HOME

TheInfoList




The Electorate of Trier (german: Kurfürstentum Trier or '), traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an
ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...

ecclesiastical principality
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the prince-archbishop of Trier ('), also a
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
of the empire, along with the
Elector of Cologne The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ''ex officio'' ...
and the
Elector of Mainz The Elector of Mainz was one of the seven Prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century ...
, among which the latter ranked first. The capital of the electorate was
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river i ...

Trier
, with the main residence of the Elector being
Koblenz Koblenz (), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus around 8 ...

Koblenz
from the 16th century onward. The electorate was secularized in the course of the
German mediatisation German mediatisation (; german: deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number ...
of 1803. The Elector of Trier, in his capacity as archbishop, also administered the
archdiocese of Trier The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river i ...

Trier
, as the important Roman provincial capital of ', had been the seat of a bishop since Roman times. It was raised to archiepiscopal status during the reign of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
, whose will mentions the bishoprics of
Metz Metz ( , , lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and the Seille (Moselle), Seille rivers. Metz is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Moselle (de ...
,
Toul Toul () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
and
Verdun Verdun (, , , ; official name before 1970 ''Verdun-sur-Meuse'') is a city in the Meuse (department), Meuse departments of France, department in Grand Est, northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest ...
as its
suffragansIn the Anglican Communion, a suffragan bishop is a bishop who is subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop (bishop ordinary) and so is not normally jurisdictional in their role. Suffragan bishops may be charged by a metropolitan to over ...
. The bishops of Trier were already virtually independent territorial magnates during the
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the ...
dynasty. In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop
Wiomad Wermad, Wiomad, Weomad, or Wiemad ( la, Weomadus or ) (died 791) was the Bishop of Trier from 757/8 until his death. He accompanied Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for thi ...
complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling
count Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...

count
for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In 816
Louis the Pious Louis the Pious (16 April 778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Ro ...

Louis the Pious
confirmed to Archbishop Hetto the privileges of protection and immunity granted by his father. At the partition of the
Carolingian empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient nort ...
at
Verdun Verdun (, , , ; official name before 1970 ''Verdun-sur-Meuse'') is a city in the Meuse (department), Meuse departments of France, department in Grand Est, northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest ...

Verdun
in 843, Trier was given to Lothair; at the partition of
Lotharingia Lotharingia (Latin: ''regnum Lotharii, regnum Lothariense, Lotharingia'', French: ''Lotharingie'', German: ''Reich des Lothar'', ''Lotharingien'', ''Mittelreich'') was a short-lived medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire The Ca ...
at Mersen in 870, it became part of the East Frankish kingdom, which developed into the
Kingdom of Germany The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom ( la, regnum Teutonicorum "kingdom of the Germans", "German kingdom", "kingdom of Germany") was the mostly Germanic-speaking East Frankish kingdom, which was formed by the Treaty of Verdun The Treaty ...
. In 898 Archbishop Radbod received complete immunity from all taxes for the entire episcopal territory, granted by
Zwentibold Zwentibold (''Zventibold'', ''Zwentibald'', ''Swentiboldo'', ''Sventibaldo'', ''Sanderbald''; – 13 August 900), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf.Collins 1999, p. 360 In 895, his father, then kin ...
, who was the natural son of Emperor
Arnulf of Carinthia Arnulf is a masculine German given name Personal names in German-speaking Europe consist of one or several given names (''Vorname'', plural ''Vornamen'') and a surname (''Nachname, Familienname''). The ''Vorname'' is usually gender-specific. A n ...
, and who reigned briefly as King of Lotharingia. He was under great pressure from his independent nobles and desperately needed a powerful ally. The gift cemented the position of the archbishops as territorial lords in their own right. Following Zwentibold's assassination in 900, the handlers of the
child-king Louis
child-king Louis
courted Radbod in their turn, granting him the district and city of Trier outright, permission to impose
customs duties A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated el ...
and the right to a
mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
(as much a symbol of independent authority as an economic tool). From the court of
Charles the Simple Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communica ...

Charles the Simple
, he obtained the final right of election of the Bishop of Trier by the chapter, free of Imperial interference.


Early modern

In early modern times, the Electorate of Trier still encompassed territory along the river
Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becom ...
between Trier, near the French border, and
Koblenz Koblenz (), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus around 8 ...

Koblenz
on the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
. From the early 13th century the Archbishop of Trier, as the holder of an imperial office was traditionally an Imperial Elector of the German king. The purely honorary office of Arch-chancellor of Gaul arose in the 13th century. In this context that was taken to mean the
Kingdom of Burgundy-Arles The Kingdom of Burgundy, known from the 12th century as Kingdom of Arles, also referred to in various context as Arelat, Kingdom of Arles and Vienne, or Kingdom of Burgundy-Provence, was a realm established in 933 by the merger of the kingdoms of ...
, technically from 1242 and permanently from 1263, and nominally until 1803. Arles along with
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
and the medieval Kingdom of Italy was one of the three component kingdoms of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. In 1473, Emperor
Frederick IIIFrederick III may refer to: * Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine (died 1033) * Frederick III, Duke of Swabia (1122–1190) * Friedrich III, Burgrave of Nuremberg (1220–1297) * Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine (1240–1302) * Frederick III of Sici ...

Frederick III
and
Charles the Bold 260px, Double Briquet, struck under Charles the Bold in Bruges, 1475 Charles I (Charles Martin; german: Karl Martin; nl, Karel Maarten; 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), nicknamed the Bold (german: der Kühne; nl, de Stoute; fren ...
, Duke of
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organizati ...

Burgundy
held a meeting in Trier. In this same year, the
University of Trier The University of Trier (german: Universität Trier), in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany ...
was founded in the city. A session of the ' was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the
Imperial Circle #REDIRECT Imperial circle During the Early Modern period the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Ce ...
s was definitively established. Between 1581 and 1593, the
Trier witch trialsImage:Trier Hexentanzplatz 1594.JPG, 350px, Trier witch trials (Pamphlett, 1594) The Witch Trials of Trier took place in the independent Catholic diocese of Trier in the Holy Roman Empire in present day Germany between 1581 and 1593, and were perha ...
gravely affected the entire territory; it was one of the first mass witch trials of the Holy Roman Empire, and resulted in the death of hundreds of people. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to
Philippsburg Philippsburg () is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * Ger ...
Castle in , near
Koblenz Koblenz (), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus around 8 ...

Koblenz
. During the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, Archbishop-Elector
Philipp Christoph von Sötern
Philipp Christoph von Sötern
supported
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
against the
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
, leading to a rivalry between French and Spanish troops about the strategic cities and fortresses of the Electorate. In 1630, the city of Trier opened its gates to Spanish troops to defend its rights against the absolutist Elector. French troops captured the city in 1632 to help Sötern. In return, they were allowed to install garrisons there and in the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. Spanish troops retook Trier by surprise in 1635 and imprisoned Sötern. During his absence, the cathedral chapter took over administration of the archbishopric. Imperial troops dispelled the French garrison of Ehrenbreitstein in 1637 and occupied the place until the end of the war. The archbishop was released from captivity in 1645 because of French demands in
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769 ...
. The warfare returned to the Electorate in 1673 when the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
occupied Trier and stayed until 1675. They heavily fortified the city and destroyed all churches, abbeys and settlements in front of the city walls. In 1684, with the
War of the Reunions The War of the Reunions (1683–84) was a conflict involving France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France ...
, an era of French expansion began. Trier was again captured in 1684; all walls and fortresses were destroyed this time. After Trier and its associated electorate were yet again taken during the War of Palatinate Succession in 1688, many cities in the electorate were systematically destroyed in 1689 by the French Army. Nearly all castles were blown up and the only bridge across the
Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becom ...
in Trier was burnt. King
Louis XIV of France Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the of any monarch of a sovereign country in ...

Louis XIV of France
personally issued the order for these acts of destruction. As the French Army retreated in 1698, it left a starving city without walls and only 2,500 inhabitants. During the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
in 1702, Trier was occupied again by a French army. In 1704–05 an allied
Anglo Anglo is a prefix indicating a relation to, or descent from, the Angles The Angles ( ang, Ængle, ; la, Angli; german: Angeln) were one of the main Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in ...

Anglo
-
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
army commanded by the
Duke of Marlborough General (United Kingdom), General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722 Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.) was an Englis ...
passed Trier on its way to France. When the campaign failed, the French came back to Trier in 1705 and stayed until 1714. After a short period of peace, the
War of the Polish Succession The War of the Polish Succession ( pl, Wojna o sukcesję polską; 1733–35) was a major European conflict sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II of Poland, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their ...
started in 1734; the following year Trier was again occupied by the French, who stayed until 1737. The last Prince-Elector, Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony, relocated to Koblenz in 1786. In August 1794, French Republican troops took Trier. This date marked the end of the era of the old electorate. Churches, abbeys and clerical possessions were sold or the buildings put to secular use, such as stables. The last elector, Clemens Wenceslaus, resided exclusively in Koblenz after 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Electorate on the left bank of the Rhine were under French occupation; in 1801, they were annexed and a separate French-controlled diocese established under Bishop Charles Mannay. In 1803, the French diocese assumed control of the whole diocese and what was left of the electoral territory on the eastern bank of the Rhine was secularized and annexed by
Nassau-Weilburg The House of Nassau-Weilburg, a branch of the House of Nassau, ruled a division of the Nassau, Rhineland-Palatinate, County of Nassau, which was a state in what is now Germany, then part of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1344 to 1806. On July 17, 18 ...
in 1803.


Archbishop-Electors of Trier

*
John I John I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem)John I of Jerusalem was the seventh Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Bishop of Jerusalem. He was, according to Eusebius, a Jewish Christian born to Jewish parents who kept the Law of ...
1189–1212 *
Theodoric II Theodoric II, ''Teodorico'' in Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish R ...
(Dietrich von Wied) 1212–42 * Arnold II von Isenburg 1242–59 * Heinrich I von Finstingen 1260–86 * Bohemond I von Warnesberg 1286–99 * Diether von Nassau 1300–07 * Heinrich II von Virneburg 1300–06 (in opposition) *
Baldwin von Luxemburg Baldwin is a Germanic name, composed of the elements ''bald'' "bold" and ''win'' "friend". People * Baldwin (name) Places Canada * Baldwin, York Regional Municipality, Ontario * Baldwin, Ontario, in Sudbury District United States * Bal ...
1307–54 * Bohemond II von Saarbrücken 1354–61 * Kuno II von Falkenstein 1362–88 *
Werner von FalkensteinWerner von Falkenstein (1355–October 4, 1418), was a German Archbishop and Electorate of Trier, Elector of Trier. He served as Archbishop from 1388 to 1418 as Werner III; he was the great-nephew of his predecessor Kuno II von Falkenstein (1362-1388 ...
1388–1417 *Lenihan von Weideburg 1417–1419 *
Otto von Ziegenhain Otto is a masculine German given name and a Otto (surname), surname. It originates as an Old High German short form (variants ''Audo'', ''Odo'', ''Udo'') of Germanic names beginning in ''aud-'', an element meaning "wealth, prosperity". The name i ...
1419–30 *Elector of Trier, Rhaban von Helmstadt 1430–38 *:de:Jakob I. von Sierck, Jakob von Sierk 1439–56 *John II of Baden, Johann II of Baden 1456–1503 *Jakob von Baden 1503–11 *Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads 1511–31 *Johann von Metzenhausen 1531–40 *Johann Ludwig von Hagen 1540–47 *John of Isenburg-Grenzau 1547–56 *Johann von der Leyen 1556–67 *Jakob von Eltz-Rübenach 1567–81 *Johann von Schönenberg 1581–99 *Lothar von Metternich 1599–1623 *
Philipp Christoph von Sötern
Philipp Christoph von Sötern
1623–52 *Karl Kaspar von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseck 1652–76 *Johann Hugo von Orsbeck 1676–1711 *Charles Joseph of Lorraine 1711–15 *Franz Ludwig of Palatinate-Neuburg 1716–29 *Franz Georg von Schönborn-Buchheim 1729–56 *Johann IX Philipp von Walderdorff 1756–68 *Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony 1768–1803From 1794, after the French Revolutionary Wars, French conquest of the Imperial territories on the left-bank of the Rhine, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony was archbishop with effect on the right bank only. Trier Konstantinsbasilika Merian 1646(1548).jpg, Aula Palatina of emperor Constantine I, Constantine (AD 306–337) in
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river i ...

Trier
, converted into the fortress of the archbishops (from around AD 1000) File:Trier Dom BW 24.JPG, Cathedral of Trier (completed in 1196) Kurfürstliches Palais 01.jpg, The Prince-Elector's Palace at Trier (1615–1676, renovated in 1756) in front of the reconstructed Aula Palatina Ehrenbreitstein mit Philippsburg 1789.jpg, Philippsburg Castle at
Koblenz Koblenz (), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a Germany, German city on the banks of the Rhine and of the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman military post by Nero Claudius Drusus, Drusus around 8 ...

Koblenz
(electoral residence from 1632 until 1786, destroyed in 1801), left side below, and the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress, on the hill Koblenz im Buga-Jahr 2011 - Luftbilder 01.jpg, The New Electoral Palace, Koblenz, built 1777–1793


Footnotes

{{DEFAULTSORT:Trier, Electorate of 898 establishments 1801 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire States and territories established in the 890s History of Trier, Electorate Electoral Rhenish Circle Former states and territories of Rhineland-Palatinate History of the Rhineland Archbishop-Electors of Trier, Electorates of the Holy Roman Empire Prince-bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire in France