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Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and
educational theoryEducation sciences or education theory (traditionally often called pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning, and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social ...
and practice to facilitate
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
. When referred to with its abbreviation, EdTech, it is often referring to the industry of companies that create educational technology. In addition to practical educational experience, educational technology is based on theoretical knowledge from various disciplines such as communication, education, psychology, sociology, artificial intelligence, and computer science. It encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and
m-learning M-learning or mobile learning is "learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices". A form of distance education Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of ...
, where mobile technologies are used.


Definition

The
Association for Educational Communications and Technology The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), is an academic and professional association that promotes educational uses of technology. Members provide leadership in the field by promoting scholarship and best practices in in ...
(AECT) defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". It denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning". As such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from
scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what ...

scientific research
, and in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Educational technology is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment and a way for students to learn how to use technology as well as their common assignments. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: * Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning. * Educational technology as technological tools and media, for instance massive online courses, that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange. This is usually what people are referring to when they use the term "EdTech". * Educational technology for
learning management systems A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, automation and delivery of educational courses, training programs, or learning and development programs. The learning managem ...
(LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS). * Educational technology as back-office management, such as
training management system A training management system (TMS), training management software, or training resource management system (TRMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of instructor-led-training programs. TMSs are ...
s for logistics and budget management, and
Learning Record StoreA Learning Record Store (LRS) is a data store system that serves as a repository for learning records collected from connected systems where learning activities are conducted. It is an essential component in the process flow for using the Experience ...
(LRS) for learning data storage and analysis. * Educational technology itself as an educational subject; such courses may be called "computer studies" or "
information and communications technology Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communicationsUnified communications (UC) is a business and marketing Marketing refers to activities a co ...
(ICT)".


Related terms

Educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools, processes, and the theoretical foundations for supporting
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new , , s, s, , attitudes, and s. The ability to learn is possessed by s, s, and some ; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain s. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e ...

learning
and
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

teaching
. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology but is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended, face to face, or online learning. An educational technologist is someone who is trained in the field of educational technology. Educational technologists try to analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate process and tools to enhance learning. While the term ''educational technologist'' is used primarily in the United States, ''learning technologist'' is synonymous and used in the UK as well as Canada. Modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology,
information and communication technology Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that ...
(ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology,
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
learning, technology-enhanced learning (TEL), computer-based instruction (CBI), computer managed instruction, computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), internet-based training (IBT), flexible learning, web-based training (WBT), online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning,
computer-mediated communication Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more Consumer electronics, electronic devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via comp ...
, cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments,
networked learningNetworked learning is a process of developing and maintaining connections with people and information, and communicating in such a way so as to support one another's learning. The central term in this definition is connections. It adopts a relational ...

networked learning
,
virtual learning environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to fac ...
s (VLE) (which are also called learning platforms),
m-learning M-learning or mobile learning is "learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices". A form of distance education Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of ...
, ubiquitous learning and digital education. Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates, who point up potential distinctive features. However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; for example, Fiedler's review of the literature found a complete lack agreement of the components of a personal learning environment. Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. For example,
m-learning M-learning or mobile learning is "learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices". A form of distance education Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of ...
''emphasizes'' mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning; nevertheless, its purpose and conceptual ''principles'' are those of educational technology. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. Initially, "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a
semantic Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another o ...
sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a
virtual world A virtual world (also called a virtual space) is a computer-simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent ...
, for example in treating
posttraumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental Mental may refer to: * of or relating to the mind Films * Mental (2012 film), ''Mental'' (2012 film), an Australian comedy-drama * Mental (2016 film), ''Mental'' (2016 film), a Bangladeshi r ...
(PTSD). In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications,
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
resources, and
videoconferencing Videotelephony, sometimes also referred to as video teleconference or videoconferencing, comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυ ...
. Virtual education and simulated learning opportunities, such as games or dissections, offer opportunities for students to connect classroom content to authentic situations. Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process. The combination of
adaptive learning Adaptation In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiologi ...
, using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodate to an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities in a range of places and at various times, has been termed smart learning.Hwang, G. J. (2014). Definition, framework and research issues of smart learning environments-a context-aware ubiquitous learning perspective. Smart Learning Environments, 1(1), 1-14. Smart learning is a component of the
smart city A smart city is a technologically modern urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorize ...
concept.


History

Helping people and children learn in ways that are easier, faster, more accurate, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls.Molenda, M. (2008). "Historical foundations". In M. J. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), ''Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology'' (Third., pp. 3–20). New York, NY: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Various types of
abacus The abacus (''plural'' abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that has been in use since ancient times and is still in use today. It was used in the ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of ear ...

abacus
have been used. Writing slates and
blackboard A blackboard (also known as a chalkboard) is a reusable writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the de ...

blackboard
s have been used for at least a millennium. From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century,
duplicating machines Duplicating machines were the predecessors of modern document-reproduction technology. They have now been replaced by digital duplicators, scanners, laser printers and photocopiers, but for many years they were the primary means of reproducing doc ...
such as the
mimeograph A mimeograph machine (often abbreviated to mimeo, sometimes called a stencil duplicator) is a low-cost duplicating machine that works by forcing ink through a stencil Stencilling produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a su ...

mimeograph
and
Gestetner The Gestetner is a type of duplicating machine named after its inventor, David Gestetner David Gestetner (31 March 18548 March 1939) was the inventor of the Gestetner stencil duplicator, the first piece of office equipment that allowed product ...
stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of media for instructional purposes is generally traced back to the first decade of the 20th centurySaettler, P. (1990). ''The evolution of American educational technology.'' Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited. with the introduction of
educational film An educational film is a film or movie whose primary purpose is to educate. Educational films have been used in classrooms as an alternative to other teaching methods. History The first official educational films are controversial. Some researche ...
s (1900s) and Sidney Pressey's mechanical
teaching machineImage:Skinner teaching machine 01.jpg, Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical device to control student progress in programmed instruction Teaching machines were originally wikt:mechanical, mechanical devices that presented educational materials ...
s (1920s). The first all
multiple choice Multiple choice (MC), objective response, or MCQ (for Multiple Choice Question) is a form of an objective assessment Assessment may refer to: Healthcare *Health assessment, identifies needs of the patient and how those needs will be addressed *N ...
, large-scale assessment was the
Army Alpha The Army Alpha is a group-administered test developed by Robert Yerkes Robert Mearns Yerkes (; May 26, 1876 – February 3, 1956) was an American psychologist, ethologist, Eugenics, eugenicist and Primatology, primatologist best known for his wor ...
, used to assess the intelligence and, more specifically, the aptitudes of World War I military recruits. Further large-scale use of technologies was employed in training soldiers during and after WWII using
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
s and other mediated materials, such as
overhead projector 300px, Overhead projector in operation during a classroom lesson An overhead projector (OHP), like a film or slide projector A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides. 35 mm slide projectors, dire ...

overhead projector
s. The concept of
hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ...

hypertext
is traced to the description of
memex Memex is the name of the hypothetical electromechanical device that Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. ...

memex
by Vannevar Bush in 1945.
Slide projector A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides. 35 mm slide projectors, direct descendants of the larger-format magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is a ...

Slide projector
s were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s. In the mid-1960s,
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
psychology professors,
Patrick Suppes Patrick Colonel Suppes (; March 17, 1922 – November 17, 2014) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about ...
and Richard C. Atkinson, experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is a ...

elementary school
students in the
Palo Alto Unified School District The Palo Alto Unified School District is a public school district A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations. North America United States In the U.S, most K ...
in
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, most populous and the List of ...

California
. Stanford's
Education Program for Gifted Youth The Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY) at Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among ...
is descended from those early experiments. Online education originated from the
University of Illinois The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (U of I, Illinois, or colloquially the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. ...
in 1960. Although the internet would not be created for another decade, students were able to access class information with linked computer terminals. Online learning emerged in 1982 when the
Western Behavioral Sciences Institute{{unreferenced, date=May 2017 The Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI) was founded in 1958, in La Jolla, California La Jolla ( , ) is a hilly, seaside neighborhood within the city of San Diego San Diego (, ; ) is a city in the U.S. ...
in La Jolla, California opened its School of Management and Strategic Studies. The School employed computer conferencing through the
New Jersey Institute of Technology New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different ...
's
Electronic Information Exchange System The Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES, pronounced ''eyes'') was an early online conferencing bulletin board system that allowed Real-time computing, real-time and asynchronous communication. The system was used to deliver courses, conduc ...
(EIES) to deliver a distance education program to business executives. Starting in 1985, Connected Education offered the first totally online masters degree in media studies, through
The New School The New School is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decade ...
in New York City, also via the EIES computer conferencing system. Subsequent courses were offered in 1986 by the Electronic University Network for DOS and Commodore 64 computers. In 2002,
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
began providing online classes free of charge. , approximately 5.5 million students were taking at least one class online. Currently, one out of three college students takes at least one online course while in college. At
DeVry University DeVry University () is a private for-profit university with its headquarters in Naperville, Illinois, and campuses throughout the United States. The school was founded in 1931 by Herman A. DeVry, as DeForest Training School and officially b ...
, out of all students that are earning a bachelor's degree, 80% earn two-thirds of their requirements online. Also, in 2014, 2.85 million students out of 5.8 million students that took courses online, took all of their courses online. From this information, it can be concluded that the number of students taking classes online is on the steady increase. In the recent article, “Shift happens: online education as a new paradigm in learning,"  Linda Harasim covers an overview on the history of online education as well as a framework for understanding the type of need it addresses, the concept of distance learning has already been invented for many centuries. The value of online
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
is not found in its ability to have established a method for distance learning, but rather in its power to make this type of learning process more efficient by providing a medium in which the instructor and their students can virtually interact with one another in real time. The topic of online education started primarily in the late 1900s when institutions and businesses started to make products to assist students’ learning. These groups desired a need to further develop educational services across the globe, primarily to developing countries. In 1960, the University of Illinois created a system of linked computer terminals, known as the Intranet, to give students access to recorded lectures and course materials that they could watch or use on their free time. This type of concept, called PLATO (programmed logic for automatic teaching operations), was rapidly introduced throughout the globe. Many institutions adopted this similar technique while the internet was in its developmental phase. In 1971,
Ivan Illich Ivan Dominic Illich (; 4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was a Roman Catholic priest, Theology, theologian, philosopher, and social critic. His 1971 book ''Deschooling Society'' criticises modern society's institutional approach to educatio ...
published a hugely influential book, ''
Deschooling Society ''Deschooling Society'' is a 1971 book written by Austrian author Ivan Illich that critiques the role and practice of education in the modern world. Summary The book contains suggestions for changes to learning in society and individual lifet ...
'', in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by
Murray Turoff Murray Turoff (born February 13, 1936) is a retired Distinguished Professor at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) who was a key founding father of computer-mediated communication. Career Turoff received his B.A. degree in Mathematics and ...
and
Starr Roxanne Hiltz Starr Roxanne Hiltz is a retired Distinguished Professor of Information Science/Information Systems at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). She, along with Murray Turoff (her husband), are the authors of ''The Network Nation'', a book that i ...
at the
New Jersey Institute of Technology New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different ...
as well as developments at the
University of Guelph , mottoeng = "to learn the reasons of realities" , established = May 8, 1964 ()As constituents:Ontario Agricultural College, OAC: (1874) Macdonald Institute: (1903) Ontario Veterinary College, OVC: (1922) , type = public university , chancel ...
in Canada.Mason. R. and Kaye, A. (1989). ''Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education''. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. In the UK, the Council for Educational Technology supported the use of educational technology, in particular administering the government's
National Development Programme in Computer Aided LearningThe National Development Programme in Computer Aided Learning (NDPCAL) was the earliest large-scale education programme in the United Kingdom to explore the use of computers for teaching and learning. First proposed in 1969 to the Department of Edu ...
(1973–77) and the
Microelectronics Education Programme The United Kingdom, UK government's Microelectronics Education Programme ran from 1980 to 1986. It was conceived and planned by a Labour Party (UK), Labour government and set up under a Conservative Party (UK), Conservative government during Margar ...
(1980–86). By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations. Digitized communication and networking in education started in the mid-1980s. Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.
Videoconferencing Videotelephony, sometimes also referred to as video teleconference or videoconferencing, comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυ ...
was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with
museum education Museum education is a specialized field devoted to developing and strengthening the education role of non-formal education spaces and institutions such as museums. Its main objective is to engage visitors in learning experiences to enhance their cur ...
. Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008–2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast, space becomes an issue, and specialised equipment is required for both the provider and the participant. The
Open University The Open University (OU) is a British and the largest university in the UK by . The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-; many of its courses (both and ) can also be studied a ...
in Britain and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning, making heavy use of web-based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students. Practitioners such as Harasim (1995) put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks. With the advent of
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method of using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems, to create course websites along with simple sets of instructions for their students. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.Graziadei, W. D., et al., 1997
Building Asynchronous and Synchronous Teaching-Learning Environments: Exploring a Course/Classroom Management System Solution
.
Improved
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
functionality enabled new schemes of communication with
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
or
webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

webcam
s. The
National Center for Education Statistics The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the part of the United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (ED or DoEd), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a United States Ca ...
estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick lecture and assignment feedback. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, during the 2006–2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses; records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component. In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.
Computer-mediated communication Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any human communication that occurs through the use of two or more Consumer electronics, electronic devices. While the term has traditionally referred to those communications that occur via comp ...
(CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT/CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator/tutor facilitation and requires scenarization of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education with tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks. Students growing up in this digital age have extensive exposure to a variety of media. Major high-tech companies have funded schools to provide them with the ability to teach their students through technology. 2015 was the first year that private nonprofit organizations enrolled more online students than for-profits, although public universities still enrolled the highest number of online students. In the fall of 2015, more than 6 million students enrolled in at least one online course. In 2020, due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 pandemic
, many schools across the world were forced to close, which left more and more grade-school students participating in remote learning, and university-level students enrolling in online courses to enforce distance learning. Organizations such as
Unesco The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

Unesco
have enlisted educational technology solutions to help schools facilitate
distance education Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an designed to provide s and s for the teaching of s under the direction of teachers. ...
. The pandemic's extended lockdowns and focus on distance learning has attracted record-breaking amounts of venture capital to the ed-tech sector. In 2020, in the United States alone, ed-tech startups raised $1.78 billion in venture capital spanning 265 deals, compared to $1.32 billion in 2019.


Theory

Various
pedagogical Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to concepts, such as a person, ...
perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks:
behaviorism Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...
, cognitivism and
constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
.


Behaviorism

This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by
Ivan Pavlov Ivan Petrovich Pavlov ( rus, Ива́н Петро́вич Па́влов, , p=ɪˈvan pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈpavləf, a=Ru-Ivan_Petrovich_Pavlov.ogg; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditio ...

Ivan Pavlov
,
Edward Thorndike Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenti ...
, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, and
B.F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and Social philosophy, social philosopher. He was a professor of psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retir ...

B.F. Skinner
. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see
behaviorism Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...
as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to do something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people.
B.F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and Social philosophy, social philosopher. He was a professor of psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retir ...

B.F. Skinner
wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of
verbal behavior ''Verbal Behavior'' is a 1957 book by psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpretin ...
and wrote "The Technology of Teaching", an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called
programmed instructionProgrammed learning (or programmed instruction) is a research-based system which helps learners work successfully. The method is guided by research done by a variety of applied psychologists and educators.Lumsdaine A.A. 1963. Instruments and media o ...
.
Ogden Lindsley Ogden R. Lindsley (August 11, 1922, in Providence, Rhode Island Providence is the capital and most populous city of the state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Ref ...
developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models.


Cognitivism

Cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Educ ...

Cognitive science
underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s to the point that some described the period as a "cognitive revolution" particularly in reaction to behaviorism. While retaining the empirical framework of
behaviorism Behaviorism is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals. It assumes that behavior is either a reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including thei ...
,
cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intelle ...
theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. It refers to learning as "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used" by the human mind. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's
working memory Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-te ...
model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short-term memory) and long-term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is
Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...

Noam Chomsky
. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like
cognitive load In cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. ...
,
information processing Information processing is the change (processing) of information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a resta ...
, and
media psychologyMedia psychology is the branch and specialty field in psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior with media and technology. Media psychology is not limited to mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communi ...
. These theoretical perspectives influence
instructional design Instructional design (ID), also known as instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional materials Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials (TLM), a ...
. There are two separate schools of cognitivism, and these are the cognitivist and social cognitivist. The former focuses on the understanding of the thinking or cognitive processes of an individual while the latter includes social processes as influences in learning besides cognition. These two schools, however, share the view that learning is more than a behavioral change but is rather a mental process used by the learner.


Constructivism

Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of
constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as
Piaget's theory of cognitive development Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογ ...
, and
social constructivism Social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (Knowledge by acq ...
. This form of
constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an
active learning Active learning is "a method of learning in which students are actively or experientially involved in the learning process and where there are different levels of active learning, depending on student involvement." states that "students particip ...
environment that may incorporate learner centered
problem-based learning Problem-based learning (PBL) is a Student-centred learning, student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material. The PBL process does not focus on prob ...
,
project-based learning Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students le ...
, and
inquiry-based learning Inquiry-based learning (also spelled as enquiry-based learning in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in H ...
, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning. ''LOGO'', a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology. Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most controversial claim" that it would "improve general problem-solving skills" across disciplines. However, ''LOGO'' programming skills did not consistently yield cognitive benefits. It was "not as concrete" as advocates claimed, it privileged "one form of reasoning over all others," and it was difficult to apply the thinking activity to non-''LOGO''-based activities. By the late 1980s, ''LOGO'' and other similar programming languages had lost their novelty and dominance and were gradually de-emphasized amid criticisms.


Practice

The extent to which e-learning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable, ranging on a continuum from none to fully
online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its ori ...
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
.Bates, A. and Poole, G. Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley, 2003 A variety of descriptive terms have been employed (somewhat inconsistently) to categorize the extent to which technology is used. For example, "hybrid learning" or "
blended learning Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some ...

blended learning
" may refer to classroom aids and laptops, or may refer to approaches in which traditional classroom time is reduced but not eliminated, and is replaced with some online learning. "Distributed learning" may describe either the e-learning component of a hybrid approach, or fully online
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
environments.


Synchronous and asynchronous

E-learning may either be
synchronous Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. For example, the Conductor (music), conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or ''in time''. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are sai ...
or
asynchronous Asynchrony is the state of not being in synchronization. Asynchrony or asynchronous may refer to: Electronics and computing * Asynchrony (computer programming), the occurrence of events independent of the main program flow, and ways to deal with ...
. Synchronous learning occurs in real-time, with all participants interacting at the same time, while asynchronous learning is self-paced and allows participants to engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants′ involvement at the same time.
Synchronous learning Synchronous learning refers to a learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to concepts, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to make sense of them. ...
refers to the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period. Examples are face-to-face discussion, online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback, Skype conversations, and chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time. Since students are working collaboratively, synchronized learning helps students become more open-minded because they have to actively listen and learn from their peers. Synchronized learning fosters online awareness and improves many students' writing skills.
Asynchronous learning Asynchronous learning is a general term used to describe forms of education, instruction, and learning that do not occur in the same place or at the same time. It uses resources that facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and ...
may use technologies such as
learning management system A learning management system (LMS) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used b ...
s,
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
,
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the flo ...
s,
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a ...

wiki
s, and discussion boards, as well as
web Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropod An ar ...
-supported textbooks,
hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ...

hypertext
documents, audio video courses, and
social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...
using
web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...

web 2.0
. At the professional educational level, training may include virtual operating rooms. Asynchronous learning is beneficial for students who have health problems or who have child care responsibilities. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low-stress environment and within a more flexible time frame. In ''asynchronous'' online courses, students are allowed the freedom to complete work at their own pace. Being a non-traditional student, they can manage their daily life and school with and still have the social aspect. Asynchronous collaborations allow the student to reach out for help when needed and provides helpful guidance, depending on how long it takes them to complete the assignment. Many tools used for these courses are but not limited to: videos, class discussions, and group projects. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas faster, or repeat failed courses without being in a class with younger students. Students have access to an incredible variety of enrichment courses in online learning, and still participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class.


Linear learning

Computer-based training (CBT) refers to self-paced learning activities delivered on a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone. CBT initially delivered content via CD-ROM, and typically presented content linearly, much like reading an online book or manual. For this reason, CBT is often used to teach static processes, such as using software or completing mathematical equations. Computer-based training is conceptually similar to web-based training (WBT), which is delivered via
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
using a
web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical ...

web browser
. Assessing learning in a CBT is often by assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as multiple-choice questions, drag-and-drop, radio button, simulation or other interactive means. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software, providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates. CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook, manual, or classroom-based instruction. CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can be embedded to enhance the learning. However, CBTs pose some learning challenges. Typically, the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. The software for developing CBTs is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. The lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented and the type of assessment that can be performed and may need supplementation with online discussion or other interactive elements.


Collaborative learning

Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks, allowing
social learningSocial learning may refer to: * Social learning theory, a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning * Observational learning, learning that occur ...
. CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology, "e-learning 2.0" and "networked collaborative learning" (NCL). With
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...

Web 2.0
advances, sharing information between multiple people in a
network Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory Network theory is the study of Graph (discrete mathematics), graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or directed graph, asymmetric relat ...

network
has become much easier and use has increased.Crane B. "Using Web 2.0 Tools in the K-12 Classroom". Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc., 2009 One of the main reasons for its usage states that it is "a breeding ground for creative and engaging educational endeavors." Learning takes place through conversations about content and grounded interaction about problems and actions. This collaborative learning differs from instruction in which the instructor is the principal source of knowledge and skills. The neologism "e-learning 1.0" refers to
direct instruction Direct Instruction (DI) is a term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material to students. A particular subset of direct instruction, denoted by capitalization as Direct Instruction, refers to a speci ...
used in early computer-based learning and training systems (CBL). In contrast to that linear delivery of content, often directly from the instructor's material, CSCL uses
social software Social software, also known as social apps, include communication and interactive tools often based on the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that us ...
such as
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the flo ...
s, social media,
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a ...

wiki
s,
podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

podcast
s, cloud-based document portals, and discussion groups and virtual worlds. This phenomenon has been referred to as Long Tail Learning. Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others. Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and
language education Language education – the process and practice of teaching a second language, second or foreign language – is primarily a branch of applied linguistics, but can be an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field. There are four main learni ...
. mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning. Collaborative apps allow students and teachers to interact while studying. Apps are designed after games, which provide a fun way to revise. When the experience is enjoyable, the students become more engaged. Games also usually come with a sense of progression, which can help keep students motivated and consistent while trying to improve. Classroom 2.0 refers to online multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) that connect schools across geographical frontiers. Known as "eTwinning", computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) allows learners in one school to communicate with learners in another that they would not get to know otherwise, enhancing educational outcomes and cultural integration. Further, many researchers distinguish between collaborative and cooperative approaches to group learning. For example, Roschelle and Teasley (1995) argue that "cooperation is accomplished by the division of labour among participants, as an activity where each person is responsible for a portion of the problem solving", in contrast with collaboration that involves the "mutual engagement of participants in a coordinated effort to solve the problem together." Social technology, and social media specifically, provides avenues for student learning that would not be available otherwise. For example, it provides ordinary students a chance to exist in the same room as, and share a dialogue with researchers, politicians, and activists. This is because it vaporizes the geographical barriers that would otherwise separate people. Simplified, social media gives students a reach that provides them with opportunities and conversations that allow them to grow as communicators. Social technologies like Twitter can provide students with an archive of free data that goes back for multiple decades. Many classrooms and educators are already taking advantage of this free resource—for example, researchers and educators at the University of Central Florida in 2011 used Tweets posted relating to emergencies like Hurricane Irene as data-points, in order to teach their students how to code data. Social media technologies also allow instructors the ability to show students how professional networks facilitate work on a technical level.


Flipped classroom

This is an instructional strategy in which computer-assisted teaching is integrated with classroom instruction. Students are given basic essential instruction, such as lectures, before class instead of during class. Instructional content is delivered outside of the classroom, often online. The out-of-class delivery includes streaming video, reading materials, online chats, and other resources. This frees up classroom time for teachers to more actively engage with learners.


Technologies

Educational media and tools can be used for: * task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes), * access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed) * alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge, e.g. video, audio, text, image, data) Numerous types of physical technology are currently used: digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, document cameras,
electronic media Electronic media are media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Br ...
, and LCD projectors. Combinations of these techniques include
blogs A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the floo ...
,
collaborative software Collaborative software or groupware is application software designed to help people working on a common task to attain their goals. One of the earliest definitions of groupware is "intentional group processes plus software to support them". As reg ...
,
ePortfolio An electronic portfolio (also known as a digital portfolio, online portfolio, e-portfolio, e-folio, or eFolio) is a collection of electronic evidence Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident ...
s, and
virtual classrooms Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school vi ...
. The current design of this type of applications includes the evaluation through tools of cognitive analysis that allow to identify which elements optimize the use of these platforms.


Audio and video

Video technology has included
VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a for consumer-level on tape . From the 1950s, video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized s (VTRs). At that time, the expensive devices were used only i ...

VHS
tapes and
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electr ...

DVD
s, as well as on-demand and
synchronous Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. For example, the Conductor (music), conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or ''in time''. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are sai ...
methods with digital video via server or web-based options such as streamed video and
webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

webcam
s.
Telecommuting Telecommuting, also called remote working, telework, teleworking, working from home (WFH), mobile work, remote job, work from anywhere (WFA), and flexible workplace, is a employment, work arrangement in which employees do not commuting, commute ...
can connect with speakers and other experts. Interactive digital
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s are being used at K-12 and higher education institutions. Radio offers a
synchronous Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. For example, the Conductor (music), conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or ''in time''. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are sai ...
educational vehicle, while streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts can be
asynchronous Asynchrony is the state of not being in synchronization. Asynchrony or asynchronous may refer to: Electronics and computing * Asynchrony (computer programming), the occurrence of events independent of the main program flow, and ways to deal with ...
. Classroom microphones, often wireless, can enable learners and educators to interact more clearly.
Screencast A screencast is a digital recording of screen output, also known as a video screen capture or a screen recording, often containing audio . The term ''screencast'' compares with the related term '; whereas screenshot generates a single picture of ...
ing allows users to share their screens directly from their browser and make the video available online so that other viewers can stream the video directly. The presenter thus has the ability to show their ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them as simple text content. In combination with audio and video, the educator can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom. Learners have the ability to pause and rewind, to review at their own pace, something a classroom cannot always offer.
Webcam A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams an image or video in real time to or through a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

Webcam
s and
webcasting A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or ...
have enabled the creation of virtual classrooms and
virtual learning environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to fac ...
. Webcams are also being used to counter plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty that might occur in an e-learning environment.


Computers, tablets and mobile devices

Collaborative learning Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.Dillenbourg, P. (1999). Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Advances in Learning and Instruction Series. New Y ...
is a group-based learning approach in which learners are mutually engaged in a coordinated fashion to achieve a learning goal or complete a learning task. With recent developments in smartphone technology, the processing powers and storage capabilities of modern mobiles allow for advanced development and the use of apps. Many app developers and education experts have been exploring smartphone and tablet apps as a medium for collaborative learning. Computers and tablets enable learners and educators to access websites as well as applications. Many mobile devices support
m-learning M-learning or mobile learning is "learning across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions, using personal electronic devices". A form of distance education Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of ...
. Mobile devices such as
clicker A clicker, sometimes called a cricket, is any device that makes a clicking sound, usually when deliberately activated by its user. They usually consist of a piece of thin metal or plastic held in a casing so that the metal is slightly torqued; de ...
s and
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s can be used for interactive
audience response Audience response is a type of interaction associated with the use of audience response systems, to create interactivity between a presenter and its audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art ...
feedback. Mobile learning can provide performance support for checking the time, setting reminders, retrieving worksheets, and instruction manuals. Such devices as
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
s are used for helping disabled (visually impaired or with multiple disabilities) children in communication development as well as in improving physiological activity, according to the iStimulation Practice Report. Computers in the classroom have been shown to increase rates of engagement and interest when computers and
smart devices A smart device is an electronics, electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks via different wireless protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, Near field communication, NFC, Wi-Fi, LiFi, 5G, etc., that can operate to some extent ...
are utilized educationally in classrooms.


Collaborative and social learning

Group webpages,
blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the flo ...
s,
wiki A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (computer system)">NLS computer system which was a ...

wiki
s, and
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical di ...

Twitter
allow learners and educators to post thoughts, ideas, and comments on a website in an interactive learning environment.Courts, B., & Tucker, J. (2012). Using Technology To Create A Dynamic Classroom Experience. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC), 9(2), 121-128.
Social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, back ...
sites are virtual communities for people interested in a particular subject to communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video conference, or blogs. The National School Boards Association found that 96% of students with online access have used social networking technologies, and more than 50% talk online about schoolwork. Social networking encourages collaboration and engagement and can be a motivational tool for self-efficacy amongst students.


Whiteboards

There are three types of whiteboards.Carpenter S
''Definition: Whiteboard''
. TechTarget.
The initial
whiteboard Whiteboard with marker and eraser A whiteboard (also known by the terms marker board, dry-erase board, dry-wipe board, and pen-board) is a glossy, usually white surface for making nonpermanent markings (an evolved version of the blackboard). Whi ...

whiteboard
s, analogous to
blackboard A blackboard (also known as a chalkboard) is a reusable writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the de ...

blackboard
s, date from the late 1950s. The term whiteboard is also used metaphorically to refer to virtual whiteboards in which computer software applications simulate whiteboards by allowing writing or drawing. This is a common feature of groupware for virtual meetings, collaboration, and instant messaging.
Interactive whiteboard 2007 Image:Digibord klokkijken.jpg, A student uses the interactive whiteboard An interactive whiteboard (IWB), also known as interactive board or smart board, is a large interactive display board in the Form factor (design), form factor of a whit ...
s allow learners and instructors to write on the touch screen. The screen markup can be on either a blank whiteboard or any computer screen content. Depending on permission settings, this visual learning can be interactive and participatory, including writing and manipulating images on the interactive whiteboard.


Virtual classroom

A
virtual learning environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to fac ...
(VLE), also known as a learning platform, simulates a virtual classroom or meetings by simultaneously mixing several communication technologies.
Web conferencing#REDIRECT web conferencing Web conferencing is used as an umbrella term for various types of online conferencing and collaborative services including webinars (web seminars), webcasts, and web meetings. Sometimes it may be used also in the more ...
software enables students and instructors to communicate with each other via webcam, microphone, and real-time chatting in a group setting. Participants can raise hands, answer polls, or take tests. Students can whiteboard and screencast when given rights by the instructor, who sets permission levels for text notes, microphone rights, and mouse control. A virtual classroom provides an opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment. Learners can have direct and immediate access to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be helpful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. Besides, the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional "brick and mortar" classroom. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. Each class is recorded and stored on a server, which allows for instant playback of any class over the course of the school year. This can be extremely useful for students to retrieve missed material or review concepts for an upcoming exam. Parents and auditors have the conceptual ability to monitor any classroom to ensure that they are satisfied with the education the learner is receiving. In
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion ...
especially, a
virtual learning environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) in educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to fac ...
(VLE) is sometimes combined with a
management information system A management information system (MIS) is an information system used for decision-making, and for the coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of information in an organization. The study of the management information systems involves pe ...
(MIS) to create a managed learning environment, in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface throughout the institution. Physical universities and newer online-only colleges offer to select
academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including Bach ...
s and certificate programs via the Internet. Some programs require students to attend some
campus A campus is traditionally the land on which a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, t ...

campus
classes or orientations, but many are delivered completely online. Several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments, and student newspapers. Due to the
COVID-19 Pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 Pandemic
, many schools have been forced to move online. As of April 2020, an estimated 90% of high-income countries are offering remote learning, with only 25% of low-income countries offering the same.


Augmented reality

Augmented reality (AR) provides students and teachers with the opportunity to create layers of digital information, including both virtual world and real-world elements, to interact within real-time. AR technology plays an important role in the future of the classroom where human / AI co-orchestration takes place seamlessly. Students would switch between individual and collaborative learning dynamically, based on their own learning pace, while teachers, with the help of AR, monitor the classroom and provide necessary interventions in cases where computer systems are not yet designed to handle. In this vision, the technology's role is to enhance, rather than replace, human teachers' capabilities.


Learning management system

A
learning management system A learning management system (LMS) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used b ...
(LMS) is a software used for delivering, tracking, and managing training and education. It tracks data about attendance, time on task, and student progress. Educators can post announcements, grade assignments, check on course activity, and participate in class discussions. Students can submit their work, read and respond to discussion questions, and take quizzes. An LMS may allow teachers, administrators, students, and permitted additional parties (such as parents, if appropriate) to track various metrics. LMSs range from systems for managing training/educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning content require substantial initial and ongoing investments of human labor. Effective translation into other languages and cultural contexts require even more investment by knowledgeable personnel. Internet-based
learning management systems A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, automation and delivery of educational courses, training programs, or learning and development programs. The learning managem ...
include
Canvas Canvas is an extremely durable used for making , , , , , as a support for and for other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, and shoes. It is also popularly used by ...
, and
Moodle Moodle is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any w ...

Moodle
. These types of LMS allow educators to run a learning system partially or fully online, asynchronously or
synchronous Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. For example, the Conductor (music), conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or ''in time''. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are sai ...

synchronous
ly. Learning Management Systems also offer a non-linear presentation of content and curricular goals, giving students the choice of pace and order of information learned. Blackboard can be used for K-12 education, Higher Education, Business, and Government collaboration.
Moodle Moodle is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-source software where anyone is free software license, freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any w ...

Moodle
is a free-to-download Open Source Course Management System that provides blended learning opportunities as well as platforms for
distance learning Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments f ...
courses.


Learning content management system

A learning content management system (LCMS) is software for author content (courses, reusable content objects). An LCMS may be solely dedicated to producing and publishing content that is hosted on an LMS, or it can host the content itself. The
Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee {{Infobox company , logo = AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-based Training Committee) Logo.png , logo_size = 250px The Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) was an international association of technology-based training profe ...
(AICC) specification provides support for content that is hosted separately from the LMS. A recent trend in LCMSs is to address this issue through
crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods or services, including ideas, voting, micro-tasks and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly evolving group of participants. , crowdsourc ...

crowdsourcing
(cf. SlideWiki).


Computer-aided assessment

Computer-aided assessment ( e-assessment) ranges from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes, or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned.
Formative assessment Formative assessment, formative evaluation, formative feedback, or assessment for learning, including ''diagnostic testing'', is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to mo ...
sifts out the incorrect answers, and these questions are then explained by the teacher. The learner then practices with slight variations of the sifted out questions. The process is completed by
summative assessment Summative assessment, summative evaluation, or assessment of learning is the Educational assessment, assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participan ...
using a new set of questions that only cover the topics previously taught.


Training management system

A
training management system A training management system (TMS), training management software, or training resource management system (TRMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of instructor-led-training programs. TMSs are ...
or training resource management system is a software designed to optimize instructor-led training management. Similar to an
enterprise resource planning Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is usually referred to as a category of business management software—typically a sui ...
(ERP), it is a
back office A back office in most corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law "born out of ...
tool which aims at streamlining every aspect of the training process: planning (training plan and budget forecasting), logistics (scheduling and resource management), financials (cost tracking, profitability), reporting, and sales for-profit training providers. A training management system can be used to schedule instructors, venues, and equipment through graphical agendas, optimize resource utilization, create a training plan and track remaining budgets, generate reports and share data between different teams. While training management systems focus on managing instructor-led training, they can complete an LMS. In this situation, an LMS will manage
e-learning Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and educational theoryEducation sciences or education theory (traditionally often called pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly ...

e-learning
delivery and assessment, while a training management system will manage ILT and back-office budget planning, logistics, and reporting.


Standards and ecosystem


Learning objects


Content

Content and design architecture issues include
pedagogy Pedagogy (), most commonly understood as the approach to teaching, is the theory and practice of , and how this process influences, and is influenced by, the social, political and of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the s ...
and
learning objectA learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". The term is credited to Wayne Hodgins, and dates from a working group in 1994 bearing the name. The co ...
re-use. One approach looks at five aspects: * Fact – unique data (e.g. symbols for Excel formula, or the parts that make up a
learning objective The Compact Oxford English Dictionary and others interchangeably define the noun "objective" as, ''Objective: noun 1 a goal or aim.'' Although the noun forms of the three words ''aim'', ''objective'' and ''goal'' are often used synonymously, profess ...
) * Concept – a category that includes multiple examples (e.g. Excel formulas, or the various types/theories of
instructional design Instructional design (ID), also known as instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional materials Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials (TLM), a ...
) * Process – a flow of events or activities (e.g. how a spreadsheet works, or the five phases in ADDIE) * Procedure – step-by-step task (e.g. entering a formula into a spreadsheet or the steps that should be followed within a phase in ADDIE) * Strategic principle – a task performed by adapting guidelines (e.g. doing a financial projection in a spreadsheet, or using a framework for designing learning environments)


Pedagogical elements

Pedagogical elements are defined as structures or units of educational material. They are the educational content that is to be delivered. These units are independent of format, meaning that although the unit may be delivered in various ways, the pedagogical structures themselves are not the textbook, web page,
video conference Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio signal, audio-video signals by users in different locations, for communication between people in real time.McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of EngineeringVideot ...
,
Podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

Podcast
, lesson, assignment, multiple-choice question, quiz, discussion group or a case study, all of which are possible methods of delivery.


Learning objects standards

Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically based teaching materials and, in particular, creating or re-using
learning objectA learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". The term is credited to Wayne Hodgins, and dates from a working group in 1994 bearing the name. The co ...
s. These are self-contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other
metadata Metadata is " that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata — the descriptive info ...
, and often stored in an
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository.
Sharable Content Object Reference Model Shareable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications for web-based electronic educational technology Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer ...
(SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications that applies to certain web-based e-learning. Other specifications, such as
Schools Interoperability FrameworkThe Schools Interoperability Framework, Systems Interoperability Framework (UK), or SIF, is a data-sharing open standard, open specification for academic institutions from kindergarten through workforce. This specification is being used primarily in ...
, allow for the transporting of
learning objectA learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". The term is credited to Wayne Hodgins, and dates from a working group in 1994 bearing the name. The co ...
s, or for categorizing metadata (
LOM Lom or LOM may refer to: Ethnic group * Lom people, a Romani group, mainly in the Caucasus Places Towns and villages * Lom, Bulgaria, a town in Bulgaria * Lom Municipality, a municipality in Bulgaria * Lom, Norway, a municipality in Norway * Lom ...
).


Artificial intelligence

As
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
(AI) becomes more prominent in this age of
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data processing, data-processing application software. Data ...

big data
, it has also been widely adopted in K-12 classrooms. One prominent class of AI-enhanced educational technology is intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), designed to provide immediate and personalized feedbacks to students. The incentive to develop ITS comes from educational studies showing that individual tutoring is much more effective than group teaching, in addition to the need for promoting learning on a larger scale. Over the years, a combination of cognitive science theories and data-driven techniques have greatly enhanced the capabilities of ITS, allowing it to model a wide range of students' characteristics, such as knowledge, affect, off-task behavior and wheel spinning. There is ample evidence that ITSs are highly effective in helping students learn. ITSs can be used to keep students in the
zone of proximal development The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the distance between what a learner is not currently capable of doing unsupported, and what they can do unsupported. It is the range where they are capable only with support from someone with more knowledge ...

zone of proximal development
(ZPD): the space wherein students may learn with guidance. Such systems can guide students through tasks slightly above their ability level. Recent works have also focused on developing AI-enhanced learning tools that support human teachers in coordinating classroom activities. The teacher can support students in a way that AI cannot, but is unable to process the large amount of real-time data analytics provided by the computer system. On the other hand, AI can share the workload and recommend the best course of actions (e.g., by pointing out which students require the most help), but can only operate in the pre-specified domain and cannot handle tasks such as providing emotional support or remedial lessons to students in need. However, existing systems were designed under the assumption that students progress at the same pace. Understanding how to support teachers in a realistic, highly differentiated, self-paced classroom, remains an open research problem.


Settings and sectors


Preschool

Various forms of electronic media can be a feature of preschool life. Although parents report a positive experience, the impact of such use has not been systematically assessed. The age when a given child might start using a particular technology such as a cellphone or computer might depend on matching a technological resource to the recipient's developmental capabilities, such as the age-anticipated stages labeled by Swiss psychologist,
Jean Piaget Jean Piaget (, , ; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss ...

Jean Piaget
. Parameters, such as age-appropriateness, coherence with sought-after values, and concurrent entertainment and educational aspects, have been suggested for choosing media. At the preschool level, technology can be introduced in several ways. At the most basic is the use of computers, tablets, and audio and video resources in classrooms. Additionally, there are many resources available for parents and educators to introduce technology to young children or to use technology to augment lessons and enhance learning. Some options that are age-appropriate are video- or audio- recording of their creations, introducing them to the use of the internet through browsing age-appropriate websites, providing assistive technology to allow differently-abled children to participate with the rest of their peers, educational apps, electronic books, and educational videos. There are many free and paid educational website and apps that are directly targeting the educational needs of preschool children. These include Starfall, ABC mouse, PBS Kids Video, Teachme, and Montessori crosswords. Educational technology in the form of electronic books offer preschool children the option to store and retrieve several books on one device, thus bringing together the traditional action of reading along with the use of educational technology. Educational technology is also thought to improve hand-eye coordination, language skills, visual attention and motivation to complete educational tasks, and allows children to experience things they otherwise would not. There are several keys to making the most educational use out of introducing technology at the preschool level: technology must be used appropriately, should allow access to learning opportunities, should include the interaction of parents and other adults with the preschool children, and should be developmentally appropriate. Allowing access to learning opportunities especially for allowing disabled children to have access to learning opportunities, giving bilingual children the opportunity to communicate and learn in more than one language, bringing in more information about STEM subjects, and bringing in images of diversity that may be lacking in the child's immediate environment.


Primary and secondary

E-learning is utilized by public
K–12 K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), from kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of t ...
schools in the United States as well as private schools. Some e-learning environments take place in a traditional classroom; others allow students to attend classes from home or other locations. There are several states that are utilizing virtual school platforms for e-learning across the country that continue to increase.
Virtual school An online school (virtual school or e-school or cyber-school) teaches students entirely or primarily online or through the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...
enables students to log into
synchronous learning Synchronous learning refers to a learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to concepts, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to make sense of them. ...
or
asynchronous learning Asynchronous learning is a general term used to describe forms of education, instruction, and learning that do not occur in the same place or at the same time. It uses resources that facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and ...
courses anywhere there is an internet connection. E-learning is increasingly being utilized by students who may not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues, fear of
school violence School violence encompasses physical violence, including student-on-student fighting and corporal punishment; Psychological abuse, psychological violence, including verbal abuse; sexual violence, including rape and sexual harassment; many forms of b ...
and
school bullying School bullying, like bullying outside the school context, refers to one or more perpetrators who have greater physical or social power than their victim and act aggressively toward their victim by verbal or physical means.This behavior is n ...
and students whose parents would like to homeschool but do not feel qualified. Online schools create a haven for students to receive a quality education while almost completely avoiding these common problems. Online charter schools also often are not limited by location, income level or class size in the way brick and mortar charter schools are. E-learning also has been rising as a supplement to the traditional classroom. Students with special talents or interests outside of the available curricula use e-learning to advance their skills or exceed grade restrictions. Some online institutions connect students with instructors via web conference technology to form a digital classroom. National private schools are also available online. These provide the benefits of e-learning to students in states where charter online schools are not available. They also may allow students greater flexibility and exemption from state testing. Some of these schools are available at the high school level and offer college prep courses to students. Virtual education in
K-12 school K-1 is a martial arts organisation and martial arts brand established in 1993, well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights. In January 2012, K-1 Global Holdings Limited, a company registered in Hong Kong, acquired the rights to ...
ing often refers to
virtual school An online school (virtual school or e-school or cyber-school) teaches students entirely or primarily online or through the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...
s, and in higher education to virtual universities.
Virtual school An online school (virtual school or e-school or cyber-school) teaches students entirely or primarily online or through the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer ...
s are "cyber
charter school A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English and North American English) are ...
s" with innovative administrative models and course delivery technology. Education technology also seems to be an interesting method of engaging gifted youths that are under-stimulated in their current educational program. This can be achieved with
after-school program After-school activities, also known as after-school programs or after-school care, started in the early 1900s mainly just as supervision of students after the final school bell. Today, after-school programs do much more. There is a focus on helping ...
s or even technologically-integrated curricula, for example:
Virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a Simulation, simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), education (such as medical or mil ...

Virtual reality
integrated courses (VRIC) can be developed for any course in order to give them such stimulation.
3D printing 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is the construction of a three-dimensional object from a CAD Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computers (or ) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. Th ...
integrated courses (3dPIC) can also give youths the stimulation they need in their educational journey.
Université de Montréal The Université de Montréal (UdeM; ; translates to University of Montreal) is a French language, French-language Public university, public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the norther ...

Université de Montréal
's Projet SEUR in collaboration with Collège Mont-Royal and La Variable are heavily developing this field.


Higher education

Online college course enrolment has seen a 29% increase in enrolment with nearly one third of all college students, or an estimated 6.7 million students are currently enrolled in online classes. In 2009, 44 percent of post-secondary students in the USA were taking some or all of their courses online, which was projected to rise to 81 percent by 2014. Although a large proportion of for-profit higher education institutions now offer online classes, only about half of private,
non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that o ...
schools do so. Private institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the costs decrease. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. These staff members need to understand the content area, and also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online have even developed at leading research universities. Although massive open online courses (MOOCs) may have limitations that preclude them from fully replacing college education, such programs have significantly expanded.
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
,
Stanford , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association of American Universities, AAUNational Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, Space-grant , establishe ...

Stanford
and
Princeton University Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Princeton University
offer classes to a global audience, but not for college credit. University-level programs, like founded by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern ...
and
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
, offer wide range of disciplines at no charge, while others permit students to audit a course at no charge but require a small fee for accreditation. MOOCs have not had a significant impact on higher education and declined after the initial expansion, but are expected to remain in some form. Lately, MOOCs are used by smaller universities to profile themselves with highly specialized courses for special-interest audiences, as for example in a course on technological privacy compliance. MOOCs have been observed to lose the majority of their initial course participants. In a study performed by Cornell and Stanford universities, student-drop-out rates from MOOCs have been attributed to student anonymity, the solitude of the learning experience and to the lack of interaction with peers and with teachers. Effective student engagement measures that reduce drop-outs are forum interactions and virtual teacher or teaching assistant presence - measures which induce staff cost that grows with the number of participating students.


Corporate and professional

E-learning is being used by companies to deliver mandatory compliance training and updates for
regulatory compliance In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a proce ...
, soft skills and IT skills training,
continuing professional development Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning Informal learning is characterized “by a low degree of planning and ...
(CPD) and other valuable workplace skills. Companies with spread out distribution chains use e-learning for delivering information about the latest
product development In business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a busines ...
s. Most of corporate e-learning is asynchronous and delivered and managed via
learning management system A learning management system (LMS) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used b ...
s. The big challenge in corporate e-learning is to engage the staff, especially on compliance topics for which periodic staff training is mandated by the law or regulations.


Government and public

There is an important need for recent, reliable, and high-quality health information to be made available to the public as well as in summarized form for public health providers. Providers have indicated the need for automatic notification of the latest research, a single searchable portal of information, and access to
grey literature Grey literature (or gray literature) is materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) * ...
. The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Library is funded by the U.S.
Maternal and Child Health Bureau The Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), is one of six Bureaus within the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services located in Rockville, Maryland. MCHB administers the Title ...
to screen the latest research and develop automatic notifications to providers through the MCH Alert. Another application in public health is the development of
mHealth mHealth (also written as m-health or mhealth) is an abbreviation for mobile health, a term used for the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile devices. The term is most commonly used in reference to using mobile communication d ...
(use of mobile telecommunication and multimedia into global public health). MHealth has been used to promote prenatal and newborn services, with positive outcomes. In addition, "Health systems have implemented mHealth programs to facilitate emergency medical responses, point-of-care support, health promotion and data collection." In low and middle-income countries, mHealth is most frequently used as one-way text messages or phone reminders to promote treatment adherence and gather data.


Benefits

Effective technology use deploys multiple evidence-based strategies concurrently (e.g. adaptive content, frequent testing, immediate feedback, etc.), as do effective teachers. Using computers or other forms of technology can give students practice on core content and skills while the teacher can work with others, conduct assessments, or perform other tasks. Through the use of educational technology, education is able to be individualized for each student allowing for better differentiation and allowing students to work for mastery at their own pace. Modern educational technology can improve access to education, including full degree programs. It enables better integration for non-full-time students, particularly in continuing education, and improved interactions between students and instructors. Learning material can be used for long-distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience. Course materials are easy to access. In 2010, 70.3% of American family households had access to the internet. In 2013, according to Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission Canada, 79% of homes have access to the internet. Students can access and engage with numerous online resources at home. Using online resources can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home. Schools like the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern ...
(MIT) have made certain course materials free online. Although some aspects of a classroom setting are missed by using these resources, they are helpful tools to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transport to the educational facility is removed. Students appreciate the convenience of e-learning, but report greater engagement in face-to-face learning environments. Colleges and universities are working towards combating this issue by utilizing WEB 2.0 technologies as well as incorporating more mentorships between students and faculty members. According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving computer-based instruction, and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes. Students can independently solve problems. There are no intrinsic age-based restrictions on difficulty level, i.e. students can go at their own pace. Students editing their written work on word processors improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know. Studies completed in "computer intensive" settings found increases in student-centric, cooperative and higher-order learning, writing skills, problem solving, and using technology. In addition, attitudes toward technology as a learning tool by parents, students and teachers are also improved. Employers' acceptance of
online education Distance education, also called distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school vi ...
has risen over time. More than 50% of human resource managers SHRM surveyed for an August 2010 report said that if two candidates with the same level of experience were applying for a job, it would not have any kind of effect whether the candidate's obtained degree was acquired through an online or a traditional school. Seventy-nine percent said they had employed a candidate with an online degree in the past 12 months. However, 66% said candidates who get degrees online were not seen as positively as job applicants with traditional degrees. The use of educational apps generally has a positive effect on learning. Pre- and post-tests have revealed that the use of educational apps on mobile devices reduces the achievement gap between struggling and average students. Some educational apps improve group work by allowing students to receive feedback on answers and promoting collaboration in solving problems. The benefits of app-assisted learning have been exhibited in all age groups. Kindergarten students that use iPads show much higher rates of literacy than non-users. Medical students at University of California Irvine that utilized iPad academically have been reported to score 23% higher on national exams than previous classes that did not.


Disadvantages

Globally, factors like change management, technology obsolescence and vendor- developer partnership are major restraints that are hindering the growth of Educational technology market. In US, state and the federal government increased funding, as well as private venture capital has been flowing into education sector. However, , none were looking at technology return on investment (ROI) to connect expenditures on technology with improved student outcomes. New technologies are frequently accompanied by unrealistic hype and promise regarding their transformative power to change education for the better or in allowing better educational opportunities to reach the masses. Examples include silent film, broadcast radio, and television, none of which have maintained much of a foothold in the daily practices of mainstream, formal education. Technology, in and of itself, does not necessarily result in fundamental improvements to educational practice. The focus needs to be on the learner's interaction with technology—not the technology itself. It needs to be recognized as "ecological" rather than "additive" or "subtractive". In this ecological change, one significant change will create total change. According to Branford et al., "technology does not guarantee effective learning," and inappropriate use of technology can even hinder it. A University of Washington study of infant vocabulary shows that it is slipping due to educational baby DVDs. Published in the '' Journal of Pediatrics'', a 2007 University of Washington study on the vocabulary of babies surveyed over 1,000 parents in Washington and Minnesota. The study found that for every one hour that babies 8–16 months of age watched DVDs and Videos, they knew 6-8 fewer of 90 common baby words than the babies that did not watch them. Andrew Meltzoff, a surveyor in this study, states that the result makes sense, that if the baby's "alert time" is spent in front of DVDs and TV, instead of with people speaking, the babies are not going to get the same linguistic experience. Dr. Dimitri Chistakis, another surveyor reported that the evidence is mounting that baby DVDs are of no value and may be harmful. Adaptive instructional materials tailor questions to each student's ability and calculate their scores, but this encourages students to work individually rather than socially or collaboratively (Kruse, 2013). Social relationships are important, but high-tech environments may compromise the balance of trust, care and respect between teacher and student. Massively open online courses (MOOCs), although quite popular in discussions of technology and education in developed countries (more so in the US), are not a major concern in most developing or low-income countries. One of the stated goals of MOOCs is to provide less fortunate populations (i.e., in developing countries) an opportunity to experience courses with US-style content and structure. However, research shows only 3% of the registrants are from low-income countries and although many courses have thousands of registered students only 5-10% of them complete the course. This can be attributed to lack of staff support, course difficulty and low levels of engagement with peers. MOOCs also implies that certain curriculum and teaching methods are superior, and this could eventually wash over (or possibly washing out) local educational institutions, cultural norms and educational traditions. With the Internet and social media, using educational apps makes the students highly susceptible to distraction and sidetracking. Even though proper use has shown to increase student performances, being distracted would be detrimental. Another disadvantage is an increased potential for cheating. One method is done by creating multiple accounts to survey questions and gather information which can be assimilated so that the master account is able to fill in the correct answers. Smartphones can be very easy to hide and use inconspicuously, especially if their use is normalized in the classroom. These disadvantages can be managed with strict rules and regulations on mobile phone use.


Over-stimulation

Electronic devices such as cellphones and computers facilitate rapid access to a stream of sources, each of which may receive cursory attention. Michel Rich, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and executive director of the center on Media and Child Health in Boston, said of the digital generation, "Their brains are rewarded not for staying on task, but for jumping to the next thing. The worry is we're raising a generation of kids in front of screens whose brains are going to be wired differently." Students have always faced distractions; computers and cellphones are a particular challenge because the stream of data can interfere with focusing and learning. Although these technologies affect adults too, young people may be more influenced by it as their developing brains can easily become habituated to switching tasks and become unaccustomed to sustaining attention. Too much information, coming too rapidly, can overwhelm thinking. Technology is "rapidly and profoundly altering our brains." High exposure levels stimulate brain cell alteration and release neurotransmitters, which causes the strengthening of some neural pathways and weakening of others. This leads to heightened stress levels on the brain that, at first, boost energy levels, but, over time, actually augment memory, impair cognition, lead to depression, alter the neural circuitry of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. These are the brain regions that control mood and thought. If unchecked, the underlying structure of the brain could be altered. Over-stimulation due to technology may begin too young. When children are exposed before the age of seven, important developmental tasks may be delayed, and bad learning habits might develop, which "deprives children of the exploration and play that they need to develop." Media psychology is an emerging specialty field that embraces electronic devices and the sensory behaviors occurring from the use of educational technology in learning.


Sociocultural criticism

According to Lai, "the learning environment is a complex system where the interplay and interactions of many things impact the outcome of learning." When technology is brought into an educational setting, the pedagogical setting changes in that technology-driven teaching can change the entire meaning of an activity without adequate research validation. If technology monopolizes an activity, students can begin to develop the sense that "life would scarcely be thinkable without technology." Leo Marx considered the word "technology" itself as problematic, susceptible to reification and "phantom objectivity", which conceals its fundamental nature as something that is only valuable insofar as it benefits the human condition. Technology ultimately comes down to affecting the relations between people, but this notion is obfuscated when technology is treated as an abstract notion devoid of good and evil. Langdon Winner makes a similar point by arguing that the underdevelopment of the philosophy of technology leaves us with an overly simplistic reduction in our discourse to the supposedly dichotomous notions of the "making" versus the "uses" of new technologies and that a narrow focus on "use" leads us to believe that all technologies are neutral in moral standing. These critiques would have us ask not, "How do we maximize the role or advancement of technology in education?", but, rather, "What are the social and human consequences of adopting any particular technology?" Winner viewed technology as a "form of life" that not only aids human activity, but that also represents a powerful force in reshaping that activity and its meaning. For example, the use of robots in the industrial workplace may increase productivity, but they also radically change the process of production itself, thereby redefining what is meant by "work" in such a setting. In education, standardized testing has arguably redefined the notions of learning and assessment. We rarely explicitly reflect on how strange a notion it is that a number between, say, 0 and 100 could accurately reflect a person's knowledge about the world. According to Winner, the recurring patterns in everyday life tend to become an unconscious process that we learn to take for granted. Winner writes,
By far, the greatest latitude of choice exists the very first time a particular instrument, system, or technique is introduced. Because choices tend to become strongly fixed in material equipment, economic investment, and social habit, the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposes once the initial commitments are made. In that sense, technological innovations are similar to legislative acts or political foundings that establish a framework for public order that will endure over many generations. (p. 29)
When adopting new technologies, there may be one best chance to "get it right." Seymour Papert (p. 32) points out a good example of a (bad) choice that has become strongly fixed in social habit and material equipment: our "choice" to use the QWERTY keyboard. The QWERTY arrangement of letters on the keyboard was originally chosen, not because it was the most efficient for typing, but because early typewriters were prone to jam when adjacent keys were struck in quick succession. Now that typing has become a digital process, this is no longer an issue, but the QWERTY arrangement lives on as a social habit, one that is very difficult to change. Neil Postman endorsed the notion that technology impacts human cultures, including the culture of classrooms, and that this is a consideration even more important than considering the efficiency of a new technology as a tool for teaching. Regarding the computer's impact on education, Postman writes (p. 19):
What we need to consider about the computer has nothing to do with its efficiency as a teaching tool. We need to know in what ways it is altering our conception of learning, and how in conjunction with television, it undermines the old idea of school.
There is an assumption that technology is inherently interesting so it must be helpful in education; based on research by Daniel Willingham, that is not always the case. He argues that it does not necessarily matter what the technological medium is, but whether or not the content is engaging and utilizes the medium in a beneficial way.


Digital divide

The concept of the digital divide is a gap between those who have access to digital technologies and those who do not. Access may be associated with age, gender, socio-economic status, education, income, ethnicity, and geography.Jenkins, H. (2009). ''Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century''. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.


Data protection

According to a report by the
Electronic Frontier Foundation The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit group based in . The foundation was formed on 10 July 1990 by , and to promote . The EFF provides funds for legal defense in court, presents ' briefs, defends individual ...
, large amounts of personal data on children are collected by electronic devices that are distributed in schools in the United States. Often, far more information than necessary is collected, uploaded and stored indefinitely. Aside from name and date of birth, this information can include the child's browsing history, search terms, location data, contact lists, as well as behavioral information.Frida Alim, Nate Cardozo, Gennie Gebhart, Karen Gullo, Amul Kalia
Spying on Students. School-issued devices and student privacy
, 13 April 2017, Executive summary.
Parents are not informed or, if informed, have little choice. According to the report, this constant surveillance resulting from educational technology can "warp children's privacy expectations, lead them to self-censor, and limit their creativity". In a 2018
public service announcement A public service announcement (PSA) is a message in the public interest disseminated by the media without charge to raise public awareness and change behavior. In the UK, they are generally called 'public information films' (PIFs); in Hong Kong ...
, the
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

FBI
warned that widespread collection of student information by educational technologies, including
web browsing history Web browsing history refers to the list of web pages a user has visited, as well as associated data such as page title and time of visit. It is usually stored locally by web browsers in order to provide the user with a history list to go back to pr ...
, academic progress, medical information, and
biometrics Biometrics are body measurements and calculations related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication Authentication (from ''authentikos'', "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης ''authentes'', "author") is the act of proving an ...

biometrics
, created the potential for privacy and safety threats if such data was compromised or exploited. The transition from in-person learning to
distance education Distance education, also known as distance learning, is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school A school is an designed to provide s and s for the teaching of s under the direction of teachers. ...
in higher education due to the
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...

COVID-19
pandemic has led to enhanced extraction of student data enabled by complex data infrastructures. These infrastructures collect information such as learning management system logins, library metrics, impact measurements, teacher evaluation frameworks, assessment systems, learning analytic traces, longitudinal graduate outcomes, attendance records, social media activity, and so on. The copious amounts of information collected are quantified for the marketization of higher education, employing this data as a means to demonstrate and compare student performance across institutions to attract prospective students, mirroring the capitalistic notion of ensuring efficient market functioning and constant improvement through measurement. This desire of data has fueled the exploitation of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion ...
by platform companies and data service providers who are outsourced by institutions for their services. The monetization of student data in order to integrate corporate models of marketization further pushes higher education, widely regarded as a public good, into a privatized commercial sector.


Teacher training

Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology and its advantages and disadvantages. Teacher training aims for effective integration of classroom technology. The evolving nature of technology may unsettle teachers, who may experience themselves as perpetual novices. Finding quality materials to support classroom objectives is often difficult. Random professional development days are inadequate. According to Jenkins, "Rather than dealing with each technology in isolation, we would do better to take an ecological approach, thinking about the interrelationship among different communication technologies, the cultural communities that grow up around them, and the activities they support." Jenkins also suggested that the traditional school curriculum guided teachers to train students to be autonomous problem solvers. However, today's workers are increasingly asked to work in teams, drawing on different sets of expertise, and collaborating to solve problems. Learning styles and the methods of collecting information have evolved, and "students often feel locked out of the worlds described in their textbooks through the depersonalized and abstract prose used to describe them". These twenty-first century skills can be attained through the incorporation and engagement with technology. Changes in instruction and use of technology can also promote a higher level of learning among students with different types of intelligence.


Assessment

There are two distinct issues of assessment: the assessment ''of'' educational technology and assessment ''with'' technology. Assessments ''of'' educational technology have included the '' Follow Through'' project.
Educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...
''with'' technology may be either
formative assessment Formative assessment, formative evaluation, formative feedback, or assessment for learning, including ''diagnostic testing'', is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to mo ...
or
summative assessment Summative assessment, summative evaluation, or assessment of learning is the Educational assessment, assessment of participants where the focus is on the outcome of a program. This contrasts with formative assessment, which summarizes the participan ...
. Instructors use both types of assessments to understand student progress and learning in the classroom. Technology has helped teachers create better assessments to help understand where students who are having trouble with the material are having issues. Formative assessment is more difficult, as the perfect form is ongoing and allows the students to show their learning in different ways depending on their
learning styles Learning styles refer to a range of competing and contested theories that aim to account for differences in individuals' learning. Many theories share the proposition that humans can be classified according to their 'wikt:style, style' of learning, ...
. Technology has helped some teachers make their formative assessments better, particularly through the use of classroom response systems (CRS). A CRS is a tool in which the students each have a handheld device that partners up with the teacher's computer. The instructor then asks multiple choice or true or false questions and the students answer on their device. Depending on the software used, the answers may then be shown on a graph so students and the teacher can see the percentage of students who gave each answer and the teacher can focus on what went wrong. Summative assessments are more common in classrooms and are usually set up to be more easily graded, as they take the form of tests or projects with specific grading schemes. One huge benefit of tech-based testing is the option to give students immediate feedback on their answers. When students get these responses, they are able to know how they are doing in the class which can help push them to improve or give them confidence that they are doing well. Technology also allows for different kinds of summative assessment, such as digital presentations, videos, or anything else the teacher/students may come up with, which allows different learners to show what they learned more effectively. Teachers can also use technology to post graded assessments online for students to have a better idea of what a good project is.
Electronic assessment Electronic assessment, also known as digital assessment, e-assessment, online assessment or computer-based assessment, is the use of information technology in assessment such as educational assessment, health assessment, psychiatric assessment, an ...
uses information technology. It encompasses several potential applications, which may be teacher or student-oriented, including
educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...
throughout the continuum of learning, such as computerized classification testing, computerized adaptive testing, student testing, and grading an exam. E-Marking is an examiner led activity closely related to other e-assessment activities such as e-testing, or e-learning which are student-led. E-marking allows markers to mark a scanned script or online response on a computer screen rather than on paper. There are no restrictions on the types of tests that can use e-marking, with e-marking applications designed to accommodate multiple choice, written, and even video submissions for performance examinations. E-marking software is used by individual educational institutions and can also be rolled out to the participating schools of awarding exam organisations. E-marking has been used to mark many well known high stakes examinations, which in the United Kingdom include
A levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
and
GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification in a particular subject, taken in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies north ...
exams, and in the US includes the test for college admissions.
Ofqual The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual) is a non-ministerial government department that regulates qualifications, exams and tests in England and, until May 2016, vocational qualifications in Northern Ireland. Colloquiall ...
reports that e-marking is the main type of marking used for general qualifications in the United Kingdom. In 2014, the
Scottish Qualifications Authority The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA; : ''Ùghdarras Theisteanas na h-Alba'') is the of the responsible for accrediting educational awards. It is partly funded by the of the , and employs approximately 750 staff based in and . SQA i ...
(SQA) announced that most of the National 5 question papers would be e-marked. In June 2015, the
Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-mos ...

Odisha
state government in India announced that it planned to use e-marking for all Plus II papers from 2016.


Analytics

The importance of self-assessment through tools made available on Educational Technology platforms has been growing.
Self-assessment In social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, and implied presence of others, 'imagined' and 'implied presences' refer ...

Self-assessment
in education technology relies on students analyzing their strengths, weaknesses and areas where improvement is possible to set realistic goals in learning, improve their educational performances and track their progress. One of the unique tools for self-assessment made possible by education technology is Analytics.
Analytics Analytics is the systematic computational analysis of data or statistics. It is used for the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the ...

Analytics
is data gathered on the student's activities on the learning platform, drawn into meaningful patterns that lead to a valid conclusion, usually through the medium of data visualization such as graphs.
Learning analyticsLearning analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimizing learning and the environments in which it occurs. The growth of Online-learning, online ...
is the field that focuses on analyzing and reporting data about student's activities in order to facilitate learning.


Expenditure

The five key sectors of the e-learning industry are consulting, content, technologies, services and support. Worldwide, e-learning was estimated in 2000 to be over $48 billion according to conservative estimates. Commercial growth has been brisk.McCue, TJ
"La educación en línea, una industria preparada para recibir 107 billones de dolares en 2015"
. ''Forbes.com''. Forbes. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
In 2014, the worldwide commercial market activity was estimated at $6 billion venture capital over the past five years, with self-paced learning generating $35.6 billion in 2011. North American e-learning generated $23.3 billion in revenue in 2013, with a 9% growth rate in cloud-based authoring tools and learning platforms.


Careers

Educational technologists and psychologists apply basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. In research, these professions typically require a graduate degree (Master's, Doctorate, Ph.D., or D.Phil.) in a field related to educational psychology, educational media, experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or, more purely, in the fields of educational, instructional or
human performance technology Human performance technology (HPT), also known as human performance improvement (HPI), or human performance assessment (HPA), is a field of study related to process improvement methodologies such as lean management, Six Sigma, lean Six Sigma, organ ...
or
instructional design Instructional design (ID), also known as instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional materials Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials (TLM), a ...
. In industry, educational technology is utilized to train students and employees by a wide range of learning and communication practitioners, including
instructional designer Instructional design (ID), also known as instructional systems design (ISD), is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashi ...
s,
technical trainerA technical trainer is an educator or teacher who trains or coaches others in some field of technology. The task requires a certain set of competencies, but many technical trainers do not hold specific technical-training qualifications. Although ther ...
s,
technical communication Technical communication is used to convey scientific, engineering, or other technical information. Individuals in a variety of contexts and with varied professional credentials engage in technical communication. Some individuals are designated as te ...
and professional communication specialists,
technical writer A technical writer is a professional information communicator whose task is to transfer information between two or more parties, through any medium that best facilitates the transfer and comprehension of the information. Technical writers research ...
s, and of course primary school and college
teacher A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue. ''Informally'' the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone (e.g. when showing a colleague how to pe ...

teacher
s of all levels. The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville et al.


See also

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References


External links

*
"Schools of the Future: Learning On-Line" 1994 documentary from KETC
{{DEFAULTSORT:Educational Technology Technology in society * Education terminology