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Enterprise life cycle (ELC) in enterprise architecture is the dynamic, iterative
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management * Business process, activities that produce a specific s ...
of changing the
enterprise Enterprise (or the archaic spelling Enterprize) may refer to: Business and economics Brands and enterprises * Enterprise GP Holdings, an energy holding company * Enterprise plc, a UK civil engineering and maintenance company * Enterpri ...
over time by incorporating new
business process A business process, business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks by people or equipment in which a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal) for a parti ...
es, new technology, and new capabilities, as well as
maintenance Maintenance may refer to: Biological science * Maintenance of an organism * Maintenance respiration Non-technical maintenance * Alimony, also called ''maintenance'' in British English * Champerty and maintenance, two related legal doctri ...
,
disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way. The terms dispositional belief and occurrent belief refer, in the former case, to a belief that is held in the mind ...
and disposal of existing elements of the enterprise.Chief Information Officer Council (2001)
A Practical Guide to Federal Enterprise Architecture
/ref>


Overview

The enterprise life cycle is a key concept in enterprise architecture (EA),
enterprise engineering Enterprise engineering is the body of knowledge, principles, and practices used to design all or part of an enterprise. R.E. Giachetti (2010). ''Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory, Methods, and Architecture''. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. An enterp ...
and
systems engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design, integrate, and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking ...
. The Enterprise Architecture process is closely related to similar processes, as program management cycle or
systems development life cycle In systems engineering, information systems and software engineering, the systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life cycle, is a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an informa ...
, and has similar properties to those found in the
product life cycle In industry, Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its inception through the engineering, design and manufacture, as well as the service and disposal of manufactured products. PLM ...
.Alain Bernard, Serge Tichkiewitch (2008). ''Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management.'' p. 403 The concept of enterprise life cycle aids in the implementation of an enterprise architecture, and the capital planning and investment control (CPIC) process that selects, controls, and evaluates investments. Overlying these processes are
human capital management Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and exceptional cognitive skills due to a large and complex brain. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, an ...
and information security management. When these processes work together effectively, the enterprise can effectively manage
information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of data . and information. IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology syste ...
as a strategic resource and business process enabler. When these processes are properly synchronized, systems migrate efficiently from legacy technology environments through evolutionary and incremental developments, and the Agency is able to demonstrate its
return on investment Return on investment (ROI) or return on costs (ROC) is a ratio between net income (over a period) and investment (costs resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time). A high ROI means the investment's gains compare favourably ...
(ROI). The figure on top illustrates the interaction of the dynamic and interactive cycles as they would occur over time.


Enterprise life cycle topics


Enterprise architecture process

As a prerequisite to the development of every enterprise architecture, each Agency should establish the need to develop an EA and formulate a strategy that includes the definition of a vision, objectives, and principles. The figure shows a representation of the EA process. Executive buy-in and support should be established and an architectural team created within the organization. The team defines an approach and process tailored to Agency needs. The architecture team implements the process to build both the baseline and target EAs. The architecture team also generates a sequencing plan for the transition of systems, applications, and associated business practices predicated upon a detailed gap analysis. The architecture is employed in the CPIC and the enterprise engineering and program management processes via prioritized, incremental projects and the insertion of emerging new technologies. Lastly, the architectures are maintained through a continuous modification to reflect the Agency's current baseline and target business practices, organizational goals, visions, technology, and infrastructure.


Architecture life cycle

The figure depicts the life of the architecture as it evolves and shows the process that the architecture description supports in the development, analysis, and evolution of the implemented architecture. In this illustration, the
Operational View Operational View (OV) is one of the basic views defined in the enterprise architecture (EA) of the Department of Defense Architecture Framework V1.5 (DoDAF) and is related with concept of operations. Under DODAF 2, which became operational in ...
is used to drive the requirements that are evaluated against the Systems View. Operational deficiencies are derived from the analysis, and viable candidates are identified. These candidates can take the form of either materiel or non- materiel solutions and are modeled back into the Operational and Systems Views of the architecture. The architecture is re-analyzed, and the process continues until the operational deficiencies are minimized. The final sets of viable candidates are assessed for operational viability. Based on the results of the assessments, design changes are made and submitted for inclusion into the budgeting process. This process of developing, analyzing, and modifying continues throughout the architecture’s life cycle.


Enterprise life cycle activities

An enterprise life cycle integrates the management, business, and engineering life cycle processes that span the enterprise to align its business and IT activities. Enterprise life cycle refers generally to an organization's approach for managing activities and making decisions during ongoing refreshment of business and technical practices to support its enterprise mission. These activities include investment management, project definition, configuration management, accountability, and guidance for systems development according to a system development life cycle (SDLC). The enterprise life cycle applies to enterprise-wide planning activities and decision making. By contrast, a System Development Life Cycle generally refers to practices for building individual systems. Determining what systems to build is an enterprise-level decision. The figure on the right depicts notional activities of an enterprise life cycle methodology. Within the context of this document, Enterprise Life Cycle does not refer to a specific methodology or a specific bureau's approach. Each organization needs to follow a documented Enterprise Life Cycle methodology appropriate to its size, the complexity of its enterprise, and the scope of its needs.


Enterprise Performance Life Cycle

The Enterprise Performance Life Cycle (EPLC) encompasses the major business functions executed under the Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO), and in particular shows at a high level the relationship among the different business functions and both the general order and the iterative nature of their execution. The placement of enterprise architecture in the center of the EPLC conceptual diagram, shown in the figure, reflects the supporting and enabling role that enterprise architecture serves for the major business functions in the Enterprise Performance Life Cycle. The Enterprise Architecture (EA) Program explicitly considers the information needs of the Enterprise Performance Life Cycle (EPLC) processes in developing and enhancing the EA Framework, collecting and populating data in the EA Repository, and developing views, reports, and analytical tools that can be used to facilitate the execution of the EPLC processes. The EPLC conceptual diagram in the figure provides a Departmental perspective of key business functions. The EPLC is also relevant from an individual investment or project perspective, as each new investment passes through each phase of the EPLC. The investment-level perspective is detailed in the Enterprise Performance Life Cycle Framework.


See also

*
Business analysis Business analysis is a professional discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a software-systems development component, but may also consist of process improvements, organiza ...
*
Enterprise architecture planning Enterprise architecture planning (EAP) in enterprise architecture is the planning process of defining architectures for the use of information in support of the business and the plan for implementing those architectures.The Chief Information Off ...
*
Enterprise modeling Enterprise modelling is the abstract representation, description and definition of the structure, processes, information and resources of an identifiable business, government body, or other large organization. It deals with the process of underst ...
*
Organizational life cycle The organizational life cycle is the life cycle of an organization from its creation to its termination. It also refers to the expected sequence of advancements experienced by an organization, as opposed to a randomized occurrence of events. The re ...
*
Product lifecycle management In industry, Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is the process of managing the entire lifecycle of a product from its inception through the engineering, design and manufacture, as well as the service and disposal of manufactured products. P ...
* Service-oriented modeling life cycle * Software lifecycle processes *
Systems development life cycle In systems engineering, information systems and software engineering, the systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life cycle, is a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an informa ...
*
Technology life cycle The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life". Some technologies, such as steel, paper or cement manufacturing, ...
* Whole-life cost * Enterprise integration


References


Further reading

* Alain Bernard, Serge Tichkiewitch (2008). ''Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management''. * Peter Bernus, Laszlo Nemes, Günter Schmidt (2003). ''Handbook on Enterprise Architecture''. * Jeffrey O. Grady (2006). ''System requirements analysis'' * Arturo Molina, Jose Manuel Sanchez, Andrew Kusiak (1998). ''Handbook of Life Cycle Engineering: Concepts, Models, and Technologies''. * François Vernadat (1996). ''Enterprise Modeling and Integration: Principles and Applications''.


External links


Enterprise Life Cycle Management
presentation 2005
EA in the Federal Enterprise Life Cycle EA in the Federal Enterprise Life Cycle
presentation 2006. {{Authority control Enterprise architecture