HOME

TheInfoList




Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (; October 11, 1884November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplomat, and activist. She served as the
first lady of the United States The first lady of the United States (FLOTUS) is the title held by the hostess of the White House, usually the wife of the president of the United States, concurrent with the president's term in office. Although the first lady's role has never ...
from 1933 to 1945, during her husband President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
's four terms in office, making her the longest-serving first lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. President
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the ...

Harry S. Truman
later called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her
human rights Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for ...
achievements. Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American
Roosevelt Roosevelt may refer to: *Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), 26th U.S. president *Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), 32nd U.S. president Businesses and organisations * Roosevelt Hotel (disambiguation) * Roosevelt & Son, a merchant bank * Roosevelt ...
and Livingston families and a niece of President
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of ...

Theodore Roosevelt
. She had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended
Allenswood Boarding Academy Allenswood Boarding Academy (also known as Allenswood Academy or Allenswood School) was an exclusive girls' boarding school founded in Wimbledon, London by Marie Souvestre in 1870 and operated until the early 1950s, when it was demolished and repla ...
in London and was deeply influenced by its headmistress . Returning to the U.S., she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts' marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin's controlling mother, Sara, and after Eleanor discovered her husband's affair with Lucy Mercer in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own. She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was stricken with a paralytic illness in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, and began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin's election as
Governor of New York The governor of the State of New York is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonom ...
in 1928, and throughout the remainder of Franklin's public career in government, Roosevelt regularly made public appearances on his behalf; and as First Lady, while her husband served as president, she significantly reshaped and redefined the role. Though widely respected in her later years, Roosevelt was a controversial first lady at the time for her outspokenness, particularly on
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to ...
for African-Americans. She was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, and speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies. She launched an experimental community at
Arthurdale, West Virginia Arthurdale is an unincorporated community File:Entering Heinola, Minnesota.jpg, Sign at Heinola, Minnesota, Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a region not governed by a local municipal ...
, for the families of unemployed miners, later widely regarded as a failure. She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to ...
of
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
and
Asian Americans Asian Americans are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, a Major League Baseball team based in W ...
, and the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life. She pressed the United States to join and support the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
and became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the
UN Commission on Human Rights The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and ...
and oversaw the drafting of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
. Later, she chaired the
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
administration's
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women The President's Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. T ...
. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world"; ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' called her "the object of almost universal respect" in her obituary. In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, and was listed thirteen times as the most admired woman between 1948 and 1961.


Personal life


Early life

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born on October 11, 1884, in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
, New York City, to socialites Anna Rebecca Hall and
Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (February 28, 1860 – August 14, 1894) was an American socialite. He was the father of First Lady#REDIRECT First lady {{Rcat shell, {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintworthy ... Eleanor Roosevelt ...
. From an early age she preferred to be called by her middle name, Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ( ; October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or his initials T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of ...

Theodore Roosevelt
. Through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her "Granny" because she acted in such a serious manner as a child. Anna emotionally rejected Eleanor and was also somewhat ashamed of her daughter's alleged "plainness". Roosevelt had two younger brothers: Elliott Jr. and
Hall In architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Arc ...
. She also had a half-brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her father's affair with Katy Mann, a servant employed by the family. Roosevelt was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege, as her family was part of New York high society called the "swells". On May 19, 1887, the two-year-old Roosevelt was on board the '' SS Britannic'' with her father, mother and aunt Tissie, when it collided with
White Star Line The Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, more commonly known as the White Star Line (WSL), was a British shipping company. Founded out of the remains of a defunct packet company, it gradually rose up to become one of the most prominent shipping ...
r '' SS Celtic''. She was lowered into a lifeboat and she and her parents were taken to the ''Celtic'' and returned to New York. After this traumatic event, Eleanor was afraid of ships and the sea all her life. Her mother died from
diphtheria Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacteria, bacterium ''Corynebacterium diphtheriae''. Most infections are asymptomatic or have a mild Course (medicine), clinical course, but in some outbreaks more than 10% of those diagnosed with the di ...

diphtheria
on December 7, 1892, and Elliott Jr. died of the same disease the following May. Her father, an alcoholic confined to a sanitarium, died on August 14, 1894, after jumping from a window during a fit of
delirium tremens Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol. When it occurs, it is often three days into the withdrawal symptoms and lasts for two to three days. Physical effects may include shaking Shake ma ...
. He survived the fall but died from a seizure. Roosevelt's childhood losses left her prone to depression throughout her life. Her brother Hall later suffered from alcoholism. Before her father died, he implored her to act as a mother towards Hall, and it was a request she made good upon for the rest of Hall's life. Roosevelt doted on Hall, and when he enrolled at
Groton School Groton School founded as Groton School for Boys is one of the most selective private college-preparatory A college-preparatory school (shortened to preparatory school, prep school, or college prep) is a type of secondary school. The term can re ...

Groton School
in 1907, she accompanied him as a chaperone. While he was attending Groton, she wrote him almost daily, but always felt a touch of guilt that Hall had not had a fuller childhood. She took pleasure in Hall's brilliant performance at school, and was proud of his many academic accomplishments, which included a master's degree in engineering from
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly t ...

Harvard
. After the deaths of her parents, Roosevelt was raised in the household of her maternal grandmother, Mary Livingston Ludlow of the
Livingston family The Livingston family of New York is a prominent family that migrated from Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the is ...
in
Tivoli, New York Tivoli is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describe both hamlets and smaller towns), with a population ty ...
. As a child, she was insecure and starved for affection, and considered herself the "ugly duckling". However, Roosevelt wrote at 14 that one's prospects in life were not totally dependent on physical beauty: "no matter how plain a woman may be if truth and loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her." Roosevelt was tutored privately and with the encouragement of her aunt , she was sent to Allenswood Academy at the age of 15, a private
finishing school A finishing school is a school for young women that focuses on teaching social graces {{Short pages monitor a discovery made more bitter by learning that her daughter Anna had also been aware of the ongoing relationship between the President and Rutherfurd. It was Anna who told her that Franklin had been with Rutherfurd when he died; in addition, she told her that Franklin had continued the relationship for decades, and people surrounding him had hidden the information from his wife. After the funeral, Roosevelt temporarily returned to Val-Kill. Franklin left instructions for her in the event of his death; he proposed turning over Hyde Park to the federal government as a museum, and she spent the following months cataloging the estate and arranging for the transfer. After Franklin's death, she moved into an apartment at 29 Washington Square West in Greenwich Village. In 1950, she rented suites at the Park Sheraton Hotel (202 West 56th Street). She lived here until 1953 when she moved to 211 East 62nd Street. When that lease expired in 1958, she returned to the Park Sheraton as she waited for the house she purchased with Edna and David Gurewitsch at 55 East 74th Street to be renovated. The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum opened on April 12, 1946, setting a precedent for future
presidential libraries In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Was ...
.


United Nations

In December 1945, President
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the ...

Harry S. Truman
appointed Roosevelt as a delegate to the
United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations System consists of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) ...
. In April 1946, she became the first chairperson of the preliminary
United Nations Commission on Human Rights The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the United Nations System, overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006. It was ...
. Roosevelt remained chairperson when the commission was established on a permanent basis in January 1947. Along with
René Cassin René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist known for co-authoring the Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the ...
,
John Peters Humphrey John Peters Humphrey, Order of Canada, OC (April 30, 1905 – March 14, 1995) was a Canadians, Canadian law, legal scholar, jurist, and human rights advocate. He is most famous as the principal author of the first draft of the Universal Declar ...
and others, she played an instrumental role in drafting the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
(UDHR). In a speech on the night of September 28, 1948, Roosevelt spoke in favor of the Declaration, calling it "the international
Magna Carta (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called (also ''Magna Charta''; "Great Charter"), is a Royal charter, royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor, on ...

Magna Carta
of all men everywhere". The Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly on December 10, 1948. The vote was unanimous, with eight abstentions: six
Soviet Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' ...
countries as well as South Africa and Saudi Arabia. Roosevelt attributed the abstention of the Soviet bloc nations to Article 13, which provided the right of citizens to leave their countries. Roosevelt also served as the first United States Representative to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and stayed on at that position until 1953, even after stepping down as chair of the commission in 1951. The UN posthumously awarded her one of its first Human Rights Prizes in 1968 in recognition of her work. In the 1940s, Roosevelt was among the first people to support the creation of a UN agency specialized in the issues of food and nutrition. At that time, Frederick L. McDougall, an Australian nutritionist, wrote the “Draft memorandum on a United Nations Programme for Freedom from Want of Food”. McDougall strongly believed that international cooperation was key to address the issue of hunger in the world. Roosevelt learned about the memorandum and arranged a meeting between McDougall and her husband, the president of the United States of America. Following the discussion, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
) was created on 16 October 1945. In 1955, Eleanor Roosevelt and McDougall visited the new
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency ...
headquarters in Rome and pushed the United Nations Programme into creating the Food from Hunger campaign, which ultimately saw the light in 1960 after a series of negotiations. The Campaign was created to mobilize non-governmental organizations against hunger and malnutrition in the world and help find solutions.


Other postwar activities and honors

In the late 1940s, Democrats in New York and throughout the country courted Roosevelt for political office. Catholics comprised a major element of the Democratic Party in New York City. Roosevelt supported reformers trying to overthrow the Irish machine
Tammany Hall Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society. It became the main lo ...
, and some Catholics called her
anti-Catholic Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian chu ...
. In July 1949, Roosevelt had a bitter public disagreement with Cardinal
Francis Spellman Francis Joseph Spellman (May 4, 1889 – December 2, 1967) was an American bishop and cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of ...
, the , over federal funding for
parochial school A parochial school is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...
s., pp. 156–65, 282. Spellman said she was anti-Catholic, and supporters of both took sides in a battle that drew national attention and is "still remembered for its vehemence and hostility." In 1949, she was made an honorary member of the historically black organization
Alpha Kappa Alpha Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (ΑΚΑ) is the first intercollegiate historically African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping ...
. She was an early supporter of the Encampment for Citizenship, a non-profit organization that conducts residential summer programs with year-round follow-up for young people of widely diverse backgrounds and nations. She routinely hosted encampment workshops at her Hyde Park estate, and when the program was attacked as "socialistic" by McCarthyite forces in the early 1950s, she vigorously defended it. In 1954, Tammany Hall boss
Carmine DeSapio Carmine Gerard DeSapio (December 10, 1908 – July 27, 2004) was an American politician from New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the ...
led the effort to defeat Roosevelt's son, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr., in the election for
New York Attorney General The Attorney General of New York is the chief legal officer of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territor ...
. Roosevelt grew increasingly disgusted with DeSapio's political conduct through the rest of the 1950s. Eventually, she would join with her old friends
Herbert Lehman Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was an American Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Bo ...

Herbert Lehman
and Thomas Finletter to form the New York Committee for Democratic Voters, a group dedicated to opposing DeSapio's reincarnated Tammany Hall. Their efforts were eventually successful, and DeSapio was forced to relinquish power in 1961. Roosevelt was disappointed when President Truman backed New York Governor W. Averell Harriman—a close associate of DeSapio—for the 1952 Democratic presidential nomination. She supported Adlai Stevenson II, Adlai Stevenson for president in 1952 and 1956, and urged his renomination in 1960. She resigned from her UN post in 1953, when Dwight D. Eisenhower became president. She addressed the Democratic National Convention in 1952 and 1956. Although she had reservations about
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
for his failure to condemn McCarthyism, she supported him for president against Richard Nixon. Kennedy later reappointed her to the United Nations, where she served again from 1961 to 1962, and to the National Advisory Committee of the Peace Corps. By the 1950s, Roosevelt's international role as spokesperson for women led her to stop publicly criticizing the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), although she never supported it. In the early 1960s, she announced that, due to unionization, she believed the ERA was no longer a threat to women as it once may have been and told supporters that they could have the amendment if they wanted it. In 1961, President Kennedy's undersecretary of labor, Esther Peterson, proposed a new
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women The President's Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) was established to advise the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. T ...
. Kennedy appointed Roosevelt to chair the commission, with Peterson as director. This was Roosevelt's last public position. She died just before the commission issued its report. It concluded that female equality was best achieved by recognition of gender differences and needs, and not by an Equal Rights Amendment. Throughout the 1950s, Roosevelt embarked on countless national and international speaking engagements. She continued to pen her newspaper column and made appearances on television and radio broadcasts. She averaged one hundred fifty lectures a year throughout the 1950s, many devoted to her activism on behalf of the United Nations. Roosevelt received the first annual Franklin Delano Roosevelt Brotherhood Award in 1946. Other notable awards she received during her life postwar included the Award of Merit of the New York City Federation of Women's Clubs in 1948, the Four Freedoms Award in 1950, the Irving Geist Foundation Award in 1950, and the Prince Carl Medal (from Sweden) in 1950. She was the most admired living woman, according to Gallup's most admired man and woman poll of Americans, every year between 1948 (the poll's inception) to 1961 (the last poll before her death) except 1951. Following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Bay of Pigs in 1961, President Kennedy asked Roosevelt, labor leader Walter Reuther, and Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of President Eisenhower, to negotiate the release of captured Americans with Cuban leader Fidel Castro.


Death

In April 1960, Roosevelt was diagnosed with aplastic anemia soon after being struck by a car in New York City. In 1962, she was given steroids, which activated a dormant case of tuberculosis in her bone marrow, and she died of resulting cardiac failure at her
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
home at 55 East 74th Street on the Upper East Side on November 7, 1962, at the age of 78."Health". in Her daughter Anna took care of Roosevelt when she was terminally ill in 1962. President John F. Kennedy ordered all United States flags lowered to half-staff throughout the world on November 8 in tribute to Roosevelt. Funeral services were held two days later in Hyde Park, where she was interred next to her husband in the Rose Garden at "Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site, Springwood", the Roosevelt family home. Attendees included President Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson and former presidents Truman and Eisenhower, who honored Roosevelt. After her death, her family deeded the family vacation home on Campobello Island to the governments of the U.S. and Canada, and in 1964 they created the Roosevelt Campobello International Park.


Published books

* ''Hunting Big Game in the Eighties: The Letters of Elliott Roosevelt, Sportsman''. New York: Scribners, 1932. * ''When You Grow Up to Vote''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932. * ''It's Up to the Women''. New York: Stokes, 1933. * ''A Trip to Washington with Bobby and Betty''. New York: Dodge, 1935. * ''This Is My Story''. New York: Harper, 1937. * ''My Days''. New York: Dodge, 1938. * ''This Troubled World''. New York: Kinsey, 1938. * ''Christmas: A Story''. New York: Knopf, 1940. * ''Christmas, 1940''. New York: St. Martin's. 1940. * ''The Moral Basis of Democracy''. New York: Howell, Soskin, 1940. * This is America (book), ''This is America'', a 1942 book with text by Eleanor Roosevelt and photographs by Frances Cooke Macgregor. * ''If You Ask Me''. New York: Appleton-Century, 1946. * ''This I Remember''. New York: Harper, 1949. * ''Partners: The United Nations and Youth''. Garden City: Doubleday, 1950 (with Helen Ferris). * ''India and the Awakening East''. New York: Harper, 1953. * ''UN: Today and Tomorrow''. New York: Harper, 1953 (with William DeWitt). * ''It Seems to Me''. New York: Norton, 1954. * ''Ladies of Courage''. New York: Putnam's, 1954 (with Lorena Hickok). * ''United Nations: What You Should Know about It''. New London: Croft, 1955. * ''On My Own''. New York: Harper, 1958. * ''Growing Toward Peace''. New York: Random House, 1960 (with Regina Tor). * ''You Learn By Living''. New York: Harper, 1960. * ''The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt''. New York: Harper, 1961. * ''Your Teens and Mine''. New York: Da Capo, 1961. * ''Eleanor Roosevelt's Book of Common Sense Etiquette''. New York: Macmillan, 1962 (with the assistance of Robert O. Ballou). * ''Eleanor Roosevelt's Christmas Book''. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1963. * ''Tomorrow Is Now''. New York: Harper, 1963.


Posthumous recognition


Recognition and awards

In 1966, the White House Historical Association purchased Douglas Chandor's portrait of Eleanor Roosevelt; the portrait had been commissioned by the Roosevelt family in 1949. The painting was presented at a White House reception on February 4, 1966, that was hosted by Lady Bird Johnson and attended by more than 250 invited guests. The portrait hangs in the Vermeil Room. Roosevelt was posthumously inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1973. In 1989, the Eleanor Roosevelt Fund Award was founded; it "honors an individual, project, organization, or institution for outstanding contributions to equality and education for women and girls." The Eleanor Roosevelt Monument in New York's Riverside Park (Manhattan), Riverside Park was dedicated in 1996, with First Lady Hillary Clinton serving as the keynote speaker. It was the first monument to an American woman in a New York City park. The centerpiece is a statue of Roosevelt sculpted by Penelope Jencks. The surrounding granite pavement contains inscriptions designed by the architect Michael Middleton Dwyer, including summaries of her achievements, and a quote from her 1958 speech at the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, advocating universal human rights. The following year, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington D.C. was dedicated; it includes a bronze statue of Eleanor Roosevelt standing before the Flag of the United Nations, United Nations emblem, which honors her dedication to the United Nations. It is the only presidential memorial to depict a first lady. In 1998, President Bill Clinton established the Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights to honor outstanding American promoters of rights in the United States. The award was first awarded on the 50th anniversary of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
, honoring Eleanor Roosevelt's role as the "driving force" in the development of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The award was presented from 1998 to the end of the Clinton Administration in 2001. In 2010, then-Secretary of State of the United States Hillary Clinton revived the Eleanor Roosevelt Award for Human Rights and presented the award on behalf of the then-President of the United States Barack Obama. The Gallup Organization published the poll Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, to determine which people around the world Americans most admired for what they did in the 20th century in 1999. Eleanor Roosevelt came in ninth. In 2001, the Eleanor Roosevelt Legacy Committee (Eleanor's Legacy) was founded by Judith Hollensworth Hope, who was its president until April 2008. It inspires and supports United States pro-choice movement, pro-choice Democratic Party (United States), Democratic women to run for local and state offices in New York. The Legacy sponsors campaign training schools, links candidates with volunteers and experts, collaborates with like-minded organizations and provides campaign grants to endorsed candidates. In 2007, she was named a Woman hero by The My Hero Project. On April 20, 2016, United States Secretary of the Treasury Jacob Lew announced that Eleanor Roosevelt will appear with Marian Anderson and noted suffragettes on the redesigned US$5 bill scheduled to be unveiled in the year 2020, the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which guaranteed women the right to vote. In 2020, ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine included her name on its list of 100 Women of the Year. She was named Woman of the Year 1948 for her efforts on tackling issues surrounding human rights.


Places named for Roosevelt

In 1972, the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute was founded; it merged with the Franklin D. Roosevelt Four Freedoms Foundation in 1987 to become the Roosevelt Institute. The Roosevelt Institute is a liberal American think tank. The organization, based in New York City, states that it exists "to carry forward the legacy and values of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by developing progressive ideas and bold leadership in the service of restoring America's promise of opportunity for all." Eleanor Roosevelt High School (Maryland), Eleanor Roosevelt High School, a public magnet high school specializing in science, mathematics, technology, and engineering, was established in 1976 at its current location in Greenbelt, Maryland. It was the first high school named for Eleanor Roosevelt, and is part of the Prince George's County Public Schools system. Roosevelt lived in a stone cottage at Val-Kill, which was two miles east of the Springwood Estate. The cottage had been her home after the death of her husband and was the only residence she had ever personally owned. In 1977, the home was formally designated by an act of Congress as the
Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site was established by the U.S. Congress to commemorate the life and accomplishments of Eleanor Roosevelt Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (; October 11, 1884November 7, 1962) was an American political figure, diplom ...

Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site
, "to commemorate for the education, inspiration, and benefit of present and future generations the life and work of an outstanding woman in American history." In 1998, Save America's Treasures (SAT) announced Val-Kill cottage as a new official project. SAT's involvement led to the Honoring Eleanor Roosevelt (HER) project, initially run by private volunteers and now a part of SAT. The HER project has since raised almost $1 million, which has gone toward restoration and development efforts at Val-Kill and the production of ''Eleanor Roosevelt: Close to Home'', a documentary about Roosevelt at Val-Kill. Due in part to the success of these programs, Val-Kill was given a $75,000 grant and named one of 12 sites showcased in ''Restore America: A Salute to Preservation'', a partnership between SAT, the National Trust and HGTV. The Roosevelt Study Center, a research institute, conference center, and library on twentieth-century American history located in the twelfth-century Abbey of Middelburg, the Netherlands, opened in 1986. It is named after Eleanor Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin Roosevelt, all of whose ancestors emigrated from Zeeland, the Netherlands, to the United States in the seventeenth century. In 1988, Eleanor Roosevelt College, one of six undergraduate residential colleges at the University of California, San Diego, was founded. ERC emphasizes international understanding, including proficiency in a foreign language and a regional specialization. Eleanor Roosevelt High School (New York City), Eleanor Roosevelt High School, a small public high school on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City, was founded in 2002. Eleanor Roosevelt High School (California), Eleanor Roosevelt High School in Eastvale, California, opened in 2006.


Cultural references

In the 1940s and 1950s, female impersonator Arthur Blake (actor), Arthur Blake drew acclaim for his impersonations of Eleanor Roosevelt in his nightclub act. At the invitation of the Roosevelts, he performed his impersonation of Eleanor at the White House. He also impersonated F.D.R. in the 1952 film ''Diplomatic Courier''. ''Sunrise at Campobello (play), Sunrise at Campobello,'' a 1958 Broadway play by Dore Schary dramatized Franklin's attack of and eventual recovery from polio, in which Mary Fickett starred as Eleanor. The 1960 Sunrise at Campobello, film of the same name starred Greer Garson as Eleanor. ''The Eleanor Roosevelt Story'', a 1965 American biographical documentary film directed by Richard Kaplan, won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. The Academy Film Archive preserved it in 2006. Roosevelt was the subject of the 1976 Arlene Stadd historical play ''Eleanor''. In 1976, Talent Associates released the American Miniseries, television miniseries ''Eleanor and Franklin (miniseries), Eleanor and Franklin'', starring Edward Herrmann as Franklin Roosevelt and Jane Alexander as Eleanor Roosevelt; it was broadcast on American Broadcasting Company, ABC on January 11 and 12, 1976 and was based on Joseph P. Lash's biography from 1971, ''Eleanor and Franklin (book), Eleanor and Franklin'', based on their correspondence and recently opened archives. The film won numerous awards, including 11 Primetime Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and the Peabody Award. The director Daniel Petrie won a Primetime Emmy for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special, Director of the Year – Special. In 1977 they released a sequel entitled ''Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years'', with the same stars. It won 7 Primetime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Special of the Year. Daniel Petrie again won a Primetime Emmy for Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Dramatic Special, Director of the Year – Special for the second film. Both films were acclaimed and noted for historical accuracy. In 1979,
NBC The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), c ...
televised the miniseries ''Backstairs at the White House'' based on the 1961 book “''My Thirty Years Backstairs at the White House''” by Lillian Rogers Parks.  The series portrayed the lives of the Presidents, their families, and the White House staff who served them from the administrations of William Howard Taft (1909–1913) through Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961).  Much of the book was based on notes by her mother, Maggie Rogers (White House maid), Maggie Rogers, a White House maid.  Parks credits Eleanor Roosevelt for encouraging her mother to start a diary about her service on the White House staff.  The series won the Writers Guild of America Awards 1979, Writers Guild of America award for Long Form Television Series, received a Golden Globe Award, Golden Globe nomination for Dramatic Television Series, and won an Emmy for Outstanding Achievement in Makeup.  Among the 10 additional 31st Primetime Emmy Awards, Emmy nominations was Eileen Heckart for her portrayal of Eleanor Roosevelt.  She received an 32nd Primetime Emmy Awards, Emmy nomination again the following year for her performance as Eleanor Roosevelt in the NBC television movie ''F.D.R.: The Last Year''. In 1996, ''Washington Post'' writer Bob Woodward reported that Hillary Clinton had been having "imaginary discussions" with Eleanor Roosevelt from the start of Clinton's time as first lady. Following the Democrats' loss of congressional control in the 1994 elections, Clinton had engaged the services of Human Potential Movement proponent Jean Houston. Houston encouraged Clinton to pursue the Roosevelt connection, and while no psychic techniques were used with Clinton, critics and comics immediately suggested that Clinton was holding séances with Roosevelt. The White House stated that this was merely a brainstorming exercise, and a private poll later indicated that most of the public believed these were indeed just imaginary conversations, with the remainder believing that communication with the dead was actually possible. In her 2003 autobiography ''Living History (book), Living History'', Clinton titled an entire chapter "Conversations with Eleanor", and stated that holding "imaginary conversations [is] actually a useful mental exercise to help analyze problems, provided you choose the right person to visualize. Eleanor Roosevelt was ideal."Clinton, Hillary Rodham (2003). ''Living History''. New York: Simon & Schuster. , pp. 258–59 In 1996, the children's book ''Eleanor (book), Eleanor'' by Barbara Cooney, about Eleanor Roosevelt's childhood, was published. In 2014, the American documentary series ''The Roosevelts: An Intimate History'' was released. Produced and directed by Ken Burns, the series focuses on the lives of Theodore, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. The series premiered to positive reviews and was nominated for three Primetime Emmy Awards, winning the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Narrator, Emmy Award for Outstanding Narrator for Peter Coyote's narration of the first episode. In September 2014, ''The Roosevelts'' became the most streamed documentary on the PBS website to date.


See also

* List of civil rights leaders * List of women's rights activists


References


Bibliography

* * * 304 pages; biography that emphasizes how she used the media to pursue her activism. * * * * * * * * * * * 304 pages * * * 416 pages * * *


Historiography

* Provizer, Norman W. "Eleanor Roosevelt Biographies", in * .


External links


The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project (including over 8000 of her "My Day" newspaper columns, as well as other documents and audio clips)


* [http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/eleanor-roosevelt-and-rise-social-reform-1930s Eleanor Roosevelt and the Rise of Social Reform in the 1930s]
Text and Audio of Eleanor Roosevelt's Address to the United Nations General Assembly

''American Experience: Eleanor''
web site for documentary program, including 28 ''My Day'' columns and excerpts from her FBI file
The Truman Library's collection of correspondence between Eleanor Roosevelt and President Harry S. Truman.

''This Is My Story'' by Eleanor Roosevelt. (Her 1937 autobiography)

Eleanor Roosevelt
The History channel. A&E Television Networks. History.com. Videos of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Eleanor Roosevelt
at C-SPAN's ''First Ladies: Influence & Image''
FBI files on Eleanor Roosevelt
* Michals, Debr
"Eleanor Roosevelt"
National Women's History Museum. 2017. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Roosevelt, Eleanor Eleanor Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt 1884 births 1962 deaths 19th-century American Episcopalians 19th-century American women 20th-century American Episcopalians 20th-century American politicians 20th-century American women politicians 20th-century American women writers 20th-century deaths from tuberculosis Activists from New York City American columnists American feminist writers American humanitarians Women humanitarians 20th-century American memoirists American officials of the United Nations American people of Dutch descent American women columnists American women ambassadors American women non-fiction writers Articles containing video clips Brandeis University faculty Bulloch family Delano family First Ladies and Gentlemen of New York (state) First Ladies of the United States Liberalism in the United States Livingston family Members of the Society of Woman Geographers New York (state) Democrats People from Hempstead (village), New York People from Hyde Park, New York Representatives of the United States to the United Nations Human Rights Council Roosevelt family, Eleanor Schuyler family Tuberculosis deaths in New York (state) Women's Trade Union League people