, and many Italian technicians and managers arrived with their families, residing mainly in the metropolitan area of the capital. In 2009, Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 135,200. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 64,300 persons), Eritrea (41,700) and Sudan (25,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.
LanguagesAccording to ''Ethnologue'', there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic languages, Cushitic or Semitic languages, Semitic branches. The former includes Oromo language, spoken by the Oromo people, Oromo, and Somali language, Somali, spoken by the Somalis; the latter includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people, Amhara, and Tigrinya language, Tigrinya, spoken by the Tigrayans. Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo language, Sidamo, Afar language, Afar, Hadiyya language, Hadiyya and Agaw languages, as well as the Semitic Gurage languages, Harari language, Harari, Silt'e language, Silt'e, and Argobba language, Argobba languages. Arabic, which also belongs to the Afroasiatic family, is likewise spoken in some areas. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Among these idioms are Aari language, Aari, Bench language, Bench, Dime language, Dime, Dizin language, Dizin, Gamo-Gofa-Dawro language, Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, Maale language, Maale, Hamer language, Hamer, and Wolaytta language, Wolaytta. Languages from the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan family are also spoken by ethnic minorities concentrated in the southwestern parts of the country. These languages include Nuer language, Nuer, Anuak language, Anuak, Nyangatom language, Nyangatom, Majang language, Majang, Suri language, Suri, Me'en language, Me'en, and Mursi language, Mursi. English is the most widely spoken foreign language, the medium of instruction in secondary schools and all tertiary education; federal laws are also published in British English in the Federal Negarit Gazeta including the 1995 constitution. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya. While all languages enjoy equal state recognition in the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia and Oromo is the most populous language by native speakers, Amharic is the most populous by number of total speakers. The various regions of Ethiopia and charter city, chartered cities are free to determine their own working languages. Amharic is recognised as the official working language of Amhara Region, Benishangul-Gumuz, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Gambela Region, and Dire Dawa. Oromo language serves as the official working language and the primary language of education in the Oromia, Harar and Dire Dawa and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. Somali is the official working language of Somali Region and Dire Dawa, while Afar, Harari, and Tigrinya are recognized as official working languages in their respective regions. Recently the Ethiopian Government announced that Afar language, Afar, , Oromo language, Oromo, Somali language, Somali, and Tigrinya language, Tigrinya are adopted as official federal working languages of Ethiopia. Italian language, Italian is still spoken by some parts of the population, mostly among the older generation, and is taught in some schools (most notably the Istituto Statale Italiano Omnicomprensivo di Addis Abeba). Amharic and Tigrinya have both borrowed some words from the Italian language.''I prestiti italiani in amarico e tigrino'', Yaqob Beyene
ScriptEthiopia's principal orthography is the Ge'ez script. Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language. Ge'ez now serves as the liturgical language of both the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churches. During the 1980s, the Ethiopic character set was computerized. It is today part of the Unicode standard as Ethiopic, Ethiopic Extended, Ethiopic Supplement and Ethiopic Extended-A. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Bakri Sapalo's script for Oromo language, Oromo.
ReligionEthiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. In the 4th century, the Ethiopian empire was one of the first in the world to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion. As a result of the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, in 451 the miaphysitism, Miaphysites, which included the vast majority of Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia, were accused of monophysitism and designated as heretics under the common name of Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Coptic Christianity (see Oriental Orthodoxy). While no longer distinguished as a state religion, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church remains the majority Christian denomination. There is also a substantial Muslim demographic, representing around a third of the population. Ethiopia was the destination of the First Hegira, a major emigration in Islamic history. A town in the Tigray Region, Negash is the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa. According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country's population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6%. The ratio of the Christian to Muslim population has largely remained stable when compared to previous censuses conducted decades ago. Sunnis form the majority of Muslims with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims, and Shia Islam, the Shia and Ahmadiyyas are a minority. Sunnis are largely Shafi'is or Salafi movement, Salafis, and there are also many Sufism, Sufi Muslims there. The large Muslim population in the northern Afar region has resulted in a Muslim separatist movement called the "Islamic State of Afaria" seeking a sharia-compliant constitution. Some critics asserted that the Haile Selassie regime had been fabricating the census to present Ethiopia as a Christian country to the outside world, stating that Islam made up 50% of the total population in 1991, based on the 1984 census commissioned by the regime. Several Muslim observers and bloggers claim that Muslims are in the majority and disagree with the above census numbers, without providing factual data supporting their claims. The Kingdom of Axum was one of the first polities to officially embrace Christianity, when Frumentius of Tyre, Lebanon, Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted Emperor during the fourth century. According to the , Christianity had entered Ethiopia even earlier, when an official in the Ethiopian royal treasury was baptized by Philip the Evangelist. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is part of Oriental Orthodoxy. It is by far the largest Christian denomination, although a number of P'ent'ay (Protestantism, Protestant) churches have recently gained ground. Since 1930, a relatively small Ethiopian Catholic Church has existed in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population. Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion in 622 when a group of Muslims were counselled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca. The disciples subsequently migrated to Abyssinia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Ashama ibn-Abjar, a pious Christian emperor. Also, the largest single ethnic group of list of non-Arab Sahabah, non-Arab Sahabah was that of the Ethiopians. According to the 2007 Population and Housing Census, around 1,957,944 people in Ethiopia are adherents of traditional African religion, traditional religions. An additional 471,861 residents practice other creeds. While followers of all religions can be found in each region, they tend to be concentrated in certain parts of the country. Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Those belonging to P'ent'ay predominate in the regions of Oromia and the SNNP (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region). Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions. Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Beta Israel / ቤተ እስራኤል / ביתא ישראל (Ethiopian Jews) resided in Ethiopia. About 4,000 Jews, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel are estimated to still live in Ethiopia, along with many more members of two related ethno-religious groups, the Falash Mura and the Beta Abraham. The Falash Mura are Beta Israel who, while identifying as Jews, adopted elements of Christianity due to missionary efforts, and now practice a syncretism, syncretic form of Ethiopian Judaism mixed with Christianity; they number about 150,000 people. The Beta Abraham are regarded as a medieval offshoot of the Beta Israel, having incorporated elements of traditional African religion, and number about 8,000. While both still identify as Beta Israel, they exist outside the main community. The official Beta Israel community leaders tentatively accept the Falash Mura, and have requested they be allowed to migrate to Israel. The Beta Abraham have historically been shunned by most other communities, having had a reputation of being "sorcerers". In certain Ethiopian towns and villages such as Wolleka, near the Ethiopian city of Gondar, the concentration of Ethiopian-Jews is still significant but the US now has a significantly greater numbers of Ethiopian-Jews than that of Ethiopia. Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities. Lengthy prison terms were handed to 17 Muslim activists on 3August 2015 ranging from seven to 22 years. They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights.
UrbanizationPopulation growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services. Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and then from 1967 to 1975 when the populations of urban areas tripled.Ofcansky, T and Berry, L. "Ethiopia: A Country Study". Edited by Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991
Rural and urban lifeMigration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than one dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization's minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.Crawley, Mike
HealthThe World Health Organization's 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1,936 physicians (for 2003), which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. A brain drain associated with globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West. Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable (contagious) diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition. Over 44 million people (nearly half the population) do not have access to clean water. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained doctors and nurses and health facilities. The state of public health is considerably better in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas due to better access to education, medicines, and hospitals. Life expectancy is better in cities compared to rural areas, but there have been significant improvements witnessed throughout the country in recent years, the average Ethiopian living to be 62.2 years old, according to a UNDP report. Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also on the rise; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas. As in other parts of Africa, there has been a steady migration of people towards the cities in hopes of better living conditions. There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa) and 412 health centres in Ethiopia. Infant mortality rates are relatively high, as 41 infants die per 1,000 live births. Ethiopia has been able to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds (one of the Millennium Development Goals) since 1990. Although this is a dramatic decrease, birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect many of the nation's women. HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia stood at 1.1% in 2014, a dramatic decrease from 4.5% 15 years ago. The most affected are poor communities and women, due to lack of health education, empowerment, awareness and lack of social well-being. The government of Ethiopia and many international organizations like World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases. Ethiopia has a relatively high infant and maternal mortality rate. Although, Ethiopia did not meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality rate by two-thirds in 2015, there are improvements nonetheless. For instance, the contraception prevalence rate increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 41.8% in 2014, and Antenatal care service coverage increase from 29% to an astounding 98.1% in the same period. Currently, the maternal mortality rate stands at 420 per 100,000 live births. Only a minority of Ethiopians are born in hospitals, while most are born in rural households. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives who assist with the delivery. The "WHO estimates that a majority of maternal fatalities and disabilities could be prevented if deliveries were to take place at well-equipped health centres, with adequately trained staff". The low availability of health-care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderance of less-reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC), a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice was made illegal in Ethiopia in 2004. FGM is a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the that has its ultimate origins in Ancient Egypt.Bodman, Herbert L. and Tohidi, Nayereh Esfahlani (1998
EducationEducation in Ethiopia was dominated by the Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. The current system follows school expansion schemes which are very similar to the system in the rural areas during the 1980s, with an addition of deeper regionalization, providing rural education in students' own languages starting at the elementary level, and with more budgetary financing allocated to the education sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, then four years of lower secondary school followed by two years of higher secondary school. Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. Approximately three million people were in primary school in 1994/95 but by 2008/09, primary enrolment had risen to 15.5 million – an increase of over 500%. In 2013/14, Ethiopia had witnessed a significant boost in gross enrolment across all regions. The national GER was 104.8% for boys, 97.8% for girls and 101.3% across both sexes. The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the 1994 census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was 23.4%. In 2007 it was estimated to be 39% (male 49.1% and female 28.9%). A report by UNDP in 2011 showed that the literacy rate in Ethiopia was 46.7%. The same report also indicated that the female literacy rate had increased from 27 to 39 per cent from 2004 to 2011, and the male literacy rate had increased from 49 to 59 per cent over the same period for persons 10 years and older. By 2015, the literacy rate had further increased, to 49.1% (57.2% male and 41.1% female).
CultureCulturally, Ethiopia is homologous with its society largely defined by Multiculturalism, multicultural complex. Those may associated with religious practice. Ethiopians are characterized as hospitable toward foreigners or guests by serving food and drinks. Coffee ceremony of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Coffee serving tradition of Ethiopia and Eritrea is peculiar, and unlike most countries, coffee is served in presence of social gathering, in family, friend or neighborhood level. It also enhances well-being. The tradition of coffee legend goes back to Kaldi, a goat herder from Keffa Zone who noticed his goat was caught up with hysteria after they eat shrub that stimulate them to dance uncontrollably with rampant. After holding berries, he was advised exhibit to priests in nearby monastery. One monk called the generosity of Kaldi "the Devil work" and tossed to the fire, generating aromatic odor. The legend told that Kaldi lived in 850 AD, commonly associated with belief of starting coffee cultivation in Ethiopia in the nine century.
ArtsEthiopian art, Arts of Ethiopia were largely influenced by Christian iconography throughout much of its history. This necessarily consisted of illuminated manuscripts, painting, Ethiopian cross, crosses, icons and other metalworks such as crowns. Most historical arts were commissioned by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which served as a state religion for a millennium. The Aksumite period arts were stone carving as evidenced in their stelae, though there is no surviving Christian art to this era. Most remaining arts beyond the early modern period was ruined as a result of invasion of the in the Ethiopian Highlands, but was revived by Catholic emissaries. The Western art, Western intervention on Ethiopian art began in the 20th century, with also maintaining traditional Ethiopian character.
PhilosophyThe Ethiopian philosophy is superlatively prolific since ancient times in Africa, though offset of Ancient Greek philosophy, Greek and Patristic philosophy. The best known philosophical revival was in the early modern period figures such as Zera Yacob (1599–1692) and his student Walda Heywat, who wrote ''Hatata'' (''Inquiry'') in 1667 for argument of existence of God.
LiteratureThe Ethiopian literature traced back to the Aksumite period in the 4th century, most of them are merely religious motifs. In royal inscription, they employed both Geʽez script, Ge'ez and language, but the latter was dismissed in 350. Unlike most Sub-Saharan African countries, Ethiopia has ancient distinct language, the Ge'ez, which dominated political and educational aspects. In spite of the current political instability in the country instigates endangering cultural heritage of these works, some improvements are made for preservation in recent years. The Ethiopian literary works mostly consisted of handwritten codex (branna, or ብራና in Amharic). It is prepared by gathering parchment leaves and sewing to stick together. The codex size is considerably varies depending on volumes and preparation. For example, pocket size codex lengthens 45 cm, which is heavier in weight. Historians speculated that archaic codex is existed in Ethiopia. Today manuscripts resembling primitive codex are still evident for existence where parchment leaves are convenient for writing. Another notable writing book is protective (or magic) scroll, serving as written amulet. Some of these were intended for magical purpose, for example ''ketab'' is used for magical defense. Scrolls typically produced by ''debtera'', non-ordained clergy expertise on exorcism and healings. About 30 cm scroll is portable whereas 2cm is often unrolled and hanged to the wall of house. Scrolls emulating original medium of Ethiopia literature is highly disputed, where there is overwhelming evidence that Ge'ez language books were written in codex. In lesser, Ethiopia used accordion books (called ''sensul'') which was dated to late 15th or 16th century, made up of folded parchment paper, with or without cover. Those book usually contain pictorial representation of life and death of religious figures, or significant texts have also juxtaposed.
PoetryEthiopia is highly popularized in poetry. Most poets recount past events, social unrests, poverty and famine. ''Qene'' is the most used element of Ethiopian poetry – regarded as a form of Amharic poetry, though the term generally refers to any poems. True qene requires advanced ingenious mindset. By providing two metaphorical words, i.e one with obvious clues and the other is too convoluted conundrum, one must answer parallel meanings. Thus, this is called ''sem ena work'' (gold and wax). The most notable poets are Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin, Kebede Michael and Mengistu Lemma.
CalendarEthiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar, also known as the Ge'ez calendar, and written with the ancient Ge'ez script, one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which form a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. Like the Julian calendar, the sixth epagomenal day—which in essence is a leap day—is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus, the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1Mäskäräm, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually 11 September (Gregorian calendar, Gregorian), but falls on 12 September in years before the Gregorian leap year. It is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar because of an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus. Another calendrical system was developed around 300 BC by the Oromo people. A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Oromo months (stars/lunar phases) are ''Bittottessa'' (Iangulum), ''Camsa'' (Pleiades), ''Bufa'' (Aldebarran), ''Waxabajjii'' (Belletrix), ''Obora Gudda'' (Central Orion-Saiph), ''Obora Dikka'' (Sirius), ''Birra'' (full moon), ''Cikawa'' (gibbous moon), ''Sadasaa'' (quarter moon), ''Abrasa'' (large crescent), ''Ammaji'' (medium crescent), and ''Gurrandala'' (small crescent).
CuisineThe best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stews, known as ''wat (food), wat'' in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served on top of injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. This is not eaten with utensils, but instead the injera is used to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the middle of the table with a group of people. It is also a common custom to feed others within a group or own hands—a tradition referred to as "Ethiopian cuisine#Gursha, gursha". Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as both are forbidden in the Ethiopian Orthodox Christian, Islamic and Jewish faiths. Fit-fit#Kitcha fit-fit, Chechebsa, Marqa, Chukko, Michirra and Dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo people, Oromo. Kitfo, which originated among the Gurage people, Gurage, is one of the country's most popular delicacies. In addition, ''Doro Wot'' (ዶሮ ወጥ in Amharic) and Tsebehi Derho (ጽብሒ ድርሆ in Tigrinya language, Tigrinya), are other popular dishes, originating from northwestern Ethiopia. Tihlo (ጥሕሎ)—which is a type of dumpling—is prepared from roasted barley flour and originated in the Tigray Region. Tihlo is now very popular in Amhara Region, Amhara and spreading further south.
MediaThe Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation (EBC), formerly known as ETV, is the government-owned national channel. Kana TV is the most popular TV channel in Ethiopia. It is mainly known for Dubbing (filmmaking), dubbing foreign content into Amharic. Over several decades, the state television has served as the major mass media until in late 2010s, when EBS TV (Ethiopia), EBS TV launched as the first private television channel. Moreover, numerous private channels were commenced in 2016, culminating the growth of privately owned media companies in the country. As an example, Fana TV has been the largest TV network since its launch in 2017. The most widely circulated newspapers in Ethiopia are Addis Fortune, Capital Ethiopia, Ethiopian Reporter, Addis Zemen (''Amharic'') and Ethiopian Herald. The sole internet service provider is the national telecommunications firm Ethio telecom. A large portion of users in the country access the internet through mobile devices. , there are around 4.29 million people who have internet access at their home as compared to a quarter of a million users a decade before that. The Ethiopian government has at times intentionally shut down internet service in the country or restricted access to certain social media sites during periods of political unrest. In August 2016, following protest and demonstration in the Oromia Region, all access to the internet was shut down for a period of two days. In June 2017, the government shut down access to the internet for mobile users during a period that coincided with the administration of Ethiopia's university entrance examination. Although the reason for the restriction was not confirmed by the government, the move was similar to a measure taken during the same period in 2016, after a leak of test questions.
Science and technologyDespite there are less established facilities, Ethiopia is progressive country in Africa in science and technology. Manufacturing and service providers often place themselves in competitive programming in order to advance innovative and technological solutions through in-house arenas. The Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute, Ethiopian Space Science and Technology is responsible for conducting multifacet tasks regarding space and technology. In addition, Ethiopia also launched 70kg ET-RSS1 multi-spectral remote sensing satellite in December 2019. The President Sahle-Work Zewde told prior in October 2019 that "the satellite will provide all the necessary data on changes in climate and weather-related phenomena that would be utilized for the country’s key targets in agriculture, forestry as well as natural resources protection initiatives." By January 2020, satellite manufacturing, assembling, integrating and testing began. This would also incremented facility built by French company funded by European Investment Bank (EIB). The main observatory Entoto Observatory and Space Science Research Center (EORC) allocated space programmes. The Ethiopian Biotechnology Institute is a part of Scientific Research & Development Services Industry, responsible for environmental and climate conservation. Numerous profound scientists have contributed degree of honours and reputations. Some are Kitaw Ejigu, Mulugeta Bekele, Aklilu Lemma, Gebisa Ejeta and Melaku Worede.
MusicThe music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a distinct Musical mode, modal system that is Pentatonic scale, pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighbouring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, and Sudan. Traditional singing in Ethiopia presents diverse styles of polyphony, (heterophony, drone (music), drone, imitation, and counterpoint). Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship, and a unique type of memoire known as ''tizita''. Saint Yared, a 6th century Aksumite composer, is widely regarded as the forerunner of traditional music of Eritrea and Ethiopia, he created liturgical music of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. He also composed ''Zema'', subdivided into three chants: Ge'ez, Ezel and Araray. Yared life thought to have been "failure and success" where his was poor performance in education. Yared then fired from the school and went to his uncle birthplace Murade Qal. There his saw caterpillar endeavors to reach a tree's peak. This became epitome to his real life and returned to the school with good spirit, later became prominent to political sphere. He was a friend of Aksumite Emperor Gebre Meskel and the exiled Nine Saints. Popular music is common and Ethiopia has multitude prolific musical artists. The first brass band performing orchestra was the ethnic Armenian group Arba Lijoch who moved from Jerusalem to Addis Ababa in 1924. Several orchestral bands were forthcame after World War II, for example the Army Band, Police Band, and Imperial Bodyguard Band. From 1950s, Tilahun Gessesse became prominent artist nicknamed "the Voice" due to his tenor vocal. Concurrently there were many notable artists alike such as Mahmoud Ahmed, Alemayehu Eshete, Muluken Melesse, Bizunesh Bekele, and Asnaketch Worku. The most internationally acclaimed musician is Mulatu Astatke, and from record labels Amha Records, Kaifa Records, Philips-Ethiopia and Buda Musique. In late the 20th century, Aster Aweke emerged as famous artist. The other was Gigi (singer), Gigi. In 2001, Teddy Afro released his debut album ''Abugida'', quickly earned fame, nicknamed "Blatenaw" (meaning "the boy"). The Weeknd is a Canadian artist of Ethiopian descent. Hip hop music began arose in mid-2000, and modern popular music propelled by musician Elias Melka. He composed for several artists. Jano Band became successful in music history in the next decade, leading them to inclusion in Coke Studio Africa in 2017. Electronic music was not fully flourished until mid- to late 2010s, thanked to the most prominent DJ Rophnan, who pioneered uptempo Electronic dance music, EDM after releasing his debut album ''Reflection'' in 2018.
CinemaThe first cinema was introduced in 1898, three years after the first world film was projected. Cinematic artifacts ascribed by Italian minister which then offered to Emperor Menelik II. The early 20th century appearance with spectacle was around 1909 and embraced by documentary or biographical films. ''Au de Menilek'' was the first film directed by Charles Martel. The first 16mm black-and-white film dedicated to coronation of Emperor Zewditu, then coronation of Emperor Haile Selassie was filmed. The 1990s saw international booming of Ethiopian films. The most influential people in this era was Haile Gerima, Salem Mekuria, Yemane Demissie, and Teshome Gabriel. Films began modernized in 2000s and implemented Amharic language. The most internationally grossed films are ''Selanchi'', ''Difret'', ''Lamb (2015 Ethiopian film), Lamb'', ''Prince of Love'' and ''Lambadina''. The modern era saw several reoccurring actors including Selam Tesfaye, Fryat Yemane, Hanan Tarik, Mahder Assefa, Amleset Muchie and Ruth Negga.
SportThe main sports in Ethiopia are track and field (particularly long distance running) and football. Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic Games, Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running. Abebe Bikila became the first athlete from a Sub-Saharan Africa, Sub-Saharan country to win an Olympic gold medal when he won the Marathon at the 1960 Rome Olympic Games in a world record time of 2:15:16. Haile Gebrselassie, Kenenisa Bekele, and Tirunesh Dibaba are all world-renowned long distance runners, each with multiple Olympic and World Athletics Championships, World Championship gold medals. Letesenbet Gidey holds the world records in both the women's 5,000 metre and 10,000 metre run. Other notable Ethiopian runners are Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Derartu Tulu, Meseret Defar, Birhane Adere, Tiki Gelana, Genzebe Dibaba, Tariku Bekele, Gelete Burka, and Yomif Kejelcha. and going into 2013, the current national Ethiopia national football team, Ethiopian national football team (nicknamed the Walayia Antelopes) made history by qualifying for the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations and reached the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification (CAF), qualification for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said. Ethiopia has Sub-Saharan Africa's longest basketball tradition as it established a Ethiopia national basketball team, national basketball team in 1949.
See also* Index of Ethiopia-related articles * Outline of Ethiopia * Music and politics in Ethiopia
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Further reading* * * Deguefé, Taffara (2006). ''Minutes of an Ethiopian Century'', Shama Books, Addis Ababa, . * Hugues Fontaine, ''Un Train en Afrique. African Train'', Centre Français des Études Éthiopiennes / Shama Books. Édition bilingue français / anglais. Traduction : Yves-Marie Stranger. Postface : Jean-Christophe Belliard. Avec des photographies de Matthieu Germain Lambert et Pierre Javelot. Addis Abeba, 2012, . English and French