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The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first dynasty of the
New Kingdom of Egypt New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz (South Korean band), The Boyz Albums and EPs * New (album), ''New'' (album), by Paul McCartne ...
, the era in which
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
achieved the peak of its power. The Eighteenth Dynasty spanned the period from 1550/1549 to 1292 BC. This dynasty is also known as the Thutmosid Dynasty for the four pharaohs named Thutmose. Several of Egypt's most famous
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

pharaoh
s were from the Eighteenth Dynasty, including
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
, whose tomb was found by
Howard Carter Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural ...

Howard Carter
in 1922. Other famous pharaohs of the dynasty include
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex an ...

Hatshepsut
(c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), the longest-reigning woman pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, , meaning "Effective for the "), was an ian reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the . Before the fifth year of his reign, he was known as Ame ...

Akhenaten
(c. 1353–1336 BC), the "heretic pharaoh", with his
Great Royal Wife Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ''ḥmt nswt wrt''), is the title that was used to refer to the principal wife of the pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, who served many official functions ...
,
Nefertiti Neferneferuaten Nefertiti () ( – c. 1330 BC) was a queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Great Royal Wife Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ''ḥmt nswt wr ...

Nefertiti
. The Eighteenth Dynasty is unique among Egyptian dynasties in that it had two women who ruled as sole pharaoh:
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex an ...

Hatshepsut
, who is regarded as one of the most innovative rulers of ancient Egypt, and
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
, usually identified as
Nefertiti Neferneferuaten Nefertiti () ( – c. 1330 BC) was a queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Great Royal Wife Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ''ḥmt nswt wr ...

Nefertiti
.


History


Early Dynasty XVIII

Dynasty XVIII was founded by
Ahmose I Ahmose I ( egy, jꜥḥ wikt:msj, ms(jwikt:.w, .w), reconstructed /ʔaʕaħ'ma:sjə/ (Middle Egyptian, MK), Egyptological pronunciation ''Ahmose'', sometimes written as ''Amosis'' or ''Aahmes'', meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born") was a pharaoh a ...
, the brother or son of
Kamose Kamose was the last Pharaoh of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty The Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVII, alternatively 17th Dynasty or Dynasty 17) is classified as the third dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt The S ...
, the last ruler of the 17th Dynasty. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the
Hyksos Hyksos (; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with th ...
rulers. His reign is seen as the end of the
Second Intermediate Period The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now th ...
and the start of the New Kingdom. Ahmose's consort, Queen
Ahmose-Nefertari Ahmose-Nefertari (Ancient Egyptian: '' Jꜥḥ ms wiktionary:nfrt-jrj, Nfr trj'') was the first Great Royal Wife of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She was a daughter of Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep I, and royal sister and wife to Ahmose I. Her s ...
was "arguably the most venerated woman in Egyptian history, and the grandmother of the 18th Dynasty."Graciela Gestoso Singer,
Ahmose-Nefertari, The Woman in Black
. ''Terrae Antiqvae'', January 17, 2011
She was deified after she died. Ahmose was succeeded by his son,
Amenhotep I Amenhotep I () ( egy, jmn-ḥtp(w) /jaˌmanuwˈħatpaw/ "Amun is satisfied"; Amarna cuneiform a-ma-an-ha-at-pe or -at-pa), Amenôthes I, or Amenophis I, (,) from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις ,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally ''King Dj ...

Amenhotep I
, whose reign was relatively uneventful. Amenhotep I probably left no male heir and the next pharaoh,
Thutmose I Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is charac ...

Thutmose I
, seems to have been related to the royal family through marriage. During his reign, the borders of Egypt's empire reached their greatest expanse, extending in the north to
Carchemish Carchemish (Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, ...

Carchemish
on the
Euphrates The Euphrates () is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Tigris–Euphrates river system, Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia (the "Land Between the Rivers"). O ...
and in the south up to Kurgus beyond the fourth
cataract A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens A lens is a transmissive optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physic ...
of the Nile. Thutmose I was succeeded by
Thutmose II Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis II, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is char ...
and his queen,
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex an ...

Hatshepsut
, who was the daughter of Thutmose I. After her husband's death and a period of regency for her minor stepson (who would later become pharaoh as Thutmose III) Hatshepsut became pharaoh in her own right and ruled for over twenty years.
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
, who became known as the greatest military pharaoh ever, also had a lengthy reign after becoming pharaoh. He had a second co-regency in his old age with his son
Amenhotep II Amenhotep II (sometimes called ''Amenophis II'' and meaning '' is Satisfied'') was the seventh of the . Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father , and held it by means of a few military campaigns in ; however, he fought much less than h ...

Amenhotep II
. Amenhotep II was succeeded by
Thutmose IV Thutmose (also rendered Thutmoses, Thutmosis, Tuthmose, Tutmosis, Thothmes, Tuthmosis, Djhutmose, etc.) is an Anglicization of the Egyptian name ''dhwty-ms'', usually translated as "Born of the god Thoth Thoth (; from grc-koi, Θώθ ', borrow ...
, who in his turn was followed by his son
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
, whose reign is seen as a high point in this dynasty. Amenhotep III's reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity, artistic splendor, and international power, as attested by over 250 statues (more than any other pharaoh) and 200 large stone scarabs discovered from Syria to Nubia. Amenhotep III undertook large scale building programmes, the extent of which can only be compared with those of the much longer reign of
Ramesses II Ramesses II ( egy, rꜥ-ms-sw meaning "Ra is the one who bore him", ''Rīʿa-məsī-sū'', ; ) was the third pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state ...
during Dynasty XIX. Amenhotep III's consort was the Great Royal wife
Tiye Tiye (c. 1398 BC – 1338 BC, also spelled Tye, Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, or Yuaa, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy) was a powerful ancient Egypt Anci ...
, for whom he built an artificial lake, as described on eleven scarabs.


Akhenaten, the Amarna Period, and Tutankhamun

Amenhotep III may have shared the throne for up to twelve years with his son Amenhotep IV. There is much debate about this proposed co-regency, with different experts considering that there was a lengthy co-regency, a short one, or none at all. In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, , meaning "Effective for the "), was an ian reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the . Before the fifth year of his reign, he was known as Ame ...

Akhenaten
(, "Effective for the
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, wikt:jtn, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc o ...

Aten
") and moved his capital to
Amarna Amarna (; ar, العمارنة, al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive ian site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established (1346 BC) and built by the of the late , and abandoned shortly after his (1332 BC). The name for the cit ...

Amarna
, which he named Akhetaten. During the reign of Akhenaten, the
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, wikt:jtn, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc o ...

Aten
( jtn, the sun disk) became, first, the most prominent deity, and eventually came to be considered the only god. Whether this amounted to true monotheism continues to be the subject of debate within the academic community. Some state that Akhenaten created a monotheism, while others point out that he merely suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never completely abandoned several other traditional deities. Later Egyptians considered this "
Amarna Period The Amarna Period was an era of History of Ancient Egypt, Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the A ...
" an unfortunate aberration. After his death, Akhenaten was succeeded by two short-lived pharaohs,
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
and
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
, of which little is known. In 1334 Akhenaten's son, Tutankhaten, ascended to the throne: shortly after, he restored Egyptian polytheist cult and subsequently changed his name in
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
, in honor to the Egyptian god
Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolis Magna, Hermo ...

Amun
. His infant daughters, 317a and 317b mummies, represent the final genetically-related generation of the Eighteenth Dynasty.


Ay and Horemheb

The last two members of the Eighteenth Dynasty—
Ay
Ay
and
Horemheb Horemheb, also spelled Horemhab or Haremhab ( egy, ḥr-m-ḥb, meaning "Horus is in Jubilation") was the last pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, 18th Dynasty of Egypt (1550–1295 BC). He ruled for at least 14 years between 1319 ...
—became rulers from the ranks of officials in the royal court, although Ay might also have been the maternal uncle of Akhenaten as a fellow descendant of
Yuya Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, or Yuaa, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy) was a powerful ancient Egyptian courtier during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390s BCE, 1390 BC). He was married to Tjuyu, an Egypt ...
and
Tjuyu Tjuyu (sometimes transliterated as Touiyou, Thuiu, Thuya or Thuyu) was an Egyptian noblewoman and the mother of queen Tiye Tiye (c. 1398 BC – 1338 BC, also spelled Tye, Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became ...
. Ay may have married the widowed Great Royal Wife and young half-sister of Tutankhamun,
Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (, "Her Life Is of "; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen who lived during the as the pharaoh Akhenaten's daughter and subsequently became the of pharaoh Tutankhamun. Born Ankhesenpaaten (, "she lives for the Aten"), she was the ...
, in order to obtain power; she did not live long afterward. Ay then married
Tey Tey was the Great Royal Wife of Ay, Kheperkheprure Ay, who was the penultimate pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. She also had been the wet nurse of Nefertiti., p.157 Her husband, Ay filled important admin ...

Tey
, who was originally Nefertiti's wet-nurse. Ay's reign was short. His successor was Horemheb, a general during Tutankhamun's reign whom the pharaoh may have intended as his successor in case he had no surviving children, which is what came to pass. Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
. Although Ay's son or stepson
Nakhtmin Nakhtmin (also Minnakht) held the position of generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ord ...
was named as his father/stepfather's Crown Prince, Nakhtmin seems to have died during the reign of Ay, leaving the opportunity for Horemheb to claim the throne next. Horemheb also died without surviving children, having appointed his vizier, Pa-ra-mes-su, as his heir. This vizier ascended the throne in 1292 BC as
Ramesses I Menpehtyre Ramesses I (or Ramses) was the founding pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who of ...
, and was the first pharaoh of the
Nineteenth Dynasty The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX), also known as the Ramessid dynasty, is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom of Egypt, New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and t ...
. This example to the right depicts a man named Ay who achieved the exalted religious positions of
Second Prophet of AmunThe Second Prophet of Amun (''hm netjer sen-nu en Amun''), also called the Second Priest of Amun, was a high ranking priestly official in the cult of the ancient Egyptian god Amun. The Second Prophet of Amun office was created in the New Kingdom, at ...
and High Priest of
Mut Mut, also known as Maut and Mout, was a worshipped in . Her name literally means ''mother'' in the ancient . Mut had many different aspects and attributes that changed and evolved a lot over the thousands of years of ancient Egyptian culture. ...

Mut
at Thebes. His career flourished during the reign of Tutankhamun, when the statue was made. The cartouches of King Ay, Tutankhamun's successor appearing on the statue, were an attempt by an artisan to "update" the sculpture.


Relations with Nubia

The Eighteenth Dynasty empire conquered all of Lower
Nubia Nubia () (Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubian") and literally means "(lan ...

Nubia
under
Thutmose I Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is charac ...

Thutmose I
. By the reign of
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
, the Egyptians controlled Nubia to the Nile river, 4th cataract (rapids). The Egyptians referred to the area as
Kush Kush or Cush may refer to: Bible * Cush (Bible), two people and one or more places in the Hebrew Bible Places * Kush (mountain), a mountain near Kalat, Pakistan Balochistan * Kush (satrapy), a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire * Hindu Kush, a mou ...
and it was administered by the
Viceroy of Kush The former Kingdom of Kerma in Nubia, was a province of ancient Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period, the polity was ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyptian Pharaoh. It is believed that the Egy ...
. The 18th dynasty obtained Nubian gold, animal skins, ivory, ebony, cattle, and horses, which were of exceptional quality. The Egyptians built temples throughout Nubia. One of the largest and most important temples was dedicated to amun at
Jebel Barkal Jebel Barkal or Gebel Barkal ( ar, جبل بركل) is a very small mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in havin ...

Jebel Barkal
in the city of Napata. This
Temple of Amun The Precinct of Amun-Re, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main Egyptian temple, temple enclosures that make up the immense Karnak, Karnak Temple Complex. The precinct is by far the largest of these and the only one that is open to the ...
was enlarged by later Egyptian and Nubian Pharaohs, such as
Taharqa Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo (Egyptian language, Egyptian: 𓇿𓉔𓃭𓈎 ''tꜣ-h-rw-k'', Neo-Assyrian language, Neo-Assyrian: ''Tar-qu-u2'', , Manetho's ''Tarakos'', Strabo's ''Tearco''), was a pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty ...

Taharqa
. File:Nubian Tribute Presented to the King, Tomb of Huy MET DT221112.jpg, Nubian Tribute Presented to the King, MET DT221112 File:Nubian Prince Hekanefer bringing tribute for King Tut, 18th dynasty, Tomb of Huy.jpg, Nubian Prince Heqanefer bringing tribute for King
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
, 18th dynasty, Tomb of Huy File:Nubians bringing tribute for King Tut, Tomb of Huy.jpg, Nubians bringing tribute for King
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
, Tomb of Huy


Relations with the Near-East

After the end of the
Hyksos Hyksos (; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with th ...
period of foreign rule, the Eighteenth Dynasty engaged in a vigorous phase of expansionism, conquering vast areas of the
Near-East The Near East (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. ...
, with especially Pharaoh
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
submitting the "Shasu" Bedouins of northern
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
, and the land of
Retjenu Retjenu ('' rṯnw; Reṯenu, Retenu''), was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a of , concentrated along the lower reaches of the , situated in the place that is now the country . Ancient Egyptian civilization followed and coalesced ...
, as far as
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...

Syria
and
Mittani Mitanni (; Hittite cuneiform Hittite cuneiform is the implementation of cuneiform script Cuneiform is a logo- syllabic script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the earl ...
in numerous military campaigns circa 1450 BC. File:Block from a Relief Depicting a Battle MET 213 S3BR2 01GG.jpg, Egyptian relief depicting a battle against West Asiatics. Reign of
Amenhotep II Amenhotep II (sometimes called ''Amenophis II'' and meaning '' is Satisfied'') was the seventh of the . Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father , and held it by means of a few military campaigns in ; however, he fought much less than h ...

Amenhotep II
, Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1427–1400 BC. File:West Asiatic tribute bearers tomb of Sobekhotep 18th Dynasty Thebes.jpg, West Asiatic tribute bearers in the tomb of Sobekhotep, c. 1400 BC, Thebes.
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
.


Dating

Radiocarbon dating Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of ...
suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC.


Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty

The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for approximately 250 years (c. 1550–1298 BC). The dates and names in the table are taken from Dodson and Hilton. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the
Valley of the Kings The Valley of the Kings ( ar, وادي الملوك ; ), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings ( ar, وادي أبواب الملوك ), is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountai ...
in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Several diplomatic marriages are known for the
New Kingdom New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
. These daughters of foreign kings are often only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were likely to have been a way to confirm good relations between these states.Grajetzki, ''Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary'', Golden House Publications, London, 2005,


Timeline of the 18th Dynasty

ImageSize = width:801 height:auto barincrement:12 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:30 right:130 left:20 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:-1550 till:-1285 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:-1550 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:-1550 Colors = id:canvas value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97) id:PA value:green id:GP value:red id:eon value:rgb(1,0.7,1) # light purple Backgroundcolors = canvas:canvas BarData = barset:Rulers PlotData= width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till barset:Rulers from: -1550 till: -1525 color:PA text:"
Ahmose I Ahmose I ( egy, jꜥḥ wikt:msj, ms(jwikt:.w, .w), reconstructed /ʔaʕaħ'ma:sjə/ (Middle Egyptian, MK), Egyptological pronunciation ''Ahmose'', sometimes written as ''Amosis'' or ''Aahmes'', meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born") was a pharaoh a ...
(1550–1525 BC)" from: -1525 till: -1504 color:PA text:"
Amenhotep I Amenhotep I () ( egy, jmn-ḥtp(w) /jaˌmanuwˈħatpaw/ "Amun is satisfied"; Amarna cuneiform a-ma-an-ha-at-pe or -at-pa), Amenôthes I, or Amenophis I, (,) from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις ,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally ''King Dj ...

Amenhotep I
(1525–1504 BC)" from: -1504 till: -1492 color:PA text:"
Thutmose I Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is charac ...

Thutmose I
(1504–1492 BC)" from: -1492 till: -1479 color:PA text:"
Thutmose II Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis II, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is char ...
(1492–1479 BC)" from: -1479 till: -1457 color:PA text:"
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex an ...

Hatshepsut
(1479–1457 BC)" from: -1479 till: -1425 color:PA text:"
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
(1479–1425 BC)" from: -1427 till: -1401 color:PA text:"
Amenhotep II Amenhotep II (sometimes called ''Amenophis II'' and meaning '' is Satisfied'') was the seventh of the . Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father , and held it by means of a few military campaigns in ; however, he fought much less than h ...

Amenhotep II
" (1427–1401 BC) from: -1401 till: -1391 color:PA text:"
Thutmose IV Thutmose (also rendered Thutmoses, Thutmosis, Tuthmose, Tutmosis, Thothmes, Tuthmosis, Djhutmose, etc.) is an Anglicization of the Egyptian name ''dhwty-ms'', usually translated as "Born of the god Thoth Thoth (; from grc-koi, Θώθ ', borrow ...
" (1401–1391 BC) from: -1391 till: -1353 color:PA text:"
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
" (1391–1353 BC) from: -1353 till: -1335 color:PA text:"
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, , meaning "Effective for the "), was an ian reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the . Before the fifth year of his reign, he was known as Ame ...

Akhenaten
" (1353–1335 BC) from: -1336 till: -1335 color:PA text:"
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
?" (1336–1335 BC?) from: -1335 till: -1333 color:PA text:"
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
?" (1335–1333 BC?) from: -1333 till: -1323 color:PA text:"
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
(1333–1323 BC)" from: -1323 till: -1319 color:PA text:" (1323–1319 BC)" from: -1319 till: -1292 color:PA text:"
Horemheb Horemheb, also spelled Horemhab or Haremhab ( egy, ḥr-m-ḥb, meaning "Horus is in Jubilation") was the last pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, 18th Dynasty of Egypt (1550–1295 BC). He ruled for at least 14 years between 1319 ...
(1319–1292 BC)" barset:skip


Gallery of images

File:Trial piece showing a head of an unknown king in profile. Uraeus on forehead. Limestone relief. 18th Dynasty. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg, Trial piece showing a head of an unknown king in profile. Uraeus on forehead. Limestone relief. 18th Dynasty. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London File:AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png,
Ahmose I Ahmose I ( egy, jꜥḥ wikt:msj, ms(jwikt:.w, .w), reconstructed /ʔaʕaħ'ma:sjə/ (Middle Egyptian, MK), Egyptological pronunciation ''Ahmose'', sometimes written as ''Amosis'' or ''Aahmes'', meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born") was a pharaoh a ...
. Though he was called the founder of the 18th dynasty, he was the brother of
Kamose Kamose was the last Pharaoh of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty The Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVII, alternatively 17th Dynasty or Dynasty 17) is classified as the third dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt The S ...
, the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty. During his reign, he expelled the Hyksos from Lower Egypt and brought the Nile Delta under his control, politically unifying Egypt once again. File:58 I Amenhotep I.jpg,
Amenhotep I Amenhotep I () ( egy, jmn-ḥtp(w) /jaˌmanuwˈħatpaw/ "Amun is satisfied"; Amarna cuneiform a-ma-an-ha-at-pe or -at-pa), Amenôthes I, or Amenophis I, (,) from Ancient Greek Ἀμένωφις ,Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.126 additionally ''King Dj ...

Amenhotep I
gained the throne after his two elder brothers had died. He was the son of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari. He was succeeded by Thutmose I who married his daughter, Ahmose. File:Amenhotep I.jpg, Amenhotep I with his mother, Ahmose-Nefertari. Both royals are credited with opening a workmen's village at
Deir el-Medina Deir el-Medina ( arz, دير المدينة), or Dayr al-Madīnah, is an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the ...
. Dier el-Medina housed the artisans and workers of the pharaohs tombs in the Valley of the Kings, from the 18th to 21st dynasties. Amenhotep I and his mother were deified and were the village's principal gods. File:ColossalSandstoneHeadOfThutmoseI-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg,
Thutmose I Thutmose I (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis I, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is charac ...

Thutmose I
. A military man, he came to power by marrying the sister of Amenhotep I. During his reign, he pushed the borders of Egypt into
Nubia Nubia () (Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubian") and literally means "(lan ...

Nubia
and
the Levant The Levant () is an approximate An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equality (mathematics), equal to something else. Etymology and usage The word ''approximation'' is derived from Latin ''approximat ...
. He is credited with the starting the building projects in what is now the
temple of Karnak A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...
. File:Thotmes II. (1884) - TIMEA.jpg, Sketch from temple relief of
Thutmose II Thutmose II (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis II, Thothmes in older history works in Latinized Greek; Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is char ...
. Considered a weak ruler, he was married to his sister
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex an ...

Hatshepsut
. He named
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
, his son as successor to prevent Hatshepsut from gaining the throne. They had a daughter,
Neferure Neferure (or Neferura) was an Ancient Egypt, Egyptian princess of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the daughter of two pharaohs, Hatshepsut and Thutmose II. She served in high offices in the government and the religious administration of A ...
. File:Hatshepsut temple33.JPG, Hatshepsut. Daughter of Thutmose I, she ruled jointly as her stepson Thutmose III's co-regent. She soon took the throne for herself, and declared herself pharaoh. While there may have been other female rulers before her, she is the only one who used the symbolic beard. File:Thutmosis III wien front.jpg, Thutmosis III, a military man and member of the Thutmosid royal line is commonly called the "Napoleon of Egypt". His conquests of the Levant brought Egypt's territories and influence to its greatest extent. File:Statue of Amenhotep II from the Museo Egizio.jpg,
Amenhotep II Amenhotep II (sometimes called ''Amenophis II'' and meaning '' is Satisfied'') was the seventh of the . Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father , and held it by means of a few military campaigns in ; however, he fought much less than h ...

Amenhotep II
. File:Thutmosis IV Head.jpg, Thutmose IV. File:Berlin Neues Museum - statue d'Amenhotep III.jpg,
Amenhotep III Amenhotep III ( egy, imn-ḥtp(.w) "Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ámmōn'', ''Hámmōn'') was a major ancient Egyptian deities, ancient Egyptian deity who appears ...

Amenhotep III
. File:Akhenaten statue.jpg,
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, , meaning "Effective for the "), was an ian reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the . Before the fifth year of his reign, he was known as Ame ...

Akhenaten
, born Amenhotep IV, began a religious revolution in which he declared
Aten Aten also Aton, Atonu, or Itn ( egy, wikt:jtn, jtn, ''reconstructed'' ) was the focus of Atenism, the religious system established in ancient Egypt by the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten. The Aten was the disc o ...

Aten
was a supreme god and turned his back on the old traditions. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. File:Wiki nefertiti bittidjz.jpg,
Queen Nefertiti Neferneferuaten Nefertiti () (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was a queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Great Royal Wife Great Royal Wife, or alternatively, Chief King's Wife (Ancient Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ''ḥmt ns ...
the daughter of , married Akhenaten. Her role in daily life at the court soon extended from Great Royal Wife to that of a co-regent. It is also possible that she may have ruled Egypt in her own right as pharaoh
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
. File:PrincesseAmarna.jpg, Queen Meritaten, was the eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She was the wife of
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
. She also may have ruled Egypt in her own right as pharaoh and is one of the possible candidates of being the pharaoh
Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro ...
. File:Ägyptischer Maler um 1360 v. Chr. 002.jpg,
Neferneferure Neferneferure ( egy, nfr-nfr.w-rꜥ "beautiful are the beauties of Re") (14th century BCE) was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th Dynasty. She was the fifth of six known daughters of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. Fami ...
and
Neferneferuaten Tasherit Neferneferuaten Tasherit or Neferneferuaten the younger (14th century BCE) was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situa ...
. Shown here as children, they were two of six daughters born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. It is possible that Neferneferuaten Tasherit was the one who may have been her father's co-regent and may have ruled as the female pharaoh, Neferneferuaten. File:PortraitStudyOfAkhenaten-ThutmoseWorkshop EgyptianMuseumBerlin.png,
Smenkhkare Smenkhkare (alternatively romanized ''Smenkhare'', ''Smenkare,'' or ''Smenkhkara''; meaning "'Vigorous is the Soul of Re") was an Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a ...
, was a co-regent of Akhenaten who ruled after his death. It was believed that Smenkhkare was a male guise of Nefertiti, however, it is accepted that Smenkhkare was a male. He took Meritaten, Queen Nefertiti's daughter as his wife. File:Tutmask.jpg,
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation The Egyptian language (Egyptian: ''r n km.t'', , Coptic: ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as A ...

Tutankhamun
, formerly Tutankhaten, was Akhenaten's son. As pharaoh, he instigated policies to restore Egypt to its old religion and moved the capital away from Akhetaten. File:Opening of the Mouth - Tutankhamun and Aja-2.jpg, served as
vizier A vizier (; ar, وزير, wazīr; fa, وزیر, vazīr), or wazir, is a high-ranking political advisor or minister in the near east. The caliphs gave the title ''wazir'' to a minister formerly called ' (secretary), who was at first merely a ...
to Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun. He was the father of Nefertiti. After the death of Tutankhamun, Ay laid a claim to the throne by burying him and marrying his granddaughter
Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (, "Her Life Is of "; c. 1348 – after 1322 BC) was a queen who lived during the as the pharaoh Akhenaten's daughter and subsequently became the of pharaoh Tutankhamun. Born Ankhesenpaaten (, "she lives for the Aten"), she was the ...
. File:StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb02 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg, After the death of Ay,
Horemheb Horemheb, also spelled Horemhab or Haremhab ( egy, ḥr-m-ḥb, meaning "Horus is in Jubilation") was the last pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, 18th Dynasty of Egypt (1550–1295 BC). He ruled for at least 14 years between 1319 ...
assumed the throne. A commoner, he had served as vizier to both Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb instigated a policy of ''
damnatio memoriae ''Damnatio memoriae'' is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", indicating that a person is to be excluded from official accounts. There are and have been many routes to damnatio memoriae, including the destruction of depictions ...
'', against everyone associated with the
Amarna period The Amarna Period was an era of History of Ancient Egypt, Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten ('Horizon of the A ...
. He was married to Nefertiti's sister, Mutnodjmet, who died in childbirth. With no heir, he appointed his own vizier, Paramessu as his successor. File:Ägyptisches Museum Berlin 027.jpg,
Tiye Tiye (c. 1398 BC – 1338 BC, also spelled Tye, Taia, Tiy and Tiyi) was the daughter of Yuya Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, or Yuaa, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy) was a powerful ancient Egypt Anci ...
was the daughter of the visizer
Yuya Yuya (sometimes Iouiya, or Yuaa, also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, and Yuy) was a powerful ancient Egyptian courtier during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390s BCE, 1390 BC). He was married to Tjuyu, an Egypt ...
. She married Amenhotep III, and became his principal wife. Her knowledge of government helped her gain power in her position and she was soon running affairs of state and foreign affairs for her husband, Amenhotep III and later her son, Akhenaten. She is also Tutankhamun's grandmother. File:Senenu Grinding Grain, ca. 1352-1336 B.C..jpg, Senenu, High Priest of Amūn at , grinding grain, c. 1352–1292 BC,
Limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its na ...

Limestone
, Brooklyn Museum. File:Tomb_of_Nakht_(6).jpg,
Beautiful Festival of the Valley The Beautiful Festival of the Valley depicted in the Tomb of Nakht The Beautiful Festival of the Valley was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches o ...
(Celebration of the dead in Thebes)


See also

*
Egyptian chronology The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classica ...


References


Bibliography

*


External links


Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh
an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF) {{DEFAULTSORT:Eighteenth Dynasty Of Egypt States and territories established in the 16th century BC States and territories disestablished in the 13th century BC 18 18 16th century BC in Egypt 15th century BC in Egypt 14th century BC in Egypt 13th century BC in Egypt 16th-century BC establishments in Egypt 13th century BC disestablishments in Egypt 2nd millennium BC in Egypt de:Neues Reich#18. Dynastie