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The emperor or empress of all the Russias or All Russia, ''Imperator Vserossiyskiy'', ''Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya'' (often titled
Tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

Tsar
or
Tsarina Image:Marfa Matveevna by Workshop of Kremlin Armoury (before 1682, GRM).jpg, Tsarina Marfa Apraxina, Peter the Great's sister-in-law Tsarina or tsaritsa (also spelled ''csarina'' or ''csaricsa'', ''tzarina'' or ''tzaritza'', or ''czarina'' or ''cza ...
/Tsaritsa) was the
monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority a ...
of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
. The title originated in connection with Russia's victory in the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoy ...

Great Northern War
of 17001721 and appeared as the adaptation of the
tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate East and South Slavic monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mi ...

tsar
's title under the accepted system of titling in Europe. The suffix "of all the Russias" was transformed from the previous version "(Tsar)
of All Rus' The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое Княжество Московское, ''Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye'', also known in English language, English simply as ...
".


Title

Article 1 of the ''
Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth ...
'' stated that "the Emperor of All Russia is an autocratic and unrestricted monarch. To obey his supreme authority, not only out of fear but out of conscience as well, God himself commands". The full title of the emperor in the 20th century (Art.37 of the Fundamental Laws) was:


Tsarist autocracy


List of emperors

Nicholas II abdicated in favour of his brother,
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich
Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich
, but the next day, after a nominal reign of only 18 hours, "Emperor Michael II" declined power, ending dynastic rule in Russia forever. See
List of leaders of Russia This is the list of rulers of Ancient Rus', the Russian Tsardom, Empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, ...
for the continuation of leadership.


History

The title of the Emperor of All Russia was introduced for
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
. After the victory at the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoy ...

Great Northern War
and signing the
Treaty of Nystad The Treaty of Nystad (russian: Ништадтский мир; fi, Uudenkaupungin rauha; sv, Freden i Nystad; et, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721. It was concluded between the Tsardom of R ...

Treaty of Nystad
, in September 1721
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
and
Synod A synod () is a council of a Ecclesia (church), church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word ''wikt:synod, synod'' comes from the meaning "assembly" or "meeting" and is analogous with the La ...
decided to award Peter with the title of the Emperor of All Russia with the following statement: "in the manner of the Roman Senate for the noble cause of emperors such titles publicly given them as a gift and into statues for the everlasting generations inscribed". On November 2, 1721 Peter I accepted the title. The
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography as the Dutch Republic, was a federal republic which existed from 1588 (during the Du ...
and
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. ''The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empir ...
immediately recognized the new title of the Russian Tsar, followed by the
Kingdom of Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe Northern Europe is a loosely defined Geography, geographical and cultural region in Europe. Narrower ...
in 1723, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
in 1739, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its D ...
in 1742, the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power from the ...
and the
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_ ...
in 1745, and finally the
Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as used to describe groups, families, or individuals with histories in the Polish–Lithuania ...
in 1764. Since then the Russian State was referred to as the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
. On February 16, 1722 Peter I issued the Decree of Succession by which he abolished the old custom of passing the throne to the direct descendants in the male line, but allowed the appointment of an heir through any decent person, at the will of the monarch.


Coronation ceremony

Coronations in the Russian Empire involved a highly developed religious ceremony in which the Emperor was crowned and invested with
regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum ''Plurale'' is an album by Italian singer Mina, distributed back to back with album '' Singolare''. Track listing # ''Intro'' - 2:26 - (Recording dialogues during rehearsals) # ''Moonlight Serenade'' - 4 ...
, then
anointed Anointed is a contemporary Christian music duo from Columbus, Ohio Columbus is the List of U.S. state capitals, state capital and the List of cities in Ohio, most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio. With a population estimated at 898,553 ...
with
chrism Chrism, also called myrrh Myrrh (; from Semitic, but see '' § Etymology'') is a gum-resin In polymer chemistry and materials science The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and ...
and formally blessed by the
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used to refer to the physical build ...

church
to commence his reign. Although rulers of
Muscovy The Grand Duchy of Moscow, Muscovite Russia, Muscovite Rus' or Grand Principality of Moscow (russian: Великое Княжество Московское, ''Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye'', also known in English simply as Muscovy from the ...
had been crowned prior to the reign of
Ivan III Ivan III Vasilyevich (russian: Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Names of Rus', Russ ...

Ivan III
, their coronation rituals assumed overt
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
overtones as the result of the influence of Ivan's wife
Sophia Paleologue Zoe Palaiologina ( grc-x-byzant, Ζωή Παλαιολογίνα), who later changed her name to Sophia Palaiologina (russian: София Фоминична Палеолог; ca. 1449 – 7 April 1503), was a Byzantine princess, member of the ...
, and the imperial ambitions of his grandson,
Ivan IV Ivan IV Vasilyevich ( rus, Ива́н Васи́льевич; 25 August 1530 – ), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible ( ''Ivan Grozny''; "Ivan the Formidable" or "Ivan the Fearsome", la, Ioannes Severus), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from ...

Ivan IV
. The modern coronation, introducing "European-style" elements, replaced the previous "crowning" ceremony and was first used for
Catherine I Catherine I ( rus, Екатери́на I Алексе́евна Миха́йлова, Yekaterína I Alekséyevna Mikháylova; born , ; – ) was the second wife and Empress consort of Peter the Great, and Emperor of all the Russias, Empress Regn ...
in 1724. Since czarist Russia claimed to be the "
Third Rome The continuation, succession and revival of the Roman Empire is a running theme of the history of Europe and the Mediterranean region. It reflects the lasting memories of power and prestige associated with the Roman Empire itself. Several polit ...
" and the replacement of Byzantium as the true Christian state, the Russian rite was designed to link its rulers and prerogatives to those of the so-called " Second Rome" (
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsargrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopol ...
). While months or even years could pass between the initial accession of the sovereign and the performance of this ritual, church policy held that the monarch must be anointed and crowned according to the Orthodox rite to have a successful tenure.''New York Times'', May 31, 1896. Quoted in Wortman, Introduction. See also Blech, Annalise
The Russian Orthodox Church: History and Influence
University of Texas at Austin, 2008, pg. 9.
As the church and state were essentially one in Imperial Russia, this service invested the Tsars with political legitimacy; however, this was not its only intent. It was equally perceived as conferring a genuine spiritual benefit that mystically wedded sovereign to subjects, bestowing divine authority upon the new ruler. As such, it was similar in purpose to other
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest ...

Europe
an coronation ceremonies from the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...

medieval
era. Even when the imperial capital was located at
St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
(1713–1728, 1732–1917), Russian coronations were always held in
Moscow Moscow (, ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the capital and largest city of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe ...

Moscow
at the
Cathedral of the Dormition The Cathedral of the Dormition (russian: Успенский Собор, or ''Uspensky sobor''), also known as the Assumption Cathedral or Cathedral of the Assumption is a Russian Orthodox church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) ...

Cathedral of the Dormition
in the
Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( rus, Московский Кремль, r=Moskovskiy Kreml, p=mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ), or simply the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow founded by Russian ruling dynasty of Rurikids. It is the bes ...

Kremlin
. The last coronation service in Russia was held on 26 May 1896 for
Nicholas II Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov . ( 186817 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, . was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until Abdication of Nicholas II ...

Nicholas II
and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, who would be the final Tsar and Tsaritsa of Russia. The Russian Imperial regalia survived the subsequent
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...
and the
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
period, and are currently on exhibit in a
museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, culture, cu ...
at the
Kremlin Armoury The Kremlin Armoury,Officially called the "Armou/ory Chamber" but also known as the cannon yard, the "Armou/ory Palace", the "Moscow Armou/ory", the "Armou/ory Museum", and the "Moscow Armou/ory Museum" but different from the Kremlin Arsenal. (ru ...

Kremlin Armoury
.


See also

*
Church reform of Peter the Great , Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (portrait by Paul Delaroche, 1838). The Church Reform of Peter I introduced what some believe was a period of Caesaropapism in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church, when the church apparatus effect ...
*
Digest of Laws of the Russian EmpireThe Digest of Laws of the Russian Empire (Russian language, Russian: ''Свод законов Российской империи'', pre-1917 Russian: ''Сводъ законовъ Россійской имперіи'') was the code of Penal law, pe ...
*
Government reform of Peter the Great The government reforms of Peter the Great, Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western Europe, Western and Central European models. Peter ascended to the throne at the age of 10 in 1682; he ruled jo ...
*
Government reform of Alexander I The early Russia, Russian system of government instituted by Peter the Great, which consisted of various state committees, each named ''Collegium (ministry), Collegium'' with subordinate departments named ''Prikaz'', was largely outdated by the 19 ...
*
His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancery or H.I.M. Own Chancery () began as personal chancery of Paul I of Russia, Paul I and grew into a kind of regent's office, run by Alexey Andreyevich Arakcheyev, Count Arakcheyev from 1815 and until the death of Ale ...
*
Imperial Crown of Russia The Imperial Crown of Russia (russian: Императорская Корона России), also known as the Great Imperial Crown (russian: Великая Императорская Корона), was used by the monarchs of Russia from 1762 un ...
*
Judicial system of the Russian EmpireThe judicial system The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and interprets, defends, and applies the l ...
*
Most Holy Synod The Most Holy Governing Synod (russian: Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1 ...
*
Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' The Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' (russian: Патриарх Московский и всея Руси, translit=Patriarkh Moskovskij i vseja Rusi), also known as the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, is the official title of the Metropolitan ...
*
Pauline Laws The Pauline Laws are the house laws of the House of Romanov The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning dynasty, imperial house of Russia from 1613 to 1917. The Romanovs ...
*
Rulers of Russia family tree Family tree of the monarchs of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in th ...
*
Russian Constitution of 1906 The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereo ...
*
State Council (Russian Empire) The State Council ( rus, Госуда́рственный сове́т, p=gəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnɨj sɐˈvʲɛt) was the supreme state advisory body to the Tsar , by Ivan Makarov Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a ...
* Table of Ranks


Notes


References


External links


Excerpts from Statesman's Handbook for Russia
By the Chancery of the Committee of Ministers, St. Petersburg. 1896. {{Imperial palaces in Russia
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...