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Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 191617 July 2005) was a British politician who served as
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. Heath also served for 51 years as a
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this term implies members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different titl ...
from 1950 to 2001. Outside of politics, Heath was a
yachtsman A yacht is a sail or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a , as opposed to a , su ...
, a musician, and an author. Born to a lady's maid and a carpenter, Heath was educated at a grammar school in Ramsgate, Kent (Chatham House Grammar School for boys) and became a leader within student politics while studying at the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
. He served as an officer in the
Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far be ...
during the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. He worked briefly in the
Civil Service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leader ...
, but resigned in order to stand for Parliament, and was elected for
Bexley Bexley is an area of south-eastern Greater London, England and part of the London Borough of Bexley. It is sometimes known as Bexley Village or Old Bexley to differentiate the area from the wider borough. It is located east-southeast of Charing ...
at the 1950 election. He was promoted to become
Chief Whip The Chief Whip is a political leader whose task is to ensure the Whip (politics), whipping system that tries to ensure that members of the Political party, party attend and vote as the party leadership desires. United Kingdom In Politics of ...
by
Anthony Eden Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the ...

Anthony Eden
in 1955, and in 1959 was appointed to the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
by
Harold Macmillan Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nat ...

Harold Macmillan
as
Minister of LabourMinister of Labour (in British English) or Labor (in American English) is typically a cabinet-level position with portfolio responsibility for setting national labour standards, labour dispute mechanisms, employment, workforce participation, trainin ...
. He later held the role of
Lord Privy Seal The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their posit ...
and in 1963, was made
President of the Board of Trade The president of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade The Board of Trade is a British government body concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the C ...
by
Alec Douglas-Home Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (; 2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of governm ...
. After the Conservatives were defeated at the 1964 election, Heath was elected as Leader of the Conservative Party in 1965, becoming
Leader of the Opposition The leader of the opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the Opposition (parliamentary), largest party not in government in a parliamentary democracy. The leader of the opposition is seen as the alternative prime minister, premi ...
. Although he led the Conservatives to a landslide defeat at the 1966 election, he remained in the leadership, and at the 1970 election led his party to an unexpected victory. During his time as prime minister, Heath oversaw the decimalisation of British coinage in 1971, and in 1972 he led the reformation of
local government in the United Kingdom Local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementatio ...
, significantly reducing the number of local authorities and creating several new metropolitan counties, much of which remains to this day. Perhaps Heath's most prominent achievement came in 1973, when he led the United Kingdom into membership of the
European Communities The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community, were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, ...
(which would later become the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
) as a
member state A member state is a state that is a member of an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable set of norms and rules meant to govern the be ...
. Heath had always been a strong supporter of British membership of the EC, and after winning the decisive vote in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
by 356 to 244 to join, he led the negotiations that culminated in the UK's entry into the EC on 1 January 1973. According to biographer John Campbell, Heath regarded this as his personal "finest hour". Heath's time as prime minister also coincided with the height of
the Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A na ...
in Northern Ireland, with his approval of internment without trial and subsequent suspension of the Stormont Parliament seeing the imposition of direct British rule. Unofficial talks with
Provisional Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the mili ...
delegates were unsuccessful, as was the
Sunningdale Agreement The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature A legislature is ...
of 1973, which led the MPs of the
Ulster Unionist Party The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist and conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to ...
to withdraw from the Conservative whip. Heath also tried to reform British trade unionism with the Industrial Relations Act, and hoped to deregulate the economy and make a transfer from
direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calc ...
to
indirect tax An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or value added tax, goods and services tax (GST), excise, consumption tax, tariff) is a tax that is levied upon goods and services before they reach the customer who ultimate ...
ation. However, a miners' strike at the start of 1974 severely damaged the Government, causing the implementation of the
Three-Day Week The Three-Day Week was one of several measures introduced in the United Kingdom by the Conservative government at the time to conserve electricity, the generation of which was severely restricted owing to industrial action by coal miners. From 1 ...
to conserve energy. Attempting to resolve the situation, Heath called an
election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative dem ...
for February 1974, attempting to obtain a mandate to face down the miners' wage demands, but this instead resulted in a
hung parliament A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (c ...
, with the Conservatives losing their majority. Despite gaining fewer votes, the Labour Party won four more seats, and Heath resigned as Prime Minister on 4 March after talks with the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
to form a coalition government were unsuccessful. After losing a second successive election in October 1974, Heath insisted he would continue as leader, but in January 1975,
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
announced she would challenge Heath for the leadership, and on 4 February, she narrowly outpolled him in the first round. Heath chose to resign the leadership rather than contest the second round. Heath returned to the backbench, where he would remain until 2001. In 1975, he played a major role in the
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
on British membership of the EC, campaigning for the eventually successful "Yes" vote to remain in the Community. He would later become an embittered critic of Thatcher during her time as prime minister, speaking and writing against the policies of
Thatcherism Thatcherism is a form of British conservative ideology named after Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) ...
. Following the 1992 election, he became
Father of the House Father of the House is a title that has been traditionally bestowed, unofficially, on certain members of some legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of s ...
, until his retirement in 2001. He died in 2005, aged 89. He is one of four British prime ministers never to have married. He has been described by the BBC as "the first working-class meritocrat" to become Conservative leader in "the party's modern history" and "a One Nation Tory in the
Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881), was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is e ...

Disraeli
tradition who rejected the laissez-faire capitalism that Thatcher would enthusiastically endorse."


Early life

Edward Heath was born at 54 Albion Road, Broadstairs, Kent on 9 July 1916, the son of William George Heath (1888–1976), a carpenter who built
airframe The mechanical structure of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
s for
Vickers Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999. History Early history Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor (busines ...
during the First World War, and was subsequently employed as a builderBritish Society Since 1945: The Penguin Social History of Britain,
Arthur Marwick Arthur John Brereton Marwick (29 February 1936 – 27 September 2006) was a British Social history, social historian, who served for many years as Professor of History at the Open University. His research interests lay primarily in the history o ...
, Penguin Books, 1996, p. 158
and Edith Anne Heath (''née'' Pantony; 1888–1951), a lady's maid. His father was later a successful small businessman after taking over a building and decorating firm. Heath's paternal grandfather had run a small dairy business, and when that failed worked as a porter at Broadstairs Station on the Southern Railway. Edward was four years old when his younger brother, John, was born; there was no question that Edward was the "favoured brother". Heath was known as "Teddy" as a young man. He was educated at
Chatham House Grammar School (May Chatham House Flourish) , established = 1797 , free_label_3 = Merged , free_3 = 2011 , closed = , type = Grammar schoolAcademy An academy ( Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, ...
in
Ramsgate Ramsgate is a seaside resort, seaside town in the district of Thanet District, Thanet in east Kent, England. It was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century. In 2001 it had a population of about 40,000. In 2011, according to th ...
, and in 1935 with the aid of a county scholarship he went up to study at
Balliol College, Oxford Balliol College () is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford The University of Oxford , mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = ...

Balliol College, Oxford
. In later years, Heath's peculiar accent, with its "strangulated" vowel sounds, combined with his non-Standard pronunciation of "l" as "w" and "out" as "eout", was satirised by
Monty Python Monty Python (also collectively known as the Pythons) were a British surreal comedy troupe A comedy troupe is a group of comedians and associated personnel who work together to perform comedy as entertainment. The term is often used inte ...
in the audio sketch " Teach Yourself Heath" (released on a 7" flexi-disc single included with initial copies of their 1972 LP '' Monty Python's Previous Record''). Heath's biographer John Campbell speculates that his speech, unlike that of his father and younger brother, who both spoke with Kent accents, must have undergone "drastic alteration on encountering Oxford", although retaining elements of Kent speech.


Oxford

A talented musician, Heath won the college's
organ scholar An organ scholar is a young musician employed as a part-time assistant organist An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with simil ...
ship in his first term (he had previously tried for the organ scholarships at
St Catharine's College, Cambridge St Catharine's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1473 as Katharine Hall, it adopted its current name in 1860. The college is nicknamed "Catz". The college is located in the historic city-centre of Camb ...
, and
Keble College, Oxford Keble College () is one of the Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its main buildings are on Parks Road, opposite the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, University Museum ...
) which enabled him to stay at the university for a fourth year; he eventually graduated with a
Second Class Honours The British undergraduate degree classification system is a Grade (education), grading structure for undergraduate degrees or bachelor's degrees and Master's degree#Integrated Masters Degree, integrated master's degrees in the United Kingdom. The s ...
BA in
Philosophy, Politics and Economics#REDIRECT Philosophy, politics and economics Philosophy, politics and economics, or politics, philosophy and economics (PPE), is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more acade ...
in 1939. While at university Heath became active in Conservative Party politics. On the key political issue of the day, foreign policy, he opposed the Conservative-dominated government of the day ever more openly. His first Paper Speech (i.e. a major speech listed on the
Order Paper The Order Paper is a daily publication in the Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of Parliamentary procedure, procedures for operating a legi ...
along with the visiting guest speakers) at the
Oxford Union The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estima ...
, in 1936, was in opposition to the
appeasement Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power (international relations) , power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often applied to the foreign pol ...
of Germany by returning her colonies, confiscated during the First World War. In June 1937 he was elected President of the
Oxford University Conservative Association The Oxford University Conservative Association (OUCA) is a student Conservative association A Conservative Association (CA) is a local organisation composed of Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party members in the United Kingdom. Every as ...
as a pro-
Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April ...
candidate, in opposition to the pro-
Franco Franco may refer to: Name * Franco (name), includes a list of people with the name * Francisco Franco (1892–1975), Spanish general and dictator of Spain from 1939 to 1975 * Franco Luambo (1938–1989), Congolese musician, the "Grand Maître" ...

Franco
John Stokes (himself later a Conservative MP). In 1937–38 Heath was chairman of the national Federation of University Conservative Associations, and in the same year (his third at university) he was Secretary and then Librarian of the Oxford Union. At the end of the year he was defeated for the Presidency of the Oxford Union by another Balliol candidate, Alan Wood, on the issue of whether the Chamberlain government should give way to a left-wing
Popular Front A popular front is "any coalition of working-class and middle-class parties", including liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent ...
. On that occasion, Heath supported the government. In his final year Heath was President of Balliol College Junior Common Room, an office held in subsequent years by his near-contemporaries
Denis Healey Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970; ...

Denis Healey
and
Roy Jenkins Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British politician who served as President of the European Commission from 1977 to 1981. At various times a Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), ...
, and as such was invited to support the Master of Balliol Alexander Lindsay, who stood as an anti-appeasement 'Independent Progressive' candidate against the official Conservative candidate, Quintin Hogg, in the
1938 Oxford by-election The Oxford by-election, 1938 was a by-election, parliamentary by-election for the British House of Commons United Kingdom constituencies, constituency of Oxford (UK Parliament constituency), Oxford, held on 27 October 1938. The by-election was trig ...
. Heath, who had himself applied to be the Conservative candidate for the by-election, accused the government in an October Union Debate of "turning all four cheeks" to
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
, and was elected as President of the Oxford Union in November 1938, sponsored by Balliol, after winning the Presidential Debate that "This House has No Confidence in the National Government as presently constituted". He was thus President in Hilary term 1939; the visiting
Leo Amery Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery, (22 November 1873 – 16 September 1955), usually known as Leo Amery or L. S. Amery, was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative politician and journalist, noted for his interest in military prepa ...
described him in his diaries as "a pleasant youth". As an undergraduate, Heath travelled widely in Europe. His opposition to appeasement was nourished by his witnessing first-hand a
Nuremberg Rally The Nuremberg Rally (officially ', meaning ''Reich ''Reich'' (; , English: ''Riche'') is a German word analogous in meaning to the English word "realm A realm is a community or territory over which a Sovereignty, sovereign rules. The te ...
in 1937, where he met leading Nazis
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German politician, military leader and convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially ...

Hermann Göring
,
Joseph Goebbels Paul Joseph Goebbels (; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi Nazism (), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus; ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed ...
, and
Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was of the (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationa ...
at an cocktail party. He later described Himmler as "the most evil man I have ever met". He was in Germany for two months to learn German but did not keep up any fluency in the language in later life. In 1938 he visited
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
, then under attack from Spanish Nationalist forces during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
. On one occasion a car in which he was travelling came under machine-gun fire, while on another a bomb hit his hotel whilst he was observing an air raid from outside. In the summer of 1939, accompanied by his Jewish friend Madron Seligman, he travelled to and
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
. They made the return journey by hitchhiking and rail across Germany through mobilising troops, returning to Britain just before the declaration of war.


Second World War

Heath spent late 1939 and early 1940 on a debating tour of the United States before being called up. On 22 March 1941, he received an emergency commission as a
second lieutenant Second lieutenant is a junior Officer (armed forces), commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank. Australia The rank of second lieutenant existed in the Colonial forces of Australia, military forces of ...
in the
Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far be ...
. During the war he initially served with heavy anti-aircraft guns around
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
(which suffered heavy German bombing in May 1941) and by early 1942 was regimental
adjutant Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic ...

adjutant
, with the war substantive rank of
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in a ...
.Ziegler, ''Edward Heath'' (2010) ch. 3 Heath participated as an adjutant in the
Normandy landings The Normandy landings were the landing operation Allied invasion of Sicily, 1943 A landing operation is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended fo ...

Normandy landings
, where he met
Maurice Schumann Maurice Schumann (10 April 1911 – 9 February 1998) was a French politician, journalist, writer, and hero of the Second World War who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs (France), Minister of Foreign Affairs under Georges Pompidou from 22 Jun ...

Maurice Schumann
, French Foreign Minister under Pompidou. As a temporary major commanding a battery of his own, he provided artillery support during the Allied campaigns in France and Germany in 1944–45, for which he received a
mention in despatches To be mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) describes a member of the armed forces whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which their gallant or meritorious action in the face ...
on 8 November 1945. Heath later remarked that, although he did not personally kill anybody, as the British forces advanced he saw the devastation caused by his unit's artillery bombardments. In September 1945 he commanded a firing squad that executed a Polish soldier convicted of rape and murder. He was appointed a
Member of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the The arts, arts and Science, sciences, work with charitable and welfare Organization, organisations, and public service outside the civ ...
, Military Division (MBE) on 24 January 1946. He was demobilised in August 1946 and promoted to the substantive rank of
lieutenant-colonel Lieutenant colonel ( or ) is a rank of commissioned officer in the army, armies, most Marine (armed services), marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel. Several police forces in the United States use th ...
on 1 May 1947. Heath joined the
Honourable Artillery Company The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by royal charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The King ...
as a lieutenant-colonel on 1 September 1951, in which he remained active throughout the 1950s, rising to commanding officer of the Second Battalion; a portrait of him in full dress uniform still hangs in the HAC's Long Room. In April 1971, as prime minister, he wore his lieutenant-colonel's insignia to inspect troops.


Post-war, 1945–1950

Before the war, Heath had won a scholarship to
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
and had begun making preparations for a career at the Bar, but after the war he was placed in joint top position in the
civil service examination Civil service examinations (also public tendering) are examinations implemented in various countries for recruitment and admission to the civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career ci ...
s. He then became a civil servant in the Ministry of Civil Aviation (he was disappointed not to be posted to the Treasury, but declined an offer to join the Foreign Office, fearing that foreign postings might prevent him from entering politics). Heath joined a team under Alison Munro tasked with drawing up a scheme for British airports using some of the many Second World War
RAF "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Air Force March Past , mascot = , anniversaries = , e ...
bases, and was specifically charged with planning the home counties. Years later she attributed his evident enthusiasm for Maplin Airport to this work. Then much to the surprise of civil service colleagues, he sought adoption as the prospective parliamentary candidate for
Bexley Bexley is an area of south-eastern Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial c ...

Bexley
and resigned in November 1947. After working as news editor of the ''
Church Times The ''Church Times'' is an independent Anglican weekly newspaper based in London and published in the United Kingdom on Fridays. History The ''Church Times'' was founded on 7 February 1863 by George Josiah Palmer, a printer. It fought for the ...
'' from February 1948 to September 1949, Heath worked as a management trainee at the
merchant bank A merchant bank is historically a bank dealing in commercial loans and investment. In modern British usage it is the same as an investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. In ...
ers Brown, Shipley & Co. until his election as
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this term implies members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different titl ...
(MP) for
Bexley Bexley is an area of south-eastern Greater London, England and part of the London Borough of Bexley. It is sometimes known as Bexley Village or Old Bexley to differentiate the area from the wider borough. It is located east-southeast of Charing ...
in the February 1950 general election. In the election he defeated an old contemporary from the Oxford Union,
Ashley Bramall Sir Ernest Ashley Bramall (6 January 1916 – 10 February 1999) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependenci ...
, by a margin of 133 votes.


Member of Parliament (1950–1965)

Heath made his
maiden speech A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, co ...
in the House of Commons on 26 June 1950, in which he appealed to the Labour government to participate in the Schuman Plan. As MP for Bexley, he gave enthusiastic speeches in support of the young candidate for neighbouring
Dartford Dartford is the principal town in the Borough of Dartford The Borough of Dartford is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district in the north-west of the county of Kent, England. Its council is based in the town of Dartford. It is ...
, Margaret Roberts, later
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
. He was appointed as an opposition whip by
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
in February 1951. He remained in the whips' office after the Conservatives won the 1951 general election, rising rapidly to Joint Deputy Chief Whip, Deputy Chief Whip and, in December 1955, Government Chief Whip under
Anthony Eden Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the ...

Anthony Eden
. Journalist
Geoffrey Wheatcroft Geoffrey Albert Wheatcroft (born 23 December 1945, in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-ea ...
has observed that "Of all government jobs, this requires firmness and fairness allied to tact and patience and Heath's ascent seems baffling in hindsight". Due to the convention that whips do not speak in Parliament, Heath managed to keep out of the controversy over the
Suez Crisis The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli war, also called the Tripartite Aggression ( ar, العدوان الثلاثي, Al-ʿUdwān aṯ-Ṯulāṯiyy) in the Arab world and the Sinai War in Israel,Also known as the Suez War or 1956 War ...
. On the announcement of Eden's resignation, Heath submitted a report on the opinions of the Conservative MPs regarding Eden's possible successors. This report favoured
Harold Macmillan Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nat ...

Harold Macmillan
and helped to secure Macmillan the premiership in January 1957. Macmillan later appointed Heath Minister of Labour, a Cabinet Minister—as Chief Whip Heath had attended Cabinet, but had not been formally a member—after winning the October 1959 election. In 1960 Macmillan appointed Heath
Lord Privy Seal The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their posit ...
with responsibility for the negotiations to secure the UK's first attempt to join the
European Communities The European Communities (EC), sometimes referred to as the European Community, were three international organizations that were governed by the same set of institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, ...
(or
Common Market A single market is a type of trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of soverei ...

Common Market
, as it was then more widely known). After extensive negotiations, involving detailed agreements about the UK's agricultural trade with
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good Common good Common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Commonwealth
countries such as
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
, British entry was vetoed by the French President,
Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; ; 22 November 18909 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 19 ...
, at a press conference in January 1963 – much to the disappointment of Heath, who was a firm supporter of European common market membership for the United Kingdom. He oversaw a successful application when serving as prime minister a decade later. After this setback, a major humiliation for Macmillan's foreign policy, Heath was not a contender for the party leadership on Macmillan's retirement in October 1963. Under prime minister
Sir Alec Douglas-Home Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (; 2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government i ...
he was
President of the Board of Trade The president of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade The Board of Trade is a British government body concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the ...
and Secretary of State for Industry, Trade and Regional Development, and oversaw the abolition of
retail price maintenance Resale price maintenance (RPM) or, occasionally, retail price maintenance is the practice whereby a manufacturer Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), ...
.


Leader of the Opposition (1965–1970)

After the Conservative Party lost the general election of 1964, the defeated Home changed the party leadership rules to allow for a ballot by MPs and then resigned. The following year, Heath—who was
Shadow Chancellor The Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in the British Parliamentary system is the member of the Shadow Cabinet#REDIRECT Shadow cabinet The shadow cabinet or shadow ministry is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It consists ...
at the time, and had recently won favourable publicity for leading the fight against Labour's
Finance Bill A Finance Act is the headline fiscal (budgetary) legislation enacted by the UK Parliament, containing multiple provisions as to taxes, duties, exemptions and reliefs at least once per year, and in particular setting out the principal tax rates for ...
—unexpectedly won the party's leadership contest, gaining 150 votes to
Reginald Maudling Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer The Chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the Chancellor, is a high ranking Ministe ...
's 133 and
Enoch Powell John Enoch Powell (16 June 1912 – 8 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Commun ...
's 15. Heath became the Conservatives' youngest leader and retained office following the party's defeat in the general election of 1966. In April 1968,
Enoch Powell John Enoch Powell (16 June 1912 – 8 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Commun ...
made his controversial "Rivers of Blood" speech, which criticised
immigration to the United Kingdom Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom under British nationality law British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly kno ...
. Soon afterwards, Heath telephoned
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
to inform her that he was going to sack Powell from the
Shadow cabinet#REDIRECT Shadow cabinet The shadow cabinet or shadow ministry is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It consists of a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the parliamentary opposition, Leader of t ...

Shadow cabinet
; she recalled that she "really thought that it was better to let things cool down for the present rather than heighten the crisis". The next day, Heath sacked Powell. Several Conservatives on the right protested against Powell's sacking. According to Heath, he never spoke to Powell again.


Prime minister (1970–1974)


1970 election

With another general election approaching in 1970 a Conservative policy document emerged from the De Vere Selsdon Estate, Selsdon Park Hotel that offered free-market–oriented policies as solutions to the country's unemployment and inflation problems.Young, Hugo. ''One Of Us'' London: MacMillan, 1989 Heath stated that the Selsdon weekend only reaffirmed policies that had actually been evolving since he became leader of the Conservative Party. The Labour prime minister, Harold Wilson, thought the document a vote-loser and dubbed it the product of ''Selsdon Man'' – after the supposedly prehistoric ''Piltdown Man'' – to portray it as reactionary. Heath's Conservative Party won the 1970 United Kingdom general election, general election of 1970 with 330 seats to Labour's 287. The new cabinet included the future prime minister Margaret Thatcher (Education and Science), William Whitelaw (Leader of the House of Commons) and the former prime minister Alec Douglas-Home (Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs).


Welfare state

During Heath's first year in office, higher charges were introduced for benefits of the welfare state such as school meals, spectacles, dentistry, and prescriptions. Entitlement to State Sickness Benefit was also changed so that it would only be paid after the first three days of sickness.The Five Giants: A Biography of the Welfare State by Nicholas Timmins As a result of the squeeze in the education budget, the provision of Education Act 1944#free school milk, free school milk was ended for 8- to 11-year-olds (it had already been ended for older children by Harold Wilson); the tabloid press christened Margaret Thatcher, the then Education Secretary as "Margaret Thatcher: Milk Snatcher". Despite these measures, the Heath government encouraged a significant increase in welfare spending, and Thatcher blocked Macleod's other posthumous education policy: the abolition of the Open University, which had recently been founded by the preceding Labour government. Provision was made under the 1970 National Insurance (Old Persons' and Widows' Pensions and Attendances Allowances) Act for pensions to be paid to old people who had been excluded from the pre-1948 pension schemes and were accordingly excluded from the comprehensive scheme that was introduced in 1948. About 100,000 people were affected by this change, half of whom were receiving Supplementary Benefit under the social security scheme. The Act also made improvements to the Widow's Pension scheme by introducing a scale that started at 30 shillings a week for women widowed at the age of 40 and rose to the full rate of £5 at the age of 50. Considerable support was provided for nursery school building, and a long-term capital investment programme in school building was launched. A Family Fund was set up to assist families with children who had congenital conditions, while new benefits were introduced benefiting hundreds of thousands of disabled persons whose disabilities had been caused neither by war nor by industrial injury. An Attendance Allowance was introduced for those needing care at home, together with Invalidity Benefit for the long-term sick, while a higher Child Allowance was made available where invalidity allowance was paid. Widow's Benefits were introduced for those aged between forty and fifty years of age, improved subsidies for Slum clearance in the United Kingdom, slum clearance were made available, while Rent Allowances were introduced for private tenants. In April 1971, the right to education was given to all children with Down's syndrome for the first time. The school leaving age was raised to 16, while Family Income Supplement was introduced to boost the incomes of low-income earners. Families who received this benefit were exempted from Prescription charges, NHS charges while the children in such families were eligible for School meal#United Kingdom, free school meals. Social pension, Non-contributory pensions were also introduced for all persons aged eighty and above, while the Social Security Act 1973 was passed which introduced benefit indexation in the United Kingdom for the first time by index-linking benefits to prices to maintain their real value.


Scottish nationalism

Scottish National Party, Scottish nationalism grew as a political force, while the decimalisation of British coinage, begun under the previous Labour government, was completed eight months after Heath came to power. The Central Policy Review Staff was established by Heath in February 1971, while the Local Government Act 1972 changed the boundaries of the counties of England and Wales and created Metropolitan Counties around the major cities (e.g. Merseyside around Liverpool): this caused significant public anger. Heath did not divide England into regions, choosing instead to await the report of the Crowther Commission on the constitution; the 10 Regions of England, Government Office Regions were eventually set up by the Major government in 1994.


Economic policy

Chancellor of the Exchequer Iain Macleod died and was replaced on 20 July 1970 by Anthony Barber. Heath's planned economic policy changes (including a significant shift from direct to indirect taxation) remained largely unimplemented: the Selsdon policy document was more or less abandoned as unemployment increased considerably by 1972. By January that year, the number of unemployed reached a million, the highest level for more than two decades. Opposed to unemployment on moral grounds, Heath encouraged a famous "U-Turn" in economic policy that precipitated what became known as the "Barber boom". This was a two-range process involving the budgets of 1972 and 1973, the former of which pumped £2.5 billion into the economy in increased pensions and benefits and tax reductions. By early 1974, as a result of this Keynesian economic strategy, unemployment had fallen to under 550,000. The economic boom did not last, and the Heath government implemented various cuts that led to the abandonment of policy goals such as a planned expansion of nursery education.


Trade unions

Much of the government's attention, as well as the media and public opinion, focused on deteriorating labour relations, as the government sought to weaken the economic power of the trade unions, which had grown steadily since 1945. The Industrial Relations Act 1971 set up a special court under the judge John Donaldson, Baron Donaldson of Lymington, Lord Donaldson. Its imprisonment of striking dockworkers was a public relations disaster and became an object lesson for the Thatcher government of the 1980s. Thatcher relied instead on confiscating the assets of unions that courts found to have violated anti-strike laws. The trade unions responded with a full-scale counterattack on a government hobbled by inflation and high unemployment. Especially damaging to the government's credibility were the two miners' strikes of 1972 and 1974, the latter of which resulted in much of the country's industry working a
Three-Day Week The Three-Day Week was one of several measures introduced in the United Kingdom by the Conservative government at the time to conserve electricity, the generation of which was severely restricted owing to industrial action by coal miners. From 1 ...
in an attempt to conserve energy. The National Union of Mineworkers (Great Britain), National Union of Mineworkers won its case but the energy shortages and the resulting breakdown of domestic consensus contributed to the eventual downfall of his government.


Unemployment

There was a steep rise in unemployment for the first two years of the Heath ministry, but it was then reversed. Labour in 1964 had inherited an unemployment count of around 400,000 but saw unemployment peak at 631,000 in early 1967. At election time in June 1970, the unemployment numbers were still high at 582,000. Heath and the Conservatives were pledged to "full employment" but within a year it became clear that they were losing that battle, as the official unemployment count crept towards 1,000,000 and some newspapers suggested that it was even higher. In January 1972 it was officially confirmed that unemployment had risen above 1,000,000 – a level not seen for more than 30 years. Various other reports around this time suggested that unemployment was higher still, with ''The Times'' newspaper claiming that "nearly 3,000,000" people were jobless by March of that year.


Foreign policy

Upon entering office in June 1970, Heath immediately set about trying to reverse Wilson's policy of ending Britain's military presence East of Suez. Heath took the United Kingdom into Europe on 1 January 1973, following passage in Parliament of the European Communities Act 1972 (UK), European Communities Act 1972 in October (21 Eliz. II c.68). He publicly supported the massive US bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong in April 1972. His government quickly recognised the military regime of Augusto Pinochet in Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–1990), Chile and maintained good relations with it, despite the illegal nature of the Pinochet regime's 1973 Chilean coup d'état, coup d'etat. In October 1973 he placed a British arms embargo on all combatants in the Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War, which mostly affected the Israelis by preventing them obtaining spares for their Centurion tanks. Heath refused to allow US intelligence gathering from British bases in Cyprus, resulting in a temporary halt in the US signals intelligence tap. He also refused permission for the US to use any British bases for resupply. He favoured links with the History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976), People's Republic of China, visiting Mao Zedong in Beijing in 1974 and 1975 and remaining an honoured guest in China on frequent visits thereafter and forming a close relationship with Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping. Heath realised that to become closer to Europe he needed to be further from the United States, so he downplayed the Special Relationship that had long knitted the two nations together. The two nations differed on such major crises as Britain's EC membership, the Nixonomics, Nixon economic "shocks" of 1971, the Bangladesh Liberation War, détente with Russia, Kissinger's Year of Europe and the Middle East crisis of 1973.


Northern Ireland

Heath governed during a bloody period in the history of the The Troubles, Northern Ireland Troubles. On Bloody Sunday (1972), Bloody Sunday in 1972, 14 men and youths were shot dead by British soldiers during an anti-internment march in Derry, Derry City. In early 1971 Heath sent in a Secret Intelligence Service officer, Frank Steele, to talk to the IRA and find out what common ground there was for negotiations. Steele had carried out secret talks with Jomo Kenyatta ahead of the British withdrawal from Kenya. In July 1972, Heath permitted his Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, William Whitelaw, to hold unofficial talks in London with an IRA delegation by Seán Mac Stíofáin. In the aftermath of these unsuccessful talks, the Heath government pushed for a peaceful settlement with the political parties exclusively committed to non-violence. The 1973
Sunningdale Agreement The Sunningdale Agreement was an attempt to establish a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature A legislature is ...
, which proposed a power-sharing deal, was strongly repudiated by many Unionists and the
Ulster Unionist Party The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) is a unionist and conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to ...
who withdrew its MPs at Westminster from the Conservative whip. The proposal was finally brought down by the Loyalist Ulster Workers' Council strike in 1974, by which time Heath was no longer in office. Heath was targeted by the IRA for introducing internment in Northern Ireland. In December 1974, the Balcombe Street siege, Balcombe Street Active service unit, ASU threw a bomb onto the first-floor balcony of his home in Wilton Street, Belgravia where it exploded. Heath had been conducting a Christmas carol concert at Broadstairs and arrived home 10 minutes after the bomb exploded. No one was injured in the attack, but a landscape painted by Winston Churchill – given to Heath as a present – was damaged. In January 2003, Heath gave evidence to the Saville Inquiry and stated that he had never sanctioned unlawful lethal force in Northern Ireland.


Fall from power


1974 general elections

Heath tried to bolster his government by calling a February 1974 United Kingdom general election, general election for 28 February 1974, using the election slogan "Who governs Britain?". The result of the election was inconclusive with no party gaining an overall majority in the House of Commons; the Conservatives had the most votes but Labour had slightly more seats. Heath began negotiations with Jeremy Thorpe, leader of the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
but, when these failed, he resigned as prime minister on 4 March 1974, and was replaced by Wilson's minority Labour government, eventually confirmed, though with a tiny majority, in a second election in October.


Rise of Thatcher

Heath came to be seen as a liability by many Conservative MPs, party activists and newspaper editors. His personality was considered cold and aloof, annoying even to his friends. Alan Watkins observed in 1991 that his "brusqueness, his gaucherie, his lack of small or indeed any talk, his sheer bad manners" were among the factors costing him the support of Conservative backbenchers in the subsequent 1975 Conservative Party leadership election, Conservative Party leadership election of 1975. He resolved to remain Conservative leader, even after losing the October 1974 general election, and at first it appeared that by calling on the loyalty of his front-bench colleagues he might prevail. In the weeks following the second election defeat, Heath came under tremendous pressure to concede a review of the rules and agreed to establish a commission to propose changes and to seek re-election. There was no clear challenger after
Enoch Powell John Enoch Powell (16 June 1912 – 8 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Commun ...
had left the party and Keith Joseph had ruled himself out after controversial statements implying that the working classes should be encouraged to use more birth control. Joseph's close friend and ally
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
, who believed that an adherent to the philosophy of the Centre for Policy Studies should stand, joined the leadership contest in his place alongside the outsider Hugh Fraser (British politician), Hugh Fraser. Aided by Airey Neave's campaigning among backbench MPs — whose earlier approach to William Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, William Whitelaw had been rebuffed, out of loyalty to Heath — she emerged as the only serious challenger. The new rules permitted new candidates to enter the ballot in a second round of voting should the first be inconclusive, so Thatcher's challenge was considered by some to be that of a stalking horse. Neave deliberately understated Thatcher's support to attract wavering votes from MPs who were keen to see Heath replaced even though they did not necessarily want Thatcher to replace him. On 4 February 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the first ballot by 130 votes to 119, with Fraser coming in a distant third with 16 votes. This was not a big enough margin to give Thatcher the 15% majority necessary to win on the first ballot, but having finished in second place Heath immediately resigned and did not contest the next ballot. His favoured candidate, William Whitelaw, lost to Thatcher in the second vote one week later (Thatcher 146, Whitelaw 79, Geoffrey Howe, Howe 19, Jim Prior, Prior 19, John Peyton, Baron Peyton of Yeovil, Peyton 11). The vote polarised along right-left lines, with in addition the region, experience and education of the MP having their effects. Heath and Whitelaw were stronger on the left, among Oxbridge and public school graduates, and in MPs from Northern England or Scotland. Thatcher had promised Heath a seat in the Shadow Cabinet and planned to offer him whatever post he wanted. His advisors agreed he should wait at least six months, so he declined. He never relented and his refusal was called "the incredible sulk". Thatcher visited Heath at his home shortly after her election as leader and had to stay for coffee with his PPS Timothy Kitson so the waiting press would not realise how brief the visit had been. Heath claimed that he had simply declined her request for advice about how to handle the press, whilst Thatcher claimed that she offered him any Shadow Cabinet position he wanted and asked him to lead the Conservative campaign in the imminent 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, EEC referendum, only to be rudely rebuffed.


Later career (1975–2001)

For many years, Heath persisted in criticism of the party's new ideological direction. At the time of his defeat, he was still popular with rank-and-file Conservative members and was warmly applauded at the 1975 Conservative Party Conference. He played a leading role in the 1975 referendum campaign in which the UK voted to remain part of the EEC, and he remained active on the international stage, serving on the Willy Brandt, Brandt Commission investigation into developmental issues, particularly on North–South divide in the World, North–South projects (Brandt Report). His relations with Thatcher remained poor, and in 1979–80, he turned down her offers of the positions of Incumbent Ambassadors to the United States, Ambassador to the United States and Secretary General of NATO. He continued as a central figure on the left of the party and, at the 1981 Conservative Party conference, openly criticised the government's economic policy of monetarism, which had seen inflation rise from 13% in 1979 to 18% in 1980 then fall to 4% by 1983, but had seen unemployment double from around 1.5 million to a postwar high of 3.3 million during that time. In 1990, he flew to Baghdad to attempt to negotiate the release of aircraft passengers on British Airways Flight 149 and other British nationals taken hostage when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. After the events of Black Wednesday in 1992, he stated in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
that government should build a fund of reserves to counter currency speculators. In 1987, he was nominated in the 1987 University of Oxford Chancellor election, election for the Chancellorship of the University of Oxford but lost to Roy Jenkins as a result of splitting the Conservative vote with Robert Blake, Baron Blake, Lord Blake. Heath continued to serve as a backbench MP for the London constituency of Old Bexley and Sidcup (UK Parliament constituency), Old Bexley and Sidcup and was, from 1992, the longest-serving MP ("
Father of the House Father of the House is a title that has been traditionally bestowed, unofficially, on certain members of some legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of s ...
") and the oldest British MP. As Father of the House, he oversaw the election of two Speaker (politics), Speakers of the Commons, Betty Boothroyd and Michael Martin, Baron Martin of Springburn, Michael Martin. Heath was created a Knight of the Garter on 23 April 1992. He retired from Parliament at the 2001 United Kingdom general election, 2001 general election. Heath and Tony Benn were the last two serving MPs to have been elected during the reign of George VI, with Heath serving continuously since 1950. Heath maintained business links with several companies including a Saudi think tank, two investment funds and a Chinese freight operator, mainly as an adviser on China or a member of the governing board. According to Chris Patten, the last Governor of Hong Kong, his commercial interests in China could have been one of the reasons why he denounced the democratic reforms introduced in the run-up to the handover of Hong Kong. Parliament broke with precedent by commissioning a bust of Heath while he was still alive. Commentators have noted how the statue of Margaret Thatcher appears to overshadow Heath's bust. The 1993 bronze work, by Martin Jennings, was moved to the Members' Lobby in 2002. On 29 April 2002, in his eighty-sixth year, he made a public appearance at Downing Street alongside the then–prime minister Tony Blair and the three other surviving former prime ministers at the time (James Callaghan, Margaret Thatcher and John Major), as well as relatives of deceased prime ministers, for a dinner which was part of the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II. This was to be one of his last public appearances, as the following year saw a decline in his health.


Illness and death

In August 2003, at the age of 87, Heath suffered a pulmonary embolism while on holiday in Salzburg, Austria. He never fully recovered, and owing to his declining health and mobility made very few public appearances in the last two years of his life, his last one being at the unveiling of a set of gates at St Paul's Cathedral dedicated to Churchill on 30 November 2004. In his final public statement, Heath paid tribute to James Callaghan, who died on 26 March 2005, saying "James Callaghan was a major fixture in the political life of this country during his long and varied career. When in opposition he never hesitated to put firmly his party's case. When in office he took a smoother approach towards his supporters and opponents alike. Although he left the House of Commons in 1987 he continued to follow political life and it was always a pleasure to meet with him. We have lost a major figure from our political landscape". Sir Edward Heath died at his home from pneumonia at 7.30pm on 17 July 2005, at the age of 89. He was cremated on 25 July 2005 at a funeral service attended by 1,500 people. On the day after his death, the BBC Parliament channel showed the BBC results coverage of the 1970 election. A memorial service was held for Heath in Westminster Abbey on 8 November 2005, which was attended by 2,000 people. Three days later his ashes were interred in Salisbury Cathedral. In a tribute to him, the then–prime minister Tony Blair stated "He was a man of great integrity and beliefs he held firmly from which he never wavered".


Personal life


Private residence

In the 1960s, Heath had lived in the Albany (London), Albany, off Piccadilly; at the unexpected end of his premiership, the French couple living there refused his demand that they move out so that he could have his flat back ("So much for European Unity!" Heath later wrote in his memoirs). For four months, Heath took the flat of Conservative MP Timothy Kitson; Kitson declined his offer to pay rent but later recalled an occasion when his own watch broke, and Heath in response invited him to take one of a large collection that he had been given on his travels. In July 1974, Robert Grosvenor, 5th Duke of Westminster, the Duke of Westminster, a major London landowner and ardent Europhile, allowed Heath to rent a property in Wilton Street, Belgravia, for an annual rent of £1,250 (just under £10,000 at 2014 prices), a tenth of the market value. The house had three storeys and a basement flat for Heath's housekeeper, and he continued to use it as his London home until old age prevented him from climbing the stairs. In February 1985, Heath acquired a Wiltshire home, Arundells, in the Cathedral close at Salisbury, where he resided until his death twenty years later. In January 2006, it was announced that Heath had placed his house and contents, valued at £5 million in his will, in a charitable foundation, the Sir Edward Heath Charitable Foundation, to conserve the house as a museum to his career. The house is open to the public for guided tours from March to October; displayed therein is a large collection of personal effects as well as Heath's personal library, photo collections, and paintings by Winston Churchill. In his will, Heath, who had no descendants, left only two legacies: £20,000 to his brother's widow, and £2,500 to his housekeeper.


Yachting

Heath was a keen yachtsman. He bought his first yacht ''Morning Cloud'' in 1969 and won the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race that year. He captained Britain's winning team for the Admiral's Cup in 1971 – while prime minister – and also captained the team in the 1979 Fastnet race. He was a member of the Broadstairs Sailing Club, where he learnt to sail on a Snipe (dinghy), Snipe and a Fireball (dinghy), Fireball before moving on to success in larger boats.


Classical music

Heath maintained an interest in classical music as a pianist, organist and orchestral conductor, famously installing a Steinway & Sons, Steinway grand in 10 Downing Street, 10 Downing Street – bought with his £450 Charlemagne Prize money, awarded for his unsuccessful efforts to bring Britain into the EEC in 1963, and chosen on the advice of his friend, the pianist Moura Lympany – and conducting Christmas carol concerts in Broadstairs every year from his teens until old age. Heath often played the organ for services at Holy Trinity Brompton Church in his early years. Heath conducted the London Symphony Orchestra, notably at a gala concert at the Royal Festival Hall in November 1971, at which he conducted Edward Elgar, Sir Edward Elgar's overture ''Cockaigne (In London Town)''. He also conducted the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic and the English Chamber Orchestra, as well as orchestras in Germany and the United States. During his premiership, Heath invited musician friends, such as Isaac Stern, Yehudi Menuhin, Clifford Curzon and the Amadeus Quartet, to perform either at Chequers or 10 Downing Street. Heath was the founding President of the European Community Youth Orchestra (in 1976), now the European Union Youth Orchestra. In 1988, Heath recorded Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven's Triple Concerto (Beethoven), Triple Concerto, Op. 56 (with members of the Trio Zingara as soloists) and Luigi Boccherini, Boccherini's Cello Concerto in G major, G480.


Football

Heath was a supporter of the Lancashire football club Burnley F.C., Burnley, and just after the end of his term as prime minister in 1974 he opened the £450,000 Bob Lord (football chairman), Bob Lord Stand at the club's Turf Moor stadium.


Author

Heath wrote several books in the second half of the 1970s: ''Sailing'', ''Music'', and ''Travels''. He also compiled a collection of carols called ''The Joy of Christmas'', published in 1978 by Oxford University Press, which contained the music and lyrics to a wide variety of Christmas carols, each accompanied by a reproduction of a piece of religious art and a short introduction by Heath. Heath's autobiography, ''The Course of My Life'', appeared in 1998. According to his obituary in ''The Daily Telegraph'', this "had involved dozens of researchers and writers (some of whom he never paid) over many years".


"Grocer Heath"

In 1964, despite substantial opposition from many Conservative MPs and independent grocers and shopkeepers, Heath led a successful fight to abolish resale price maintenance. ''Private Eye'', a satirical current affairs magazine, thereupon persistently ridiculed him as "Grocer Heath". The magazine also parodied him as the managing director of a struggling small company, "Heathco".


Sexuality

Heath never married. He had been expected to marry childhood friend Kay Raven, who reportedly tired of waiting and married an RAF officer whom she met on holiday in 1950. In a four-sentence paragraph of his memoirs, Heath claimed that he had been too busy establishing a career after the war and had "perhaps ... taken too much for granted". In a 1998 TV interview with Michael Cockerell, Heath said that he had kept her photograph in his flat for many years afterwards. His interest in music kept him on friendly terms with female musicians, including pianist Moura Lympany. When Heath was prime minister she was approached by the Conservative MP Tufton Beamish, Baron Chelwood, Tufton Beamish, who said: "Moura, Ted must get married. Will you marry him?" She said she would have done but was in love with someone else. She later said the most intimate thing Heath had done was to put his arm around her shoulder. Bernard Levin wrote at the time in ''The Observer'' that the UK had to wait until the emergence of the permissive society for a prime minister who was a virgin. In later life, according to his official biographer Philip Ziegler, at dinner parties Heath was "apt to relapse into morose silence or completely ignore the woman next to him and talk across her to the nearest man"; others at the time claimed Heath was just not talkative at parties. Heath's status as a bachelor led to speculations and rumours, some quite wild, about his private life. The public assumed that he was "queer", there were many innuendos in ''Private Eye'' about it, and homophobic chants could be heard outside Downing Street during protests by trade unionists against his Industrial Relations Bill. John Campbell, who published a biography of Heath in 1993, devoted four pages to a discussion of the evidence concerning Heath's sexuality. While acknowledging that Heath was often assumed by the public to be gay, not least because it is "nowadays ... whispered of any bachelor", he found "no positive evidence" that this was so "except for the faintest unsubstantiated rumour" (the footnote refers to a mention of a "disturbing incident" at the beginning of the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
in a 1972 biography by Andrew Roth). Campbell ultimately concluded that the most significant aspect of Heath's sexuality was his complete Psychological repression, repression of it. Brian Coleman, the Conservative Party London Assembly member for Barnet and Camden (London Assembly constituency), Barnet and Camden, claimed in 2007 that Heath, to protect his career, had stopped cottaging in the 1950s. Coleman said it was "common knowledge" among Conservatives that Heath had been given a stern warning by police when he underwent background checks for the post of privy councillor. Heath's biographer Philip Ziegler wrote in 2010 that Coleman was able to provide "little or no information" to back up this statement, that no man had ever claimed to have had a sexual relationship with Heath, nor was any trace of homosexuality to be found in his papers, and that "those who knew him well" insist that he had no such inclination. He believes Heath to have been asexuality, asexual, although he does mention a letter from one "Freddy", who seems hurt that "Teddie" had spurned his advances (Chapter 2 of his book). Robert Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Ilminster, Lord Armstrong of Ilminster, who was Heath's friend and former Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister, private secretary, stated his belief that Heath was asexual, saying that he "never detected a whiff of sexuality in relation to men, women or children." Another friend and confidant, Sara Morrison, former Vice-Chairman of the Conservative Party, said Heath had "effectively" told her "that he was sexless". Charles Moore (journalist), Charles Moore, in his authorised biography of Margaret Thatcher, said that Bill Deedes believed that Thatcher "seem[ed] convinced" Heath was gay, whilst Moore believed it is "possible" that Thatcher's reference, in interview in 1974, to Heath not having a family, was a deliberate hint that he was gay, in order to discredit him. Thatcher certainly seems to have disliked Heath. "When I look at him and he looks at me," she once remarked, according to Ziegler (Chapter 4), "it doesn't feel like a man looking at a woman, more like a woman looking at another woman." When he moved to Arundells in 1985, Heath hired Derek Frost, life partner of Jeremy Norman, to modernise and redecorate the house in Salisbury. He became friends of sorts with the couple, in a typically stand-offish manner. When they asked Heath why he had not supported homosexual law reform (he was either absent from the debates in the 1960s or voted against Arthur Gore, 8th Earl of Arran, Lord Aran's first Bill in May 1965), he replied that he had always been in favour but that "the rank and file of the party would never have stood for it." Norman's view is that Heath was "a deeply closeted gay man" who "decided early in life to sublimate his sexuality to his political ambitions." In later life, Heath voted for the lowering of the age of same-sex consent to eighteen and then sixteen. Similarly, Michael McManus, who was Heath's private secretary in the 1990s and helped with his memoirs, writes in his book on gay conservative politicians that he "was left in no doubt whatsoever that Heath was a gay man who had sacrificed his personal life to his political career, exercising iron self-control and living a celibate existence as he climbed the 'greasy pole' of preferment."


Allegations of child sexual abuse

In April 2015, a rape claim against Heath was investigated by the Metropolitan Police but was dropped. In August 2015, several police forces were investigating allegations of child sexual abuse by Heath. Hampshire, Jersey, Kent, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire and Thames Valley constabularies and London's Metropolitan Police investigated such claims. It was reported that a man had claimed that at the age of 12 years he had been raped by Heath in a Mayfair flat in 1961, after he had run away from home. Allegations about Heath were investigated as part of Operation Midland, the Metropolitan Police inquiry into historical claims of child abuse and related homicides. A witness called "Nick" was introduced to the police by the former Exaro website, who had asked him about alleged child sexual abuse by prominent figures at the Dolphin Square apartment complex in Pimlico, London; Heath was reported to be one of the figures. In 2018 "Nick", whose real name is Carl Beech (Operation Midland), Carl Beech, was arrested and charged over child pornography offences and in January 2019 he pleaded guilty. Beech, who had fabricated allegations against Heath and other prominent politicians and civil servants, was sentenced in July 2019 to eighteen years in prison. Also in August 2015, Sky News reported that Jersey police were investigating allegations against Heath as part of Operation Whistle, and a similar investigation, Operation Conifer, was launched by Wiltshire Police at the same time. The Sir Edward Heath Charitable Foundation, which operates the museum at Arundells, his home in Salisbury, said it welcomed the investigation. In November 2016, criminologist Richard Hoskins said that the evidence used against Heath in Operation Conifer, including discredited allegations of satanic ritual abuse, was "preposterous", "fantastical" and gained through the "controversial" practice of recovered-memory therapy. Operation Conifer was closed in March 2017, having cost a reported £1.5 million over two years, as no corroborating evidence had been found in any of the 42 allegations by 40 individuals (including three different names used by one person). In September 2017, it was announced that the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse would review the police investigation into Heath. Police said that if Heath were still alive they would have interviewed him Right to silence in England and Wales, under caution in relation to seven out of the 42 allegations, but nothing should be inferred about his guilt or innocence. In his summary report, Chief Constable Mike Veale confirmed that "no further corroborative evidence was found" to support the satanic abuse claims.


Heath ministry


Honours

Edward Heath received several accolades and honours.


Coat of arms

Heath was granted a coat of arms by the College of Arms. The blazon is as follows:


Honorary degrees

Heath was awarded many honorary degrees for his Service to the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. These include:


Foreign honours

* Bangladeshi honours system#Special Decorations, Bangladesh Liberation War Honour (Bangladesh Muktijuddho Sanmanona)


Books by Heath

* * * * *


References


Further reading


Biographies of Heath

* Campbell, John. ''Edward Heath: A Biography''. London: Jonathan Cape, 1993. * Garnett, Mark. "Edward Heath, 1965–70 and 1974–75" in ''Leaders of the opposition: from Churchill to Cameron'' ed. by Timothy Heppell. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp 80–96. * Hennessey, Peter. ''The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders Since 1945'' (2001) pp. 331–356.
Hurd, Douglas. "Heath, Sir Edward Richard George (1916–2005)", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' Oxford University Press, Jan 2009; online edn, September 2012
Retrieved 1 September 2013. * McManus, Michael. ''Edward Heath: A Singular Life'' (2016). * Denis MacShane, MacShane, Denis, ''Heath'' (British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century) (2006
(excerpt and text search)
* Philip Ziegler, Ziegler, Philip, ''Edward Heath: The Authorised Biography'', Harper Press, 2010;
excerpt and text search


Politics and domestic policy

* Ball, Stuart, and Anthony Seldon, eds. ''The Heath Government: 1970–1974: A Reappraisal'' (London: Longman, 1996) 423pp. * Beckett, Andy. ''When The Lights Went Out: What Really Happened to Britain in the Seventies'' (2010) * Blake, Robert. ''The Conservative Party from Peel to Major'' (Faber & Faber, 2012) pp. 299–220. * David Butler (psephologist), Butler, David E. et al. ''The British General Election of 1970'' (1971) * Butler, David E. et al. ''The British General Election of February 1974'' (1975) * Butler, David E. et al. ''The British General Election of October 1974'' (1975) * Cowley, Philip; Bailey, Matthew. "Peasants' Uprising or Religious War? Re-examining the 1975 Conservative Leadership Contest," ''British Journal of Political Science'' (2000) 30#4 pp. 599–63
in JSTOR
* Dunton, Mark. "Probing the 1970s: A Case Study: Inflation, Public Relations, and the Heath Administration, 1972." ''Archives: The Journal of the British Records Association'' 38.126 (2013): 28–39. * Foster, John. "Upper Clyde Shipbuilders 1971–2 and Edward Heath's U-turn: How a united workforce defeated a divided government." ''Mariner's Mirror'' 102#1 (2016): 34–48. * Heppell, Timothy. ''Choosing the Tory Leader: Conservative Party Leadership Elections from Heath to Cameron'' (IB Tauris, 2007). * Heppell, Timothy, and Michael Hill. "Prime ministerial powers of patronage: ministerial appointments and dismissals under Edward Heath." ''Contemporary British History'' 29.4 (2015): 464–485. * Holmes, Martin. ''The Failure of the Heath Government '' (2nd ed. 1997
excerpt and text search
* Holmes, Martin. ''Political pressure and economic policy: British government 1970–1974'' (1982
excerpt
* Hughes, Rosaleen Anne. Governing in hard times': the Heath government and civil emergencies–the 1972 and the 1974 miners' strikes." (Dissertation, Queen Mary University of London; 2012
online
* Hurd, Douglas. ''An end to promises: sketch of a government, 1970–1974'' (1976) * Lockwood, Charles. "‘Action Not Words’: The Conservative Party, Public Opinion and ‘Scientific’ Politics, c. 1945–70." ''Twentieth Century British History'' 31.3 (2020): 360-386. * Moore, Charles. '' Margaret Thatcher: From Grantham to the Falklands'' (2013) * Pearce, Robert. "Bad Blood: Powell, Heath and the Tory party." ''History Today'' (April 2008), 58#4 pp 33–39. * Pentland, Gordon. "Edward Heath, the Declaration of Perth and the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, 1966–70." ''Twentieth Century British History'' 26#2 (2015): 249–273. * Ramsden, J. ''The winds of change: Macmillan to Heath, 1957–1975'' (1996), Volume 5 of the History of the Conservative Party. * Roe-Crines, Andrew S., and Timothy Heppell, eds. ''Policies and Politics Under Prime Minister Edward Heath'' (2020
excerpt
* Sandbrook, Dominic. ''State of Emergency The Way We Were Britain 1970–1974'' (2010) 755pp * Smith, Jeremy. "‘Walking a Real Tight-rope of Difficulties’: Sir Edward Heath and the Search for Stability in Northern Ireland, June 1970 – March 1971," ''Twentieth Century British History'' (2007) 18#2 pp 219–253. * Turner, Alwyn W. ''Crisis? What Crisis?: Britain in the 1970s'' (2009), how the popular culture handled political issues * Watkins, Alan. ''A Conservative Coup''. London: Duckworth, 1991 * Hugo Young, Young, Hugo and Geoffrey Goodman, Goodman, Geoffrey. "The Trade Unions and the Fall of the Heath Government," ''Contemporary Record'' (1988) 1#4 pp 36–46.


Foreign and defence policy

* Benvenuti, Andrea. "The Heath Government and British Defence Policy in Southeast Asia at the End of Empire (1970–71)," ''Twentieth Century British History'' 20#1 (2009), 53–73. * Brummer, Justin Adam. "Anglo-American relations and the EC enlargement, 1969–1974' (PhD dissertation, University College London, 2012
online
* Hamai, Yumiko. "‘Imperial Burden’ or ‘Jews of Africa’?: An Analysis of Political and Media Discourse in the Ugandan Asian Crisis (1972)." ''Twentieth Century British History'' 22.3 (2011): 415-436. * Hughes, R. Gerald, and Thomas Robb. "Kissinger and the Diplomacy of Coercive Linkage in the 'Special Relationship' between the United States and Great Britain, 1969–1977." ''Diplomatic History 37.4 (2013): 861–905. * Hynes, Catherine. ''The Year That Never Was: Heath, the Nixon Administration, and the Year of Europe'' (University College Dublin Press, 2009). * Jeffrey, Samuel Robert. "A Most Divisive Year: The Year of Europe and the Special Relationship in 1973" (Thesis, Vanderbilt University History Dept., 2016)
online
bibliography pp. 133–146. * Langlois, Laëtitia. "Edward Heath and the Europeanisation of Englishness: The Hopes and Failures of a European English Leader," in ''Englishness revisited'' ed. by Floriane Reviron-Piégay. (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2009), pp. 174–88 * Leonard, Dick. "Edward Heath—Cheerleader for Europe." in Leonard, ''A Century of Premiers'' (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2005). 263–281. * Lord, Christopher. ''British Entry to the European Community under the Heath Government, 1970–74'' (1993) p. 194 * Mockli, Daniel. ''European foreign policy during the Cold War: Heath, Brandt, Pompidou and the dream of political unity'' (IB Tauris, 2008). * Novak, Andrew. "Averting an African Boycott: British Prime Minister Edward Heath and Rhodesian Participation in the Munich Olympics," ''Britain and the World'' (2013) 6#1 pp 27–47 DOI:10.3366/brw.2013.0076 * Parr, Helen. "The British Decision to Upgrade Polaris, 1970–4," ''Contemporary European History'' (2013) 22#2 pp. 253–274. * Parr, Helen. "‘The Nuclear Myth’: Edward Heath, Europe, and the International Politics of Anglo-French Nuclear Co-Operation 1970–3." ''International History Review'' 35#3 (2013): 534–555. * Patterson, Henry. "The border security problem and Anglo-Irish relations 1970–1973." ''Contemporary British History'' 26.2 (2012): 231–251. * Robb, Thomas. "Antelope, Poseidon or a Hybrid: The Upgrading of the British Strategic Nuclear Deterrent, 1970-1974." ''Journal of Strategic Studies'' (2010) 33#6 pp 797–817 * Robb, Thomas. "The Power of Oil: Edward Heath, the ‘Year of Europe’ and the Anglo-American ‘Special Relationship’", ''Contemporary British History'' (2012) 26#1 pp. 73–96. on 1974 * Rossbach, Niklas H. ''Heath, Nixon and the Rebirth of the Special Relationship: Britain, the US and the EC, 1969–74'' (2009
excerpt and text search
* Scott, Andrew. ''Allies apart: Heath, Nixon and the Anglo-American relationship'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011) 272 pp * Smith, Simon C. "Coming Down on the Winning Side: Britain and the South Asia Crisis, 1971." ''Contemporary British History'' 24.4 (2010): 451–470. * Spelling, Alex. "Edward Heath and Anglo-American Relations 1970–1974: A Reappraisal," ''Diplomacy & Statecraft'' (2009) 20, Number 4, pp. 638–658. * Spelling, Alex. "‘Recrimination and reconciliation’: Anglo-American relations and the Yom Kippur War." ''Cold War History'' 13.4 (2013): 485-506. * Stoddart, Kristan. "The Heath Government, France, and the Not So Special Relationship, 1970–1974." in Stoddart, ''The Sword and the Shield: Britain, America, NATO and Nuclear Weapons, 1970–1976 '' (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2014) pp. 11–42.


Historiography

* Holmes, Martin. ''The Failure of the Heath Government '' (2nd ed. 1997
excerpt and text search
pp ix to xx.


External links

*

''The Guardian'' (London). Retrieved 9 December 2014.
Sir Edward Heath chronology
badley.info. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
Profile of Arundells, Sir Edward Heath's home
arundells.org. Retrieved 9 December 2014. * * *
Edward Heath
interview on BBC Radio 4 ''Desert Island Discs'', 23 December 1988 *
Bronze bust of Sir Edward Heath in the UK Parliamentary Collections
, - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Heath, Edward Edward Heath, 1916 births 2005 deaths 20th-century English musicians 20th-century prime ministers of the United Kingdom 20th-century classical musicians 21st-century English musicians 21st-century classical musicians Alumni of Balliol College, Oxford British Anglicans British Army personnel of World War II British Secretaries of State Burials at Salisbury Cathedral Conservative Party (UK) MPs for English constituencies Conservative Party prime ministers of the United Kingdom English Anglicans English classical organists English male sailors (sport) English memoirists English non-fiction writers Honourable Artillery Company officers Deaths from pneumonia in England Knights of the Garter Leaders of the Opposition (United Kingdom) Leaders of the Conservative Party (UK) Lords Privy Seal British male organists Members of the Order of the British Empire Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom Ministers in the Eden government, 1955–1957 Ministers in the Macmillan and Douglas-Home governments, 1957–1964 Ministers in the third Churchill government, 1951–1955 Musicians from Kent People educated at Chatham House Grammar School People from Broadstairs People from Salisbury Politicians awarded knighthoods Presidents of the Board of Trade Presidents of the Oxford Union Presidents of the Oxford University Conservative Association Royal Artillery officers Snipe class sailors UK MPs 1950–1951 UK MPs 1951–1955 UK MPs 1955–1959 UK MPs 1959–1964 UK MPs 1964–1966 UK MPs 1966–1970 UK MPs 1970–1974 UK MPs 1974 UK MPs 1974–1979 UK MPs 1979–1983 UK MPs 1983–1987 UK MPs 1987–1992 UK MPs 1992–1997 UK MPs 1997–2001 20th-century British male musicians