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The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
as well as the Christian
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
. It is traditionally attributed to
Jude the Apostle Jude ( grc-gre, Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is generally identified with Thaddeus ( grc-gre, Θαδδαῖος; cop, ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ; Syriac language, Syriac/ ...

Jude the Apostle
, brother of
James the Just James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord ( la, Iacobus from he, יעקב ''Ya'akov'' and gr, Ἰάκωβος ''Iákōbos'', can also be Anglicized as " Jacob"), was a brother of Jesus, according to the New Testament ...
, and thus possibly brother of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
as well. Jude is a short epistle written in
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
. It condemns in fierce terms certain people the author sees as a threat to the
early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
community, but describes these opponents only vaguely. According to Jude, these opponents are within the Christian community, but are not true Christians: they are scoffers, false teachers, malcontents, given to their lusts, and so on. The epistle reassures its readers that these people will soon be judged by God. It is possible that the group being referred to would have been obvious to the original recipients of the letter, but if a specific group was being referred to, knowledge of the details has since been lost. The one bit of their potential ideology discussed in the letter is that these opponents denigrate
angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the laws of nature. This term is attributed to non-physical entities, such as angel An angel is a supernatural ...

angel
s and their role. If this was indeed a part of the ideology of this group the author opposed, then the epistle is possibly a counterpoint to the
Epistle to the Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of ...
. Colossians condemns those who give angels undue prominence and worship them; this implies the two letters might be part of an early Christian debate on angelology.


Textual witnesses

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this epistle are: *
Papyrus 72 Papyrus 72 (\mathfrak72, '' Papyrus Bodmer VII-VIII'') is the designation used by textual critics of the New Testament to describe portions of the so-called Bodmer Miscellaneous codex, namely the letters of Jude, 1 Peter, and 2 Peter The Second ...
(3rd/4th century) *
Papyrus 78 Papyrus 78 (in the Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland numbering), designated by \mathfrak78, is an early copy of the New Testament in Greek language, Greek. It is a papyrus manuscript of the Epistle of Jude. The surviving texts of Jud ...
(3rd/4th century; extant verses 4–5, 7–8) *
Codex Vaticanus The Codex Vaticanus ( The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. Biblical manuscripts vary in size from tiny scrolls containing individua ...
(B or 03; 325–350) *
Codex Sinaiticus The Codex Sinaiticus (Shelfmarks and references: London, British Library, Add MS 43725; Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland nº א [Aleph] or 01, [Biblical manuscript#Von Soden, Soden δ 2]), or "Sinai Bible", is one ...
( or 01; 330–360) *
Codex Alexandrinus The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, Royal MS 1. D. V-VIII; Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland no. A or 02, Biblical manuscript#Von Soden, Soden δ 4) is a fifth-century Christian manuscript of a Greek Bible,The Greek V ...
(A or 02; 400–440) *
Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (Paris, National Library of France, Greek 9; Biblical manuscript#Gregory-Aland, Gregory-Aland no. C or 04, Biblical manuscript#Von Soden, von Soden δ 3) is a fifth-century Greek manuscript of the Bible, sometimes referr ...
(C or 04; c. 450; extant verses 3–25)


Authorship

The epistle introduces itself with a simple claim of authorship: "Jude, a servant of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
Christ and brother of James" (
NRSV The New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from ...
). "James" is generally taken to mean
James, brother of Jesus James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord ( la, Iacobus from he, יעקב and gr, Ἰάκωβος , can also be Anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) ...
, a prominent leader in the early church. Introductions would typically refer to a father in the era, so the use of a brother suggests that this would only be done if the brother was famous within the community. Little is known about Jude himself. As the brother of James, it has traditionally meant Jude was also a brother of Jesus, since James is described as being the brother of Jesus. This is why
Clement of Alexandria Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria ( grc, Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; – ), was a and philosopher who taught at the . Among his pupils were and . A convert to Christianity, he was an educated man who was ...
(c. 150–215 AD) wrote in his work "Comments on the Epistle of Jude" that Jude, the author, was a son of Joseph and a brother of Jesus. However, there is a dispute as to whether "brother" means someone who has the same father and mother, or a half-brother, cousin, or more distant familial relationship. This dispute over the true meaning of "brother" grew as the doctrine of the Virgin Birth evolved. For example,
Saint Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Saint Jerome
believed that not only Mary but also Joseph were virgins their entire lives, and thus James and by extension Jude were cousins. Outside the book of Jude, a "Jude" is mentioned five times in the New Testament: three times as
Jude the Apostle Jude ( grc-gre, Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. He is generally identified with Thaddeus ( grc-gre, Θαδδαῖος; cop, ⲑⲁⲇⲇⲉⲟⲥ; Syriac language, Syriac/ ...

Jude the Apostle
, and twice as Jude the brother of Jesus (aside from references to
Judas Iscariot Judas Iscariot (; he, יהודה איש-קריות , "Judah, man of KeriothKerioth ( he, קְרִיּוֹת, ''Kriyot'') is the name of two cities mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The spelling Kirioth appears in the King James Version of Amos ...
and
Judah (son of Jacob) Judah () was, according to the Book of Genesis, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, the founder of the Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, ...
). Debate continues as to whether the author of the epistle is the apostle, the brother of Jesus, both, or neither. Scholars have argued that since the author of the letter has not identified himself as an apostle and also refers to the apostles as a third party, and thus cannot be identified with Jude the Apostle. Other scholars have drawn the opposite conclusion, which is that, as an apostle, he would not have made a claim of apostleship on his own behalf. A reason to doubt that a relative of Jesus wrote the book is that they are unlikely to have been literate. Jesus's family were common laborers from
Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac ...
-speaking Galilee, and literary composition skills were overwhelmingly concentrated in the elite in antiquity. Few knew how to read, fewer how to write, and fewer still how to write complicated literary treatises. Jesus himself may have been able to read, presumably in Hebrew, but he was also exceptional and the star of the family. Even if somehow Jude had learned a little of how to read Hebrew, the epistle is written in excellent, complicated Koine Greek, with knowledge of common forms of rhetoric and argument of the era, as well as seeming knowledge of the scriptures in Hebrew. All this would be exceptional for a countryside Galilean. Scholars who support the authorship of Jude generally assume that he must have embarked upon extensive travel and missionary work among Hellenized Jews to master Greek as the author did. Ultimately, it is impossible to know more details of Jude's life for sure. One early Christian tradition states that Jude's grandchildren were brought before Emperor
Domitian Domitian (; la, Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a v ...

Domitian
and interrogated; in the story, they defended themselves as not rebels and mere poor laborers eking out what they could from a single patch of land. While the story is clearly apocryphal - Roman Emperors did not generally interrogate Galilean peasants - it does suggest that early Christians remembered Jude's family as lower-class laborers, not literate elites. If the Jude writing the letter was not Jude the Apostle mentioned in the gospels, then he was possibly an unknown Christian who happened to share the name and coincidentally also had a brother named James. A final possibility is that the epistle is
pseudepigrapha Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or und ...
- that the author intentionally hinted to readers that it was from the more famous Jude, but only as a false attribution to give the letter more authority.


Date

The date of composition is not known, but is loosely speculated to be between the years 50 and 110. Among those who favor the authorship of the Jude mentioned in the gospels, the letter is generally placed before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in AD 73. Among those who favor the authorship of an unknown Christian, it is assumed to be a work of the early second century.
Bart Ehrman Bart Denton Ehrman (; born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism Textual criticism is a branch of , , and of that is concerned with the identification of textual variants, or different versions ...

Bart Ehrman
suggests an even later date, in the second half of the second century, due to certain passages that suggest the apostles lived in the past and use of certain terminology in ways similar to the pastoral epistles that was uncommon in the first century.


Canonical status

The letter of Jude was one of the disputed books of the
biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of Religious text, texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as authoritative scripture. The English word ''Canon (basic principle), canon'' comes from ...
.
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
doubted its authenticity, although acknowledges it was read in many churches. The links between the Epistle and
2 Peter The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by the Apostl ...
and its use of the
biblical apocrypha The biblical apocrypha (from the grc, ἀπόκρυφος, translit=apókruphos, lit=hidden) denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books thought to have been written some time between 200 BC and 400 AD. Some Christian churches include ...
raised concern:
Saint Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authoriz ...

Saint Jerome
wrote the book was "rejected by many" since it quotes the Book of Enoch. The epistle only spread among Christian circles comparatively late, raising concerns that it had not really been written by an apostle, but rather a later figure. Despite the concerns above, the Epistle of Jude was admitted to the canon in the
Christian Church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. ...

Christian Church
and the New Testament. Christian scholars date it between 70 and 90. Some scholars consider the letter a
pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This also differs from a new name tha ...
ous work that dates to the end of the 1st century AD to the first quarter of the 2nd century AD, due to its references to the
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...

apostles
and to tradition and because of its competent Greek style. "More remarkable is the evidence that by the end of the second century Jude was widely accepted as canonical."
Clement of Alexandria Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria ( grc, Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; – ), was a and philosopher who taught at the . Among his pupils were and . A convert to Christianity, he was an educated man who was ...
,
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
, and the
Muratorian canon The Muratorian fragment, also known as the Muratorian Canon or Canon Muratori, is a copy of perhaps the oldest known list of most of the books of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, trans ...
considered the letter canonical. The first historical record of doubts as to authorship are found in the writings of
Origen of Alexandria Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an early Christian ...
, who spoke of the doubts held by some, albeit not him.
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
classified it with the "disputed writings, the ''
antilegomena Antilegomena, (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
.''" The letter was eventually accepted as part of the biblical canon by
Church Fathers The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians Christian theology is the theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, di ...
such as and the Synods of Laodicea (c. 363) and
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...
(c. 397).


Content

Jude urges his readers to defend the deposit of Christ's doctrine that had been closed by the time he wrote his epistle, and to remember the words of the apostles spoken somewhat before. He warns about false teachers who use grace as a pretext for wantonness. Jude then asks the reader to recall how even after the Lord saved his own people out of the land of Egypt, he did not hesitate to destroy those who fell into unbelief, much as he punished the angels who fell from their original exalted status and
Sodom and Gomorrah Sodom and Gomorrah () were two legendary biblical cities destroyed by God for their wickedness. Their story parallels the Genesis flood narrative The Genesis flood narrative is the flood myth A flood myth or deluge myth is a myth Myt ...
. He also paraphrases (verse 9) an incident in a text that has been lost about
Satan Satan, (''śāṭān''), meaning "adversary"; grc, ὁ σατανᾶς or σατάν (''ho satanas'' or ''satan''); ar, شيطان (''shaitan''), meaning "astray", "distant", or sometimes "devil" also known as the Devil, is an entity in th ...

Satan
and
Michael the Archangel Michael (; he, מִיכָאֵל, lit= Who is like El?, translit=Mīḳā'ēl; el, Μιχαήλ, translit=Mikhaḗl; la, Michahel; cop, ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; ar, ميخائيل ، مِيكَالَ ، ميكائيل, translit=Mīkā'īl, Mīkāl ...
quarreling over the body of Moses. Continuing the analogy from Israel's history, he says that the false teachers have followed in the way of
Cain Cain ''Káïn''; ar, قابيل/قايين, Qābīl/Qāyīn is a Biblical figure in the Book of Genesis The Book of Genesis,, "''Bərēšīṯ''", "In hebeginning" the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, is an ...
, have rushed after reward into the error of
Balaam Balaam (; , Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined r ...

Balaam
, and have perished in the rebellion of Korach. He describes in vivid terms the opponents he warns of, calling them "clouds without rain", "trees without fruit", "foaming waves of the sea", and "wandering stars" He exhorts believers to remember the words spoken by the Apostles, using language similar to the second epistle of
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter, a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Peter (given name) ** Saint Peter (died 60s), apostle of Jesus, leader of the early Christian Church * Peter (surname), a sur ...

Peter
to answer concerns that the Lord seemed to tarry, "How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts...", and to keep themselves in God's love, before delivering a
doxology A doxology (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...
to "the only, the wise God our savior". Jude quotes directly from
1 Enoch The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; gez, መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ, ) is an Second Temple Judaism, ancient Hebrew Apocalyptic literature, apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch (Biblical figure), Enoch, the great-grandfather of No ...
, a widely distributed work among the
Old Testament PseudepigraphaPseudepigrapha are falsely wikt:attribution, attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.Bauckham, Richard; "Pseudo-Apostolic Letters", ''Journal of Biblical L ...
, citing a section of 1 Enoch 1:8 that is based on Deuteronomy 33:2.


Style

The Epistle of Jude is a brief book. It is one of the shortest books of the New Testament, consisting of just 1 chapter of 25 verses, and almost the shortest book in the Bible, with the shortest the
Book of Obadiah The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom Edom (; Edomite Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kin ...
. It may have been composed as an
encyclical An encyclical was originally a circular Circular may refer to: * The shape of a circle * Circular (album), ''Circular'' (album), a 2006 album by Spanish singer Vega * Circular letter (disambiguation) ** Flyer (pamphlet), a form of advertisement ...
letter—that is, one not directed to the members of one church in particular, but intended rather to be circulated and read in all churches. The wording and syntax of this epistle in its original Greek demonstrates that the author was capable and fluent. The epistle's style is combative, impassioned, and rushed. Many examples of evildoers and warnings about their fates are given in rapid succession. The epistle concludes with a
doxology A doxology (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myce ...
, which is considered by Peter H. Davids to be one of the highest in quality contained in the Bible.


Identity of the opponents

The epistle fiercely condemns the opponents it warns of and declares that God will judge and punish them, despite them being a part of the Christian community. However, the exact nature of these opponents have been a continuing interest for both theologians and historians, as the epistle does not describe them in any more detail than calling them corrupt and ungodly. Several theories have been proposed. One hypothesis is that related to the role of angels in Christianity, and possibly by extension the authority of
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
. Jude writes that "these ungodly people pollute their own bodies, reject authority, and heap abuse on celestial beings" (). Paul's undisputed works indicate that believers are already on the same level as angels, that all existing powers are subject to Christ, and believers are the future judges of angels. Later writings attributed to Paul such as
Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division o ...
and
Ephesians The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Tes ...
go even farther, with Colossians decrying the alleged worship of angels. As such, the author may have been attacking forms of Pauline Christianity that were not suitably deferential to angels in their opinion and who "rejected authority". As James was known to be a major figure among Jewish Christians, this might indicate tension between the more Jewish strands of early Christianity represented by James and Jude set against Paul's message to the gentiles. However, the line about "heap abuse on celestial beings" might have essentially been just another insult, in which case this entire line of thought is rendered moot. The inherent vagueness of the epistle means that the identities of these opponents may well never be known.


Similarity to 2 Peter

Part of Jude is very similar to
2 Peter The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by the Apostl ...
(mainly 2 Peter chapter 2); so much so that most scholars agree that either one letter used the other directly, or they both drew on a common source. Comparing the Greek text portions of 2 Peter 2:1–3:3 (426 words) to Jude 4–18 (311 words) results in 80 words in common and 7 words of substituted synonyms. The shared passages are: Because this epistle is much shorter than 2 Peter, and due to various stylistic details, some scholars consider Jude the source for the similar passages of 2 Peter. However, other writers, arguing that Jude 18 quotes 2 Peter 3:3 as past tense, consider Jude to have come after 2 Peter. Some scholars who consider Jude to predate 2 Peter note that the latter appears to quote the former but omits the reference to the non-canonical book of Enoch.


References to other books

The Epistle of Jude references at least three other books, with two (
Book of Zechariah The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets ( he, שנים עשר, ''Shneim Asar''; arc, תרי עשר, ''Trei Asar'', "Twelve") ( grc, ...
&
2 Peter The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by the Apostl ...
) being canonical in all churches and the other (
Book of Enoch The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; gez, መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ, ) is an Second Temple Judaism, ancient Hebrew Apocalyptic literature, apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch (Biblical figure), Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noa ...
) non-canonical in most churches. Verse 9 refers to a dispute between
Michael the Archangel Michael (; he, מִיכָאֵל, lit= Who is like El?, translit=Mīḳā'ēl; el, Μιχαήλ, translit=Mikhaḗl; la, Michahel; cop, ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ; ar, ميخائيل ، مِيكَالَ ، ميكائيل, translit=Mīkā'īl, Mīkāl ...
and the
devil A devil is the personification Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthropomorphic Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') ...

devil
about the body of
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
. Some interpreters understand this reference to be an allusion to the events described in Zechariah 3:1–2. The classical theologian
Origen Origen of Alexandria, ''Ōrigénēs''; Coptic language, Coptic: Ϩⲱⲣⲓⲕⲉⲛ Origen's Greek name ''Ōrigénēs'' () probably means "child of Horus" (from , "Horus", and , "born"). ( 184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was an ...

Origen
attributes this reference to the non-canonical
Assumption of MosesThe Assumption of Moses (otherwise called the Testament of Moses) is a 1st century Jewish apocrypha The Jewish apocrypha, known in Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic langua ...
. According to James Charlesworth, there is no evidence the surviving book of this name ever contained any such content.James Charlesworth ''Old Testament Pseudepigrapha'', p. 76
Google books link
/ref> Others believe it to be in the lost ending of the book. Verses 14–15 contain a direct quotation of a prophecy from 1 Enoch 1:9. The title "Enoch, the seventh from Adam" is also sourced from 1 En. 60:1. Most commentators assume that this indicates that Jude accepts the
antediluvian The antediluvian (alternatively pre-diluvian or pre-flood) period is the time period chronicled in the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian d ...
patriarch
Enoch Enoch may refer to: Biblical occurrences *Enoch (ancestor of Noah), son of Jared, father of Methusaleh, great-grandfather of Noah, subject of the deuterocanonical Book of Enoch * Enoch (son of Cain) *Hanoch (Enoch), son of Reuben (son of Jacob), ...
as the author of the
Book of Enoch The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; gez, መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ, ) is an Second Temple Judaism, ancient Hebrew Apocalyptic literature, apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch (Biblical figure), Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noa ...
which contains the same quotation. However, an alternative explanation is that Jude quotes the Book of Enoch aware that verses 14–15 are in fact an expansion of the words of Moses from Deuteronomy 33:2. This is supported by Jude's unusual Greek statement that "Enoch the Seventh from Adam prophesied ''to'' the false teachers", not ''concerning'' them. The
Book of Enoch The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; gez, መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ, ) is an Second Temple Judaism, ancient Hebrew Apocalyptic literature, apocalyptic religious text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch (Biblical figure), Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noa ...
is not considered canonical by most churches, although it is by the
Ethiopian Orthodox The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church ( am, የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተ ክርስቲያን, ''Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan'') is the largest of Eastern Christianity's branch of Oriental Orthodox ...
church. According to Western scholars, the older sections of the Book of Enoch (mainly in the ''Book of the Watchers'') date from about 300 BC and the latest part (''Book of Parables'') probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC. 1 Enoch 1:9, mentioned above, is part of the
pseudepigrapha Pseudepigrapha (also anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or und ...
and is among the Dead Sea Scrolls Q_Enoch_(4Q204[4QENAR_COL_I_16–18.html" ;"title="QENAR.html" ;"title="Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR">Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR COL I 16–18">QENAR.html" ;"title="Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR">Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR COL I 16–18 It is largely accepted by scholars that the author of the Epistle of Jude was familiar with the Book of Enoch and was influenced by it in thought and diction."Apocalyptic Literature" (column 220), ''Encyclopedia Biblica'' The epistle also closely mirrors the Epistle of James, with many similar sentences and borrowed phrases.


See also

* Textual variants in the New Testament#Epistle of Jude, Textual variants in the Epistle of Jude


Notes


Sources

* *


Further reading

* *


External links

Online translations of the Epistle of Jude:
''Online Bible'' at GospelHall.org

Jude at Bible Gateway
(various versions)

Audiobook Version: * Additional information:




An Exegesis of Jude by Michael Quandt

BibleProject Animated Overview (evangelical perspective)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Epistle Of Jude Epistle of Jude, Antilegomena Jude Luther's Antilegomena Jude Jude, brother of Jesus