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The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major
river
river
s of
Central Europe
Central Europe
. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the northern
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, or simply Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Historically known as Bohemia, it is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to the southeast. The Cz ...
before traversing much of
Bohemia
Bohemia
(western half of the Czech Republic), then
Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between ...

Germany
and flowing into the
North Sea
North Sea
at Cuxhaven, northwest of
Hamburg
Hamburg
. Its total length is . The Elbe's major tributaries include the rivers
Vltava
Vltava
,
Saale
Saale
, Havel, Mulde,
Schwarze Elster
Schwarze Elster
, and Ohře. The Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of , the twelfth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, however it lies almost entirely just in two of them, Germany (65.5%) and the Czech Republic (33.7%, covering about two thirds of the state's territory). Marginally, the basin stretches also to
Austria The Republic of Austria, commonly just Austria, , bar, Östareich is a country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine States of Austria, states, one of which is the capital, Vienna, ...

Austria
(0.6%) and (0.2%). The Elbe catchment area is inhabited by 24.4 million people, the biggest cities within are
Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituen ...

Berlin
, ,
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and List of cities in the Czech Republic, largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 milli ...

Prague
, and
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...

Leipzig
.


Etymology

First attested in Latin as ', the name ' means "river" or "river-bed" and is nothing more than the High German version of a word ('' *albī'') found elsewhere in Germanic; cf.
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
river name ', Swedish ' "river", Norwegian ' "river", Old English river name ', and Middle Low German ' "river-bed".


Course


In the Czech Republic

The Elbe (Labe) rises on the slopes of Mt. Violík at an elevation of in the Giant Mountains on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, the most important is the Bílé Labe, or White Elbe. After plunging down the of the , the latter stream unites with the steeply torrential Malé Labe, and thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at Jaroměř, where it receives Úpa and . Here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí (meaning "land along the Elbe"), and continues on southwards through Hradec Králové (where flows in) and then to Pardubice, where it turns sharply to the west. At Kolín some further on, it bends gradually towards the north-west. At the village of Káraný, a little above , the Jizera enters in. At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the , a major river which winds northwards through . Upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer ( against of the Elbe so far), and has a greater discharge and a larger
drainage basin A drainage basin is an area of land where all flowing surface water converges to a single point, such as a river mouth, or flows into another body of water, such as a lake or ocean. A basin is separated from adjacent basins by a perimeter ...
. Nonetheless, for historical reasons the river retains the name Elbe, also because at the confluence point it is the Elbe that flows through the main, wider valley while the Vltava flows into the valley to meet the Elbe at almost a right angle, and thus appears to be the tributary river. Some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře. Thus augmented, and swollen into a stream wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the České Středohoří, churning its way through a picturesque, deep, narrow and curved rocky gorge.


In Germany

Shortly after crossing the Czech-German frontier, and passing through the sandstone defiles of the Elbe Sandstone Mountains, the stream assumes a north-westerly direction, which on the whole it preserves right to the North Sea. The river rolls through and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German Plain passing along the former western border of East Germany, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Dessau, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, and on the way, and taking on the waters of the Mulde and from the west, and those of the , Havel and Elde from the east. In its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat, very fertile marshlands ( Elbe Marshes), former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, that carries a canal and its shipping traffic over the Elbe and its banks, allowing shipping traffic to pass under it unhindered. From the sluice of Geesthacht (at kilometre 586) on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Unterelbe (Low Elbe). Soon the Elbe reaches Hamburg. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of branch streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Norderelbe (Northern Elbe), Reiherstieg, Süderelbe (Southern Elbe). Some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the main stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe (literally in en, shallow Elbe) was separated from the main stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme. The Dove Elbe (literally in en, deaf Elbe) was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort. These hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, and to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg. After the heavy inundation by the North Sea flood of 1962 the western section of the Southern Elbe was separated, becoming the Old Southern Elbe, while the waters of the eastern Southern Elbe now merge into the Köhlbrand, which is bridged by the Köhlbrandbrücke, the last bridge over the Elbe before the North Sea. The Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is then crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel (Alter Elbtunnel), both in Hamburg's city centre. A bit more downstream the Low Elbe's two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel (Neuer Elbtunnel), the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe (here now the cut-off meander Old Southern Elbe) used to reunite, which is why the bay is seen as the starting point of the Niederelbe (Lower Elbe). Leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe then passes between
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost S ...
and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with
Stade Stade (), officially the Hanseatic City of Stade (german: Hansestadt Stade, nds, Hansestadt Stood) is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany. First mentioned in records in 934, it is the seat of the Stade (district), district () which bears ...
until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the
Kiel Canal The Kiel Canal (german: Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North- oEast alticSea canal", formerly known as the ) is a long freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula ) ...
at Brunsbüttel before it
debouch In hydrology, a debouch (or debouche) is a place where surface runoff, runoff from a small, confined space discharge (hydrology), discharges into a larger, broader body of water. The word is derived from the French verb ''déboucher'' (), which m ...
es into the North Sea.


Towns and cities


Navigation

The Elbe has always been navigable by commercial vessels, and provides important trade links as far inland as
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and List of cities in the Czech Republic, largest city in the Czech Republic, and the historical capital of Bohemia. On the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.3 milli ...

Prague
. The river is linked by
canal Canals or artificial waterways are waterways or engineered channels built for drainage management (e.g. flood control and irrigation) or for conveyancing water transport vehicles (e.g. water taxi). They carry free, calm surface flo ...
s ( Elbe Lateral Canal, Elbe-Havel Canal,
Mittellandkanal The Mittelland Canal, also known as the Midland Canal, (german: Mittellandkanal, ) is a major canal Canals or artificial waterways are waterways or engineered channels built for drainage management (e.g. flood control and irriga ...
) to the industrial areas of Germany and to
Berlin Berlin ( , ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.7 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituen ...

Berlin
. The Elbe-Lübeck Canal links the Elbe to the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that is enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North European Plain, North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53°N to 66° ...
, as does the
Kiel Canal The Kiel Canal (german: Nord-Ostsee-Kanal, literally "North- oEast alticSea canal", formerly known as the ) is a long freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula ) ...
, whose western entrance is near the mouth of the Elbe. The Elbe-Weser Shipping Channel connects the Elbe with the
Weser The Weser () is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without ...
. By the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the Peace treaty, peace treaties of World War I. It ended the declaration of war, state of war between Germany and the Allies of ...
the navigation on the Elbe became subject to the International Commission of the Elbe, seated in Dresden. The statute of the commission was signed in Dresden on 22 February 1922. Following articles 363 and 364 of the Treaty of Versailles,
Czechoslovakia , rue, Чеськословеньско, , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 ...
was entitled to lease its own harbour basin, Moldauhafen in Hamburg. The contract of lease with Germany, and supervised by the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotlan ...
, was signed on 14 February 1929, ending in 2028. Since 1993 the Czech Republic holds the former Czechoslovak legal position. Before Germany was reunited, waterway transport in Western Germany was hindered by the fact that inland navigation to Hamburg had to pass through the German Democratic Republic. The Elbe-Seitenkanal (Elbe Lateral Canal) was built between the West German section of the Mittellandkanal and the Lower Elbe to restore this connection. When the two nations were reunited, works were begun to improve and restore the original links: the Magdeburg Water Bridge now allows large barges to cross the Elbe without having to enter the river. The often low water levels of the Elbe no longer hinder navigation to Berlin.


Islands


Headwaters

* Hořejší – in Kolín * Kmochův – in Kolín


Upper reaches

* Pillnitzer Elbinsel – in 's southern quarter of Pillnitz in the Dresden Basin * Gauernitzer Elbinsel – east of Gauernitz in the Dresden Basin between Dresden and Meißen


Middle Elbe

* Rotehorninsel – in Magdeburg * Steinkopfinsel – in Magdeburg


Between Northern and Southern Elbe (Norderelbe/Süderelbe)

* Wilhelmsburg, including the islands Veddel, Georgswerder, Kleiner Grasbrook, Steinwerder, Peute and several more – in 's borough of Mitte (centre) * Kaltehofe (also "Kalte Hofe") – in Hamburg's borough of Mitte * Finkenwerder – in Hamburg's borough of Mitte


Lower Elbe

* Schweinesand – south of Blankenese (Hamburg) * Neßsand – south of Tinsdal * Hahnöfersand – north of Jork * Hanskalbsand – south of Schulau * Lühesand – east of
Stade Stade (), officially the Hanseatic City of Stade (german: Hansestadt Stade, nds, Hansestadt Stood) is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany. First mentioned in records in 934, it is the seat of the Stade (district), district () which bears ...
* Bisterhorster Sand – west of
Wedel Wedel is a town in the Pinneberg (district), district of Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated on the right bank of the Elbe, approximately south of Elmshorn, and west of Hamburg. History Foundation and Middle Ages The f ...
* Pagensand – west of Seestermühe * Schwarztonnensand – east of Drochtersen * Rhinplate – west of Glückstadt


Outer Elbe (estuary)

* Neuwerk – an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a small territory apart of a larger one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to deno ...
– in Hamburg's borough of Mitte * Scharhörn – an exclave Hamburg's borough of Mitte * Nigehörn – an exclave Hamburg's borough of Mitte


Former islands

* Medemsand


Ferries

The Elbe is crossed by many ferries, both passenger and car carrying. In downstream order, these include: * Dolní Žleb Ferry, at Dolní Žleb part of
Děčín Děčín (; german: Tetschen, 1942–1945: ''Tetschen–Bodenbach'') is a city in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 47,000 inhabitants. It is the 7th largest municipality in the country by area. Administrative parts D ...
* Rathen Ferry, at
Rathen Rathen is a village in the Elbe Sandstone Mountains The Elbe Sandstone Mountains, also called the Elbe Sandstone Highlands (german: Elbsandsteingebirge; cs, Děčinská vrchovina), are a mountain range straddling the border between the state ...
* Pillnitz Kleinzschachwitz Ferry, in the eastern suburbs of * Laubegast Niederpoyritz Ferry, in Dresden * Johannstadt Neustadt Ferry, in Dresden * Belgern Ottersitz Ferry, between Belgern and Ottersitz * Dommitzsch Prettin Ferry, between Dommitzsch and Prettin * Mauken Pretzsch Ferry, between Mauken and Pretzsch * Wartenburg Elster Ferry, between Wartenburg and Elster * Wörlitz Coswig Ferry, between Wörlitz and Coswig * Steutz Aken Ferry, between Steutz and Aken * Tochheim Ferry, between Tochheim and Alt Tochheim near Breitenhagen * Ronney Barby Ferry, between Barby and Walternienburg * Westerhüsen Ferry, at Westerhüsen near Magdeburg * Schartau Rogätz Ferry, between Schartau and Rogätz * Ferchland Grieben Ferry, between Ferchland and Grieben * Sandau Büttnershof Ferry, between Sandau and Büttnershof * Räbel Havelberg Ferry, between Räbel and
Havelberg Havelberg () is a town in the district of Stendal, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and t ...
* Lenzen Pevestorf Ferry, between Lenzen and Pevestorf * Neu Darchau Darchau Ferry, between Darchau and Neu Darchau *, between Bleckede and Neu Bleckede * Zollenspieker Ferry, between Kirchwerder a part of the Bergedorf borough of Hamburg, and Hoopte, part of the town Winsen (Luhe), in the state of Lower Saxony, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-east of Hamburg centre *Ferries in the
port of Hamburg The Port of Hamburg (german: Hamburger Hafen, ) is a seaport on the river Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Giant Mountains of the n ...
, operated by HADAG *, between Wischhafen and Glückstadt to the west of Hamburg *, between Brunsbüttel and Cuxhaven at the mouth of the river (out of service as of October 2022). Many of these ferries are traditional reaction ferries, a type of
cable ferry A cable ferry (including the terms chain ferry, swing ferry, floating bridge, or punt) is a ferry that is guided (and in many cases propelled) across a river or large body of water by cables connected to both shores. Early cable ferries often ...
that uses the current flow of the river to provide propulsion.


Prehistory

Humans first lived in the northern Elbe region before about 200,000 years ago, during the
Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek: παλαιός ''wikt:παλαιός, palaios'', "old" and λίθος ...
.


History

Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-gre, wikt:Πτολεμαῖος, Πτολεμαῖος, ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific Treatise, treatis ...
recorded the Elbe as ' ( Germanic for "river") in
Germania Germania ( ; ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania''), or Germanic Barbaricum to distinguish it from the Roman province of the same name, was a large historical region in nort ...
Magna, with its source in the ' mountains ( Giant Mountains), where the Germanic ' then lived. The Elbe has long served as an important delineator of European geography. The Romans knew the river as the '; however, they made only one serious attempt to move the border of their empire forward from the
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
to the Elbe, and this attempt failed with the
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, described as the Varian Disaster () by Ancient Rome, Roman historians, took place at modern Kalkriese in AD 9, when an alliance of Germanic peoples ambushed Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius ...
in 9 AD, after which they never seriously tried again. In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the Post-classical, post-classical period of World history (field), global history. It began with t ...
the Elbe formed the eastern limit of the
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". The center of the empire (sometimes referred to as the metropole) ex ...
of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; german: Karl der Große; 2 April 747 – 28 January 814), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and the first Holy ...
(King of the Franks from 769 to 814). The river's navigable sections were essential to the success of the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=German language, Modern German, Deutsche Hanse) was a Middle Ages, medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central Europe, Central and Norther ...
in the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the Periodization, period of European history lasting from AD 1300 to 1500. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern period (and in much of Eur ...
, and much trade was carried on its waters. From the early 6th century
Slavic tribes This is a list of Early Slavs, Slavic peoples and Early Slavs, Slavic tribes reported in Late Antiquity and in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500. Ancestors *Proto-Indo-Europeans (Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European ...
(known as the
Polabian Slavs Polabian Slavs ( dsb, Połobske słowjany, pl, Słowianie połabscy, cz, Polabští slované) is a collective term applied to a number of Lechites, Lechitic (West Slavs, West Slavic) tribes who lived scattered along the Elbe river in what is ...
) settled in the areas east of the rivers Elbe and Saale (which had been depopulated since the 4th century). In the 10th century the
Ottonian Dynasty The Ottonian dynasty (german: Ottonen) was a Saxons, Saxon dynasty of List of German monarchs, German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I, Holy Roman Empe ...
(dominant from 919 to 1024) began conquering these lands; a slow process of
Germanization Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language, German people, people and German culture, culture. It was a central idea of German conservative thought in the 19th and the 20th centuries, when conservatism and ethnic nationa ...
ensued, including the Wendish Crusade of 1147. The Elbe delineated the western parts of Germany from the eastern so-called
East Elbia East Elbia (german: Ostelbien) was an informal denotation for those parts of the German Reich until World War II that lay east of the river Elbe The Elbe (; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo) is one of the major rivers ...
, where soccage and
serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed ...
were more strict and prevailed longer than westwards of the river, and where feudal lords held bigger estates than in the west. Thus incumbents of huge land-holdings became characterised as East Elbian
Junker Junker ( da, Junker, german: Junker, nl, Jonkheer, en, Yunker, no, Junker, sv, Junker ka, იუნკერი (Iunkeri)) is a noble honorific, derived from Middle High German ''Juncherre'', meaning "young nobleman"Duden; Meaning of Junke ...
s. The Northern German area north of the Lower Elbe used to be called North Albingia in the Middle Ages. When the four
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying primarily with the theology of Martin Luther, the 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Cathol ...
church bodies there united in 1977 they chose the name North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church. Other, administrative units were named after the river Elbe, such as the Westphalian ''Elbe
département In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the national level ("territorial collectivity, territorial collectivities"), between the regions of France, admin ...
'' (1807–1813) and ''Lower Elbe département'' (1810), and the French département Bouches-de-l'Elbe (1811–1814). In 1945, as
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
drew to a close, Germany came under attack from the armies of the western Allies advancing from the west and those of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a List of former transcontinental countries#Since 1700, transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, ...
advancing from the east. On 25 April 1945 these two forces linked up near Torgau, on the Elbe. The victorious countries marked the event unofficially as
Elbe Day Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, is the day Soviet Union, Soviet and American troops met at the Elbe, Elbe River, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe. This contact between the Soviets, advancing f ...
. From 1949 to 1990 the Elbe formed part of the
Inner German border The inner German border (german: Innerdeutsche Grenze or ; initially also ) was the border between the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a count ...
between East Germany and
West Germany West Germany is the colloquial term used to indicate the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification through the accession of East Germany on 3 O ...
. During the 1970s the Soviet Union stated that
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was dictator of Germany Germany,, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populo ...
's ashes had been scattered in the Elbe following disinterment from their original burial-site.


See also

*
2002 European floods In August 2002, a week of intense rainfall produced flooding across a large portion of Europe. It reached the Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Ukraine and Russia. The event killed 232 ...
* 2006 European floods *
2013 European floods Extreme flooding in Central Europe began after several days of heavy rain in late May and early June 2013. Flooding and damages primarily affected south and east Germany, German states (Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Lower Saxony, Bavaria and ...
* Saxon Elbeland, the region of the Upper Elbe in Germany *
List of waterbodies in Saxony-Anhalt {{short description, None Waterbodies Waterbody; Length in km; in Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt (german: Sachsen-Anhalt ; nds, Sassen-Anholt) is a States of Germany, state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony, Thuringia ...


References


Bibliography

*


External links

* {{Authority control Elbe Rivers of the Hradec Králové Region Rivers of the Central Bohemian Region Rivers of the Pardubice Region Rivers of the Ústí nad Labem Region International rivers of Europe Rivers of Brandenburg Rivers of Hamburg Rivers of Lower Saxony Rivers of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Rivers of Saxony Rivers of Saxony-Anhalt Rivers of Schleswig-Holstein Inner German border Federal waterways in Germany Rivers of Germany Rivers of the Czech Republic