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Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s and
habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. ...

habitat
s in the
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...

environment
by active human interruption and action. Effective restoration requires an explicit goal or policy, preferably an unambiguous one that is articulated, accepted, and codified. Restoration goals reflect societal choices from among competing policy priorities, but extracting such goals is typically contentious and politically challenging. Natural ecosystems provide
ecosystem services Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits to humans provided by the natural environment and from healthy . Such ecosystems include, for example, s, s, s and s. These ecosystems, functioning in healthy relationship, offer such things ...
in the form of resources such as food, fuel, and
timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, sup ...

timber
; the purification of air and water; the detoxification and decomposition of wastes; the regulation of climate; the
regeneration Regeneration may refer to: Science and technology * Regeneration (biology), the ability to recreate lost or damaged cells, tissues, organs and limbs * Regeneration in humans, the ability of humans to recreate, or induce the regeneration of, lost ...
of
soil fertility Soil fertility refers to the ability of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support li ...
; and the pollination of crops. These ecosystem processes have been estimated to be worth trillions of dollars annually. There is consensus in the scientific community that the current environmental degradation and destruction of many of
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
's biota are taking place on a "catastrophically short timescale". Scientists estimate that the current species extinction rate, or the rate of the
Holocene extinction The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the sixth mass extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is an ongoing extinction event An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in ...
, is 1,000 to 10,000 times higher than the normal, background rate.
Habitat loss Habitat destruction (also termed habitat loss and habitat reduction) is the process by which a natural habitat Ibex in an alpine habitat In ecology, the term habitat summarises the array of resources, physical and biotic factors that are pr ...
is the leading cause of both species extinctions and ecosystem service decline. Two methods have been identified to slow the rate of species extinction and ecosystem service decline, they are the
conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservation may also refer to: Environment and natural resources * Nature conservation, the protection and manageme ...
of currently viable habitat and the restoration of degraded habitat. The commercial applications of ecological restoration have increased exponentially in recent years. In 2019, the United Nations General Assembly declared 2021–2030 the
UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration The United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration runs from 2021–2030. Similar to other nature related international decades, its purpose is to promote the United Nation's enviromental goals. Specifically, to facilitate global cooperation for the ...
.


Definition

Restoration ecology is the academic study of the process, whereas ecological restoration is the actual project or process by restoration practitioners. The
Society for Ecological RestorationThe Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) is a conservation organization based in the United States, supporting a "global community of restoration professionals that includes researchers, practitioners, decision-makers, and community leaders". T ...
defines "ecological restoration" as an "intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of an ecosystem with respect to its health, integrity and sustainability". Ecological restoration includes a wide scope of projects including
erosion In , erosion is the action of surface processes (such as or ) that removes , , or dissolved material from one location on the , and then it to another location. Erosion is distinct from which involves no movement. Removal of rock or soil as ...

erosion
control,
reforestation Reforestation (occasionally, reafforestation) is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, ste ...
, removal of
non-native species (''Melilotus sp.''), introduced and naturalized in the Americas from Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteri ...
and weeds,
revegetation 302x302px, CSIRO ScienceImage 4361 Revegetation of degraded site northern China 1991 Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil Soil (often stylized as SOiL) is an American rock band that was formed in Chicago (''Cit ...
of disturbed areas, daylighting streams, the reintroduction of
native species In , a native species is indigenous to a given region or if its presence in that region is the result of only local natural evolution (though often popularised as "with no human intervention"CEQ (1999))/ref> The term is equivalent to the concept ...
(preferably native species that have
local adaptationLocal adaptation is a mechanism in evolutionary biology whereby a population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, cl ...

local adaptation
), and habitat and range improvement for targeted species. For many researchers, the ecological restoration must include the local communities: they call this process the "social-ecological restoration".
E. O. Wilson Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has ...
, a biologist, stated, "Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm. The next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology."


History

Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biol ...
in the late twentieth century. The term was coined by
John Aber John D. Aber is professor of Natural Resources & the Environment at the University of New Hampshire, and is also affiliated with the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at UNH. Career Aber received a Bachelor's degree in engineer ...
and William Jordan III when they were at the
University of Wisconsin–Madison The University of Wisconsin–Madison (University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of i ...
. However,
indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
, land managers, stewards, and laypeople have been practicing ecological restoration or ecological management for thousands of years.


USA

Considered the birthplace of modern ecological restoration, the first
tallgrass prairie The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These Biotic component, biotic and abiotic ...
restoration was the 1936 Curtis Prairie at the
University of Wisconsin–Madison Arboretum The University of Wisconsin–Madison Arboretum is a teaching and research facility of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and the site of historic research in ecological restoration. In addition to its in Madison, Wisconsin (located about four ...
.
Civilian Conservation Corps The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a voluntary public work relief program Unemployment, according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is persons above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid em ...

Civilian Conservation Corps
workers replanted nearby prairie species onto a former horse pasture, overseen by university faculty including renowned ecologist
Aldo Leopold Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, naturalist, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin and is best known for his ...
, botanist Theodore Sperry, mycologist Henry C. Greene, and plant ecologist John T. Curtis. Curtis and his graduate students surveyed the whole of Wisconsin, documenting native species communities and creating the first species lists for tallgrass restorations. Existing prairie remnants, such as locations within pioneer
cemeteries A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cemetery'' (from Greek , "sleeping place") implies that the land is specifically designated as a burial ground an ...
and railroad rights-of-way, were located and inventoried by Curtis and his team. The UW Arboretum was the center of tallgrass prairie research through the first half of the 20th century, with the development of the nearby Greene Prairie,
Aldo Leopold Shack and Farm The Aldo Leopold Shack and Farm is a historic farm on Levee Road in rural Sauk County, Wisconsin, United States. The property was acquired in the 1930s as a family summer retreat by the noted conservationist and writer Aldo Leopold and is the lands ...
, and pioneering techniques like
prescribed burning mounted on an All-terrain vehicle, ATV. The device spits flaming fuel oil from the side, instantly igniting the leaf litter. , United States, in preparation for spring planting , Japan A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard r ...
. The latter half of the 20th century saw the growth of ecological restoration beyond Wisconsin borders. The 285-hectare Green Oaks Biological Field Station at Knox College began in 1955 under the guidance of zoologist Paul Shepard. It was followed by the 40-hectare Schulenberg Prairie at the
Morton Arboretum The Morton Arboretum An arboretum (plural: arboreta) in a general sense is a botanical collection composed exclusively of trees. More commonly a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended ...

Morton Arboretum
, which started in 1962 by Ray Schulenberg and Bob Betz. Betz then worked with
The Nature Conservancy The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is a global environmental organization An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the Conservation movement, conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the e ...
to establish the 260-hectare tallgrass prairie in 1974. These major tallgrass restoration projects marked the growth of ecological restoration from isolated studies to widespread practice.


Australia

Australia has been the site of historically significant ecological restoration projects; as with the USA, they commenced in the 1930s. These projects were undertaken in response to the environmental damage inflicted by settler communities, and do not appear to have engaged with or utilised the extensive Traditional Ecological Knowledge of the Australian First Nations communities. Interestingly, in Australia the early rehabilitation and ecological restoration projects were often initiated by volunteer local community members utilising science resources; local and state government agencies played a role, and also industry. In 1935 dairy farmer Ambrose Crawford commenced restoring a degraded four acres (1.7 hectares) patch of the Big Scrub (Lowland Tropical Rainforest) at Lumley Park reserve, Alstonville, in northern New South Wales (a state of Australia). Clearing of weeds and planting of suitable indigenous flora species comprised his main restoration techniques. Crawford utilised professional government botanists as advisors, and received support from his local government council. The restored rainforest reserve still exists today, a vital home to threatened plant and animal species. In 1936 mining assayer
Albert Morris Albert Morris (13 August 1886 in Bridgetown, South Australia – 9 January 1939, Broken Hill, New South Wales), was a highly acclaimed amateur Australian botanist, landscaper, ecologist, conservationist and pioneer developer of the re-vegetation ...
and his restoration colleagues initiated the Broken Hill regeneration area project, which involved the natural regeneration of indigenous flora on a severely degraded site of hundreds of hectares in arid western New South Wales. Completed in 1958, the successful project still maintains ecological function today as the Broken Hill Regeneration Area.Ardill, Peter J. (2017) "Albert Morris and the Broken Hill regeneration area: time, landscape and renewal." Australian Association of Bush Regenerators (AABR). Sydney http://www.aabr.org.au/morris-broken-hill/ Morris was a pioneering and highly skilled amateur arid flora botanist, and was also familiar with the principles of ecology. Local and state governments, and the Broken Hiill mining industry, supported and funded the project. The Broken Hill regeneration area project has been referred to as an irrigation and tree planting project, sharing characteristics with the USA "dust bowl" planting projects. This is completely incorrect. Morris did design some small tree planting and irrigation projects for the local community and a mining company, but the regeneration area project relied almost entirely on the germination of the naturally distributed seed of the local indigenous flora species following precipitation (natural regeneration), and the exclusion of grazing animals (stock exclosure). Two attempted but ultimately unsuccessful projects that displayed many of the hallmarks of ecological restoration commenced in New South Wales in the early 1930s. Entomolgist Walter Froggatt set out to restore Sydney Hawkesbury Sandstone flora to degraded Balls Head Reserve, Sydney Harbour, Sydney. Unfortunately, following Froggatt's death in 1937, the project lapsed into landscaping.Ardill, Peter J (2021) ‘Innovative Federation and Inter-war Period repair of degraded natural areas and their ecosystems: local government and community restoration of Coast Teatree Leptospermum laevigatum at Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia’ The Repair Press Sydney (February) p.34 https://ecologicalrestorationhistory.org/articles/ About the same time, marine biologist David Stead commenced a project to restore the Native Bear, or Australian Koala, to New South Wales, where it had been much slaughtered by hunters engaged in the fur trade. Unfortunately, Stead's project ran into financial difficulties. An early Australian rehabilitation project (i.e. primarily intended to restore ecosystem service delivery capacity), commenced in 1896, at Port Phillip Bay, Melbourne. Local government and community groups replanted degraded areas of the foreshore reserves with the indigenous plant species, ''Leptospermum laevigatum'', Coastal Teatree. Essentially, the projects were motivated by utilitarian considerations: to conserve recreation sites, and promote tourism. However, some local residents, such as distinguished Australian journalist, nature writer and amateur ornithologist Donald Macdonald, were distressed to lose valued biological qualities, and campaigned to fully restore the Teatree ecosystems and conserve them and their indigenous fauna. Macdonald espoused many of the principles and practices of ecological restoration, but he lacked opportuniites to actually implement such a project.


Traditional ecological knowledge and restoration ecology

Traditional ecological knowledge Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) describes indigenous and other traditional knowledge of local resources. As a field of study in Northern America Northern America is the north North is one of the four compass points The points o ...
(TEK) from
Indigenous Peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
demonstrates how restoration ecology is a historical field, lived out by humans for thousands of years. Indigenous people have acquired ecological knowledge through observation, experience, and management of the natural resources and the environment around them. In the past, they used to manage their environment and changed the structure of the vegetation in a way not only to meet their basic needs (food, water, shelter, medicines) but also to improve desired characteristics and even increasing the populations and biodiversity. In that way, they were able to achieve a close relationship with the environment and learned lessons that indigenous people keep in their culture. This means there are many things that could be learned from people locally indigenous to the ecosystem being restored because of the deep connection and biocultural and linguistic diversity of place. The dynamic of the use of natural resources by indigenous people contemplate many cultural, social, and environmental aspects, since they have always had an intimate connection with the animals and plants around them over centuries since they obtained their livelihood from the environment around them. However, restoration ecologists must consider that TEK is place dependent due to intimate connection and thus when engaging Indigenous Peoples to include knowledge for restoration purposes, respect and care must be taken to avoid appropriation of the TEK.{{Cite journal, last1=Hall, first1=Monique Mae, last2=Wehi, first2=Priscilla M., author-link2=Priscilla Wehi, last3=Whaanga, first3=Hēmi, last4=Walker, first4=Erana T., last5=Koia, first5=Jonni Hazeline, last6=Wallace, first6=Kiri Joy, date=2021, title=Promoting social and environmental justice to support Indigenous partnerships in urban ecosystem restoration, url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/rec.13305, journal=Restoration Ecology, language=en, volume=29, issue=1, pages=e13305, doi=10.1111/rec.13305, issn=1526-100X Successful ecological restoration which includes Indigenous Peoples must be led by Indigenous Peoples to ensure non-indigenous people acknowledge the unequal relationship of power


Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Restoration Ecology in Practice

Kat Anderson wrote a descriptive, historically based background book, ''A Tended Wilderness'', about the indigenous peoples of the California coast and their intimate interactions with the environment. California Indians have a rigid and complex harvesting, management and production practice. The practices observed leaned heavily into typical horticultural techniques as well as concentrated forest burning. The applications of preservation and conservation based on the California Indians' practices, she hopes will assist in shattering the hunter-gatherer stereotype so long perpetuated in western literature. In "A Tended Wilderness", Anderson breaks down the concept that California was an untouched civilization that was built into a fertile environment by European explorers. However this is not an accurate depiction; though to Westerners it may not seem modernized, the native peoples have since defined what the population ecology was in that land. For them, Wilderness was land not tended to by humans at all. In "Indigenous Resource Management" Anderson sheds light on the diverse ways native peoples of California purposely harvested and managed the wild. The California Indians had a rich knowledge of ecology and natural techniques to understand burn patterns, plant material, cultivation, pruning, digging; what was edible vs. what was not. This did not just extend to plants but also into wildlife management – how abundant, where the distribution was, and how diverse the large mammal population was. "Restoration" covers how contemporary land uses caused degradation, fragmentation and loss of habitat. The way the United States has counteracted that is through land set aside from all human influence. As for the future, Anderson highly suggests looking to indigenous practices for ecosystem restoration and wildlife management.


Theoretical foundations

Restoration ecology draws on a wide range of ecological concepts.


Disturbance

Disturbance is a change in environmental conditions that disrupt the functioning of an ecosystem. Disturbance can occur at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and is a natural component of many communities. For example, many forest and grassland restorations implement fire as a natural disturbance regime. However the severity and scope of anthropogenic impact has grown in the last few centuries. Differentiating between human-caused and naturally occurring disturbances is important if we are to understand how to restore natural processes and minimize
anthropogenic Anthropogenic ("human" + "generating") is an adjective that may refer to: * Anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity Counterintuitively, anthropogenic may also refer to things that have been generated by humans, as follows: * Human im ...
impacts on the ecosystems.


Succession

Ecological succession Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an community (ecology), ecological community over time. The time scale can be decades (for example, after a wildfire) or more or less. The community begins with relativel ...
is the process by which a community changes over time, especially following a disturbance. In many instances, an ecosystem will change from a simple level of organization with a few dominant
pioneer species Pioneer species are hardy species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group o ...
to an increasingly complex community with many interdependent species. Restoration often consists of initiating, assisting, or accelerating ecological successional processes, depending on the severity of the disturbance. Following mild to moderate natural and
anthropogenic Anthropogenic ("human" + "generating") is an adjective that may refer to: * Anthropogeny, the study of the origins of humanity Counterintuitively, anthropogenic may also refer to things that have been generated by humans, as follows: * Human im ...
disturbances, restoration in these systems involves hastening natural successional trajectories through careful management. However, in a system that has experienced a more severe disturbance (such as in urban ecosystems), restoration may require intensive efforts to recreate environmental conditions that favor natural successional processes.{{cite journal , last1=Wallace , first1=K. J. , last2=Laughlin , first2=Daniel C. , last3=Clarkson , first3=Bruce D. , title=Exotic weeds and fluctuating microclimate can constrain native plant regeneration in urban forest restoration , journal=Ecological Applications , date=2017 , volume=27 , issue=4 , pages=1268–1279 , doi=10.1002/eap.1520 , pmid=28182314 , hdl=10289/12974 , hdl-access=free


Fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biop ...
describes spatial discontinuities in a biological system, where ecosystems are broken up into smaller parts through land-use changes (e.g.
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
) and natural disturbance. This both reduces the size of the population and increases the degree of isolation. These smaller and isolated populations are more vulnerable to extinction. Fragmenting ecosystems decreases the quality of the habitat. The edge of a fragment has a different range of environmental conditions and therefore supports different species than the interior. Restorative projects can increase the effective size of a population by adding suitable habitat and decrease isolation by creating
habitat corridor A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organism ...
s that link isolated fragments. Reversing the effects of fragmentation is an important component of restoration ecology.


Ecosystem function

Ecosystem function describes the most basic and essential foundational processes of any natural systems, including
nutrient cycle A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic matter, organic and inorganic matter back into the Productivity (ecology), production of matter. Energy flow is a unidirectional and noncyclic pathway, whereas the ...

nutrient cycle
s and
energy flux Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface. The quantity is defined in two different ways, depending on the context: # Total rate of energy transfer (not per unit area); SI units: W = J⋅s−1. # Specific quantity, Specific rat ...
es. An understanding of the complexity of these ecosystem functions is necessary to address any ecological processes that may be degraded. Ecosystem functions are
emergent properties In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, ...
of the system as a whole, thus monitoring and
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...
are crucial for the long-term stability of ecosystems. A completely self-perpetuating and fully functional ecosystem is the ultimate goal of restorative efforts. We must understand what ecosystem properties influence others to restore desired functions and reach this goal.


Community assembly

Community assembly "is a framework that can unify virtually all of (community) ecology under a single conceptual umbrella". Community assembly theory attempts to explain the existence of environmentally similar sites with differing assemblages of species. It assumes that species have similar
niche Niche may refer to: Science *Developmental niche{{third-party, date=October 2020 The developmental niche is a theoretical framework for understanding and analyzing how culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behav ...

niche
requirements, so that community formation is a product of random fluctuations from a common species pool. Essentially, if all species are fairly ecologically equivalent, then random variation in colonization, and migration and extinction rates between species, drive differences in species composition between sites with comparable environmental conditions.


Population genetics

Genetic diversity has shown to be as important as species diversity for restoring ecosystem processes. Hence ecological restorations are increasingly factoring genetic processes into management practices. Population genetic processes that are important to consider in restored populations include
founder effect In population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of genetics Genetics is a branch of biology concerned with the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in organisms.Hartl D, Jones E (2005) Though heredity had been observed ...

founder effect
s,
inbreeding depression Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection File:Sexual Selection with Peafowl.gif, 250px, Sexual se ...
,
outbreeding depressionIn biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, De ...
,
genetic drift Genetic drift (allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...

genetic drift
, and
gene flow In population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with genetic differences within and between s, and is a part of . Studies in this branch of examine such phenomena as , , and . Population genetics was a vital ingredient ...

gene flow
. Such processes can predict whether or not a species successfully establishes at a restoration site.


Applications


Leaf litter accumulation

Leaf litter accumulation plays an important role in the restoration process. Higher quantities of leaf litter hold higher humidity levels, a key factor for the establishment of plants. The process of accumulation depends on factors like wind and species composition of the forest. The leaf litter found in primary forests is more abundant, deeper, and holds more humidity than in secondary forests. These technical considerations are important to take into account when planning a restoration project.


Soil heterogeneity effects on community heterogeneity

Spatial heterogeneity of resources can influence plant community composition, diversity, and assembly trajectory. Baer et al. (2005) manipulated
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
resource heterogeneity in a tallgrass
prairie restoration Prairie restoration is a Conservation biology, conservation effort to restore prairie lands that were destroyed due to industrial, agricultural, commercial, or residential development. For example, the U.S. state of Illinois alone once held over ...
project. They found increasing resource heterogeneity, which on its own was insufficient to ensure
species diversity Species diversity is the number of different species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the ...
in situations where one species may dominate across the range of resource levels. Their findings were consistent with the theory regarding the role of ecological filters on community assembly. The establishment of a single species, to the physical and biological conditions can play an inordinately important role in determining the community structure.


Invasion and restoration

Restoration is used as a tool for reducing the spread of invasive plant species many ways. The first method views restoration primarily as a means to reduce the presence of invasive species and limit their spread. As this approach emphasizes the control of invaders, the restoration techniques can differ from typical restoration projects.{{Cite journal, last1=Török, first1=Péter, last2=Miglécz, first2=Tamás, last3=Valkó, first3=Orsolya, last4=Kelemen, first4=András, last5=Deák, first5=Balázs, last6=Lengyel, first6=Szabolcs, last7=Tóthmérész, first7=Béla, date=January 2012, title=Recovery of native grass biodiversity by sowing on former croplands: Is weed suppression a feasible goal for grassland restoration?, journal=Journal for Nature Conservation, volume=20, issue=1, pages=41–48, doi=10.1016/j.jnc.2011.07.006 The goal of such projects is not necessarily to restore an entire ecosystem or habitat. These projects frequently use lower diversity mixes of aggressive native species seeded at high density. They are not always actively managed following seeding.{{Cite journal, last1=Kettenring, first1=Karin M., last2=Adams, first2=Carrie Reinhardt, date=2011-08-01, title=Lessons learned from invasive plant control experiments: a systematic review and meta-analysis, journal=Journal of Applied Ecology, volume=48, issue=4, pages=970–979, doi=10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.01979.x, issn=1365-2664, doi-access=free The target areas for this type of restoration are those which are heavily dominated by invasive species. The goals are to first remove the species and then in so doing, reduce the number of invasive seeds being spread to surrounding areas. An example of this is through the use of biological control agents (such as herbivorous insects) which suppress invasive weed species while restoration practitioners concurrently seed in native plant species that take advantage of the freed resources. These approaches have been shown to be effective in reducing weeds, although it is not always a sustainable solution long term without additional weed control, such as mowing, or re-seeding. Restoration projects are also used as a way to better understand what makes an ecological community resistant to invasion. As restoration projects have a broad range of implementation strategies and methods used to control invasive species, they can be used by ecologists to test theories about invasion. Restoration projects have been used to understand how the diversity of the species introduced in the restoration affects invasion. We know that generally higher diversity prairies have lower levels of invasion. The incorporation of functional ecology has shown that more functionally diverse restorations have lower levels of invasion. Furthermore, studies have shown that using native species functionally similar to invasive species are better able to compete with invasive species. Restoration ecologists have also used a variety of strategies employed at different restoration sites to better understand the most successful management techniques to control invasion.


Successional trajectories

Progress along a desired successional pathway may be difficult if multiple stable states exist. Looking over 40 years of wetland restoration data, Klötzli and Gootjans (2001) argue that unexpected and undesired vegetation assemblies "may indicate that environmental conditions are not suitable for target communities". Succession may move in unpredicted directions, but constricting environmental conditions within a narrow range may rein in the possible successional trajectories and increase the likelihood of the desired outcome.


Sourcing material for restoration

For most restoration projects it is generally recommended to source material from local populations, to increase the chance of restoration success and minimize the effects of
maladaptation A maladaptation () is a trait Trait may refer to: * Phenotypic trait in biology, which involve genes and characteristics of organisms * Trait (computer programming), a model for structuring object-oriented programs (a template class in the C++ p ...
. However the definition of local can vary based on species. habitat and region. US Forest Service recently developed provisional seed zones based on a combination of minimum winter temperature zones, aridity, and the Level III ecoregions. Rather than putting strict distance recommendations, other guidelines recommend sourcing seeds to match similar environmental conditions that the species is exposed to, either now, or under projected climate change. For example, sourcing for '''' found that farther source populations that matched similar environmental variables were better suited for the restoration project than closer source populations. Similarly, a suite of new methods are surveying gene-environment interactions in order to identify the optimum source populations based on genetic adaptation to environmental conditions.


Principles


Rationale

There are many reasons to restore ecosystems. Some include: *Restoring
natural capital on "natural capital" and "balancing the budget of our resources" File:Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory.jpg, Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory. Loss of natural capital assets may have significant ...
such as drinkable water or wildlife populations *Helping human communities and the ecosystems upon which they depend adapt to the impacts of climate change (through
ecosystem-based adaptation Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) encompasses a broad set of approaches to adapt to climate change. They all involve the management of ecosystems and their services to reduce the vulnerability of human communities to the impacts of climate change ...
) *Mitigating
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
(e.g. through
carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration or carbon dioxide removal File:Tree planting closeup.jpg, Planting trees is a means of carbon dioxide removal. Carbon dioxide removal (CDR), also known as greenhouse gas removal, is a process in which carbon dioxide g ...

carbon sequestration
) *Helping threatened or
endangered species An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...
*Aesthetic reasons *Moral reasons: human intervention has unnaturally destroyed many habitats, and there exists an innate obligation to restore these destroyed habitats *Regulated use/harvest, particularly for subsistence{{Cite journal, last=Baldy, first=Cutcha Risling, date=December 2013, title=Why we gather: traditional gathering in native Northwest California and the future of bio-cultural sovereignty, journal=Ecological Processes, volume=2, issue=1, doi=10.1186/2192-1709-2-17, issn=2192-1709, doi-access=free *Cultural relevance of native ecosystems to Native people *The environmental health of nearby populations There exist considerable differences of opinion on how to set restoration goals and how to define their success. Ultimately specifying the restoration target or desired state of an ecosystem is a societal choice, informed by scientists and technocrats, but ultimately it is a policy choice. Selecting the desired goal can be politically contentious. Some urge active restoration (e.g. eradicating invasive animals to allow the native ones to survive) and others who believe that protected areas should have the bare minimum of human interference, such as rewilding. Ecosystem restoration has generated controversy. Skeptics doubt that the benefits justify the economic investment or who point to failed restoration projects and question the feasibility of restoration altogether. It can be difficult to set restoration goals, in part because, as Anthony Bradshaw claims, "ecosystems are not static, but in a state of dynamic equilibrium…. ith restorationwe aim or amoving target." Some{{Vague, date=December 2018 conservationists argue that, though an ecosystem may not be returned to its original state, the functions of the ecosystem (especially ones that provide services to us) may be more valuable in its current configuration (Bradshaw 1987). This is especially true in cases where the ecosystem services are central to the physical and cultural survival of human populations, as is the case with many Native groups in the United States and other communities around the world who subsist using ecological services and environmental resources. One reason to consider ecosystem restoration is to mitigate climate change through activities such as afforestation.
Afforestation Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation Forestation is either growing existing forests (proforestation) or establishing forest growth on areas that either had forest or lacked it naturally. In the first ...
involves replanting forests, which remove carbon dioxide from the air.
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

Carbon dioxide
is a leading cause of
global warming Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

global warming
(Speth, 2005) and capturing it would help alleviate climate change. Another example of a common driver of restoration projects in the United States is the legal framework of the Clean Water Act, which often requires mitigation for damage inflicted on aquatic systems by development or other activities.


Challenges

Some view ecosystem restoration as impractical, partially because restorations often fall short of their goals. Hilderbrand et al. point out that many times uncertainty (about ecosystem functions, species relationships, and such) is not addressed, and that the time-scales set out for 'complete' restoration are unreasonably short, while other critical markers for full-scale restoration are either ignored or abridged due to feasibility concerns.Hilderbrand, R. H., A. C. Watts, and A. M. Randle 2005. The myths of restoration ecology. Ecology and Society 10(1): 19. nlineURL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss1/art19/ In other instances an ecosystem may be so degraded that abandonment (allowing a severely degraded ecosystem to recover on its own) may be the wisest option. Local communities sometimes object to restorations that include the introduction of large predators or plants that require
disturbance regimes In ecology, a disturbance is a temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem. Disturbances often act quickly and with great effect, to alter the physical structure or arrangement of biotic and abiotic e ...
such as regular fires, citing threat to human habitation in the area.{{Cite journal, last=Macdonald, first=David, date=2002, title=The ecological context: a species population perspective, journal=Handbook of Ecological Restoration, volume=1, pages=47–65, doi=10.1017/CBO9780511549984.006, isbn=9780521791281 High economic costs can also be perceived as a negative impact of the restoration process. Public opinion is very important in the feasibility of a restoration; if the public believes that the costs of restoration outweigh the benefits they will not support it. Many failures have occurred in past restoration projects, many times because clear goals were not set out as the aim of the restoration, or an incomplete understanding of the underlying ecological framework lead to insufficient measures. This may be because, as Peter Alpert says, "people may not lwaysknow how to manage natural systems effectively". Furthermore, many assumptions are made about myths of restoration such as
carbon copy Before the development of photographic copiers, a carbon copy—not to be confused with the carbon print A carbon print is a Photography, photographic print with an image consisting of pigmented gelatin, rather than of silver or other metallic ...
, where a restoration plan, which worked in one area, is applied to another with the same results expected, but not realized.


Science–practice gap

One of the struggles for both fields is a divide between restoration ecology and ecological restoration in practice. Many restoration practitioners as well as scientists feel that science is not being adequately incorporated into ecological restoration projects.{{Cite journal, last1=Dickens, first1=Sara Jo M., last2=Suding, first2=Katharine N., date=2013-06-01, title=Spanning the Science-Practice Divide: Why Restoration Scientists Need to be More Involved with Practice, journal=Ecological Restoration, volume=31, issue=2, pages=134–140, doi=10.3368/er.31.2.134, s2cid=4657808, issn=1522-4740{{Cite journal, last1=Cabin, first1=Robert J., last2=Clewell, first2=Andre, last3=Ingram, first3=Mrill, last4=McDonald, first4=Tein, last5=Temperton, first5=Vicky, date=2010-11-01, title=Bridging Restoration Science and Practice: Results and Analysis of a Survey from the 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International Meeting, journal=Restoration Ecology, volume=18, issue=6, pages=783–788, doi=10.1111/j.1526-100x.2010.00743.x, issn=1526-100X, hdl=2027.42/79142, hdl-access=free In a 2009 survey of practitioners and scientists, the "science-practice gap" was listed as the second most commonly cited reason limiting the growth of both science and practice of restoration. There are a variety of theories about the cause of this gap. However, it has been well established that one of the main issues is that the questions studied by restoration ecologists are frequently not found useful or easily applicable by land managers.{{Cite journal, last=Cabin, first=Robert J., date=2007-03-01, title=Science-Driven Restoration: A Square Grid on a Round Earth?, journal=Restoration Ecology, volume=15, issue=1, pages=1–7, doi=10.1111/j.1526-100x.2006.00183.x, issn=1526-100X For instance, many publications in restoration ecology characterize the scope of a problem in-depth, without providing concrete solutions. Additionally many restoration ecology studies are carried out under controlled conditions and frequently at scales much smaller than actual restorations. Whether or not these patterns hold true in an applied context is often unknown. There is evidence that these small-scale experiments inflate type II error rates and differ from ecological patterns in actual restorations. One approach to addressing this gap has been the development of International Principles & Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration by the Society for Ecological restoration (see below) – however this approach is contended, with scientists active in the field suggesting that this is restrictive, and instead principles and guidelines offer flexibility There is further complication in that restoration ecologists who want to collect large-scale data on restoration projects can face enormous hurdles in obtaining the data. Managers vary in how much data they collect, and how many records they keep. Some agencies keep only a handful of physical copies of data that make it difficult for the researcher to access. Many restoration projects are limited by time and money, so data collection and record-keeping are not always feasible. However, this limits the ability of scientists to analyze restoration projects and give recommendations based on empirical data.


Contrasting restoration ecology and conservation biology

Restoration ecology may be viewed as a sub-discipline of
conservation biology Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of contine ...
, the scientific study of how to protect and restore biodiversity. Ecological restoration is then a part of the resulting
conservation movement The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials ava ...
.{{Citation needed, date=December 2018 Both restoration ecologists and conservation biologists agree that protecting and restoring habitat is important for protecting biodiversity. However,
conservation biology Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of contine ...
is primarily rooted in
population biology The term population biology has been used with different meanings. In 1971 Edward O. Wilson ''et al''. used the term in the sense of applying mathematical models to population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with gene ...
. Because of that, it is generally organized at the population genetic level and assesses specific species populations (i.e.
endangered species An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...
). Restoration ecology is organized at the
community A community is a social unit The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term "unit of observation" in that the former refer ...
level, which focuses on broader groups within ecosystems.{{Cite journal, last=Young, first=Truman P, date=2000, title=Restoration ecology and conservation biology, journal=Biological Conservation, volume=92, issue=1, pages=73–83, doi=10.1016/s0006-3207(99)00057-9, issn=0006-3207, citeseerx=10.1.1.493.1604 In addition, conservation biology often concentrates on
vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an indiv ...
animals because of their salience and popularity, whereas restoration ecology concentrates on
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s. Restoration ecology focuses on plants because restoration projects typically begin by establishing plant communities. Ecological restoration, despite being focused on plants, may also have "poster species" for individual ecosystems and restoration projects. For example, the
Monarch butterfly The monarch butterfly or simply monarch (''Danaus plexippus'') is a milkweed butterfly Danainae is a subfamily of the family Nymphalidae, the brush-footed butterflies. It includes the Daniadae, or milkweed butterflies, who lay their egg (bio ...
is a poster species for conserving and restoring
milkweed ''Asclepias'' is a genus of herbaceous, perennial plant, perennial, flowering plants known as milkweeds, named for their latex, a milky substance containing cardiac glycosides termed cardenolides, exuded where cells are damaged. Most species are ...

milkweed
plant habitat, because Monarch butterflies require milkweed plants to reproduce. Finally, restoration ecology has a stronger focus on
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
s,
soil structure Soil structure describes the arrangement or the way of soil in the solid parts of the soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

soil structure
,
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
, and
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s because soils provide the foundation of functional terrestrial ecosystems.


Natural Capital Committee's recommendation for a 25-year plan

The UK
Natural Capital Committee The Natural Capital Committee (NCC) is an independent body set up in 2012, initially for a three-year period, to report to the UK Government and advise on how to value nature and to ensure England's ‘natural wealth’ is managed efficiently and s ...

Natural Capital Committee
(NCC) made a recommendation in its second State of Natural Capital report published in March 2014 that in order to meet the Government's goal of being the first generation to leave the environment in a better state than it was inherited, a long-term 25-year plan was needed to maintain and improve England's natural capital. The UK Government has not yet responded to this recommendation. The Secretary of State for the UK's
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), ...
,
Owen Paterson Owen William Paterson (born 24 June 1956) is a British Conservative Party politician who was the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs The Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, also referred to as th ...

Owen Paterson
, described his ambition for the natural environment and how the work of the Committee fits into this at an NCC event in November 2012: "I do not, however, just want to maintain our natural assets; I want to improve them. I want us to derive the greatest possible benefit from them, while ensuring that they are available for generations to come. This is what the NCC's innovative work is geared towards".


International Principles & Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration

The
Society for Ecological RestorationThe Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) is a conservation organization based in the United States, supporting a "global community of restoration professionals that includes researchers, practitioners, decision-makers, and community leaders". T ...
(SER) released the second edition of the International Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration on September 27, 2019, in Cape Town, South Africa, at SER's 8th World Conference on Ecological Restoration.  This groundbreaking publication provides updated and expanded guidance on the practice of ecological restoration, clarifies the breadth of ecological restoration and allied environmental repair activities, and includes ideas and input from a diverse international group of restoration scientists and practitioners. The second edition builds on the first edition of the Standards, which was released December 12, 2016, at the Convention on Biological Diversity's 13th Conference of the Parties in Cancun, Mexico. The development of these Standards has been broadly consultative. The first edition was circulated to dozens of practitioners and experts for feedback and review. After release of the first edition, SER held workshops and listening sessions, sought feedback from key international partners and stakeholders, opened a survey to members, affiliates and supporters, and considered and responded to published critiques. The International Principles and Standards for the Practice of Ecological Restoration: * Present a robust framework to guide restoration projects toward achieving intended goals * Address restoration challenges including: effective design and implementation, accounting for complex ecosystem dynamics (especially in the context of climate change), and navigating trade-offs associated with land management priorities and decisions * Highlight the role of ecological restoration in connecting social, community, productivity, and sustainability goals * Recommend performance measures for restorative activities for industries, communities, and governments to consider * Enhance the list of practices and actions that guide practitioners in planning, implementation, and monitoring activities, including: appropriate approaches to site assessment and identification of reference ecosystems, different restoration approaches including natural regeneration, and the role of ecological restoration in global restoration initiatives * Include an expanded glossary of restoration terminology * Provide a technical appendix on sourcing of seeds and other propagules for restoration. The Standards are available for free a
www.ser.org/standards


Related journals

*''
Restoration Ecology Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring environmental degradation, degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the Natural envi ...
'', journal of the Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) *'' Ecological Management & Restoration'', published by the
Ecological Society of AustraliaThe Ecological Society of Australia (ESA) is a professional association of ecologists in Australia, with more than 1100 members. ESA is more than 60 years old. The current president of ESA is Don Driscoll. ESA publishes two journals: ''Austral Ecolo ...
(ESA) * ''
Ecological Restoration Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all ...
'', published by the
University of Wisconsin Press The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized a ...
"Ecological Restoration", University of Wisconsin Press.
Accessed: September 14, 2015.


See also

{{div col, colwidth=22em *
Applied ecology Applied ecology is a sub-field within ecology that considers the applied science, application of the science of ecology to real-world (usually management) questions. It is also described as a scientific field that focuses on the application of conc ...
*
Bioremediation Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...
*
Bush regeneration Bush regeneration, a form of natural area restoration, is the term used in Australia for the ecology, ecological restoration ecology, restoration of remnant vegetation areas, such as through the minimisation of negative disturbances, both exogenous ...

Bush regeneration
*
Conservation biology Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of nature and of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of contine ...
*
Ecological design Ecological design or ecodesign is an approach to designing products with special consideration for the environmental impacts of the product during its whole life cycle assessment, lifecycle. It was defined by Sim Van der Ryn and Stuart Cowan as " ...
*
Ecological engineering Ecological engineering uses ecology and engineering to predict, design, construct or restore, and manage ecosystems that integrate "human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both".W.J. Mitsch & S.E. Jorgensen (1989), "Introduc ...
* Ecological triage * Floodplain restoration * Forest restoration * Groundwater remediation * Island restoration * Land rehabilitation * Reconciliation ecology * Restoration economy * Riparian zone restoration * Stream restoration {{div col end


References


Notes

{{Reflist, 30em


Bibliography

{{refbegin, 2, indent=yes * Allen, M.F., Jasper, D.A. & Zak, J.C. (2002). Micro-organisms. In Perrow M.R. & Davy, A.J. (Eds.), Handbook of Ecological Restoration, Volume 1 Principles of Restoration, pp. 257–278. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN, 0-521-79128-6 * Anderson, M.K. (2005). Tending the Wild: Native American knowledge and the management of California's natural resources. Berkeley: University of California Press. {{ISBN, 0-520-23856-7 * Ardill, Peter J. (2017) Albert Morris and the Broken Hill regeneration area: time, landscape and renewal. Australian Association of Bush Regenerators (AABR). Sydney. http://www.aabr.org.au/morris-broken-hill/ * Ardill, Peter J (2021) ‘Innovative Federation and Inter-war Period repair of degraded natural areas and their ecosystems: local government and community restoration of Coast Teatree Leptospermum laevigatum at Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia’ The Repair Press Sydney (February) https://ecologicalrestorationhistory.org/articles/ * Baer, S.G., Collins, S.L., Blair, J.M., Knapp, A.K. & Fiedler, A.K. 2005. "Soil heterogeneity effects on tallgrass prairie community heterogeneity: an application of ecological theory to restoration ecology". Restoration Ecology 13 (2), 413–424. * Bradshaw, A.D. (1987). Restoration: the acid test for ecology. In Jordan, W.R., Gilpin, M.E. & Aber, J.D. (Eds.), Restoration Ecology: A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research, pp. 23–29. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN, 0-521-33728-3 * {{aut, Bradshaw, A. D. 1997. What do we mean by restoration?. Restoration ecology and sustainable development., eds. Krystyna M., Urbanska, Nigel R., Webb, Edwards P. University Press, Cambridge. * Court, Franklin E. (2012) Pioneers of ecological restoration: the people and legacy of the University of Wisconsin Arboretum. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. {{ISBN, 9780299286644 * Daily, G.C., Alexander, S., Ehrlich, P.R., Goulder, L., Lubchenco, J., Matson, P.A., Mooney, H.A., Postel, S., Schneider, S.H., Tilman, D. & Woodwell, G.M. (1997) "Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems". Issues in Ecology 1 (2), 1-18. * Harris, J.A. (2003) Measurements of the soil microbial community for estimating the success of restoration. European Journal of Soil Science. 54, 801-808. * Harris, J.A., Hobbs, R.J, Higgs, E. and Aronson, J. (2006) Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restoration Ecology 14(2) 170 - 176. * {{aut, Hilderbrand et al. 2005. The myths of restoration ecology. Ecology and Society 10(2): 19
Full Article
* {{aut, Holl, K. 2006. Professor of environmental studies at the university of California santa cruz. Personal Communication. * Jordan, William R. & Lubick, George M. (2012) Making nature whole: a history of ecological restoration. Washington, D.C. Island Press. {{ISBN, 9781597265126 * Klotzi, F. & Gootjans, A.P. (2001). Restoration of natural and semi-natural wetland systems in Central Europe: progress and predictability of developments. Restoration Ecology 9 (2), 209-219. * Liu, John D (2011). Finding Sustainability in Ecosystem Restoration. Kosmos Fall , Winter 2011
Full Article
* Luken, J.O. (1990). Directing Ecological Succession. New York: Chapman and Hall. {{ISBN, 0-412-34450-5 * {{aut, MacDonald et al. 2002. The ecological context: a species population perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. * Novacek, M.J. & Cleland, E.E. (2001). "The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (10), 5466-5470. * Seabloom, E.W., Harpole, W.S., Reichman, O.J. & Tilman, D. 2003. "Invasion, competitive dominance, and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (23), 13384–13389. * SER (2004). The SER Primer on Ecological Restoration, Version 2. Society for Ecological Restoration Science and Policy Working Group. https://web.archive.org/web/20060207050251/http://www.ser.org/reading_resources.asp * Shears N.T. (2007) Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. ''Science for Conservation 281''. p 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand

* {{aut, Speth, J. G. 2004. Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment. Yale University Press, Connecticut. * van Andel, J. & Grootjans, A.P. (2006). Restoration Ecology: The New Frontier . In van Andel, J. & Aronson, J. (Eds.), Restoration Ecology, pp. 16–28. Massachusetts: Blackwell. {{ISBN, 0-632-05834-X * White, P.S. & Jentsch, A. (2004). Disturbance, succession and community assembly in terrestrial plant communities. In Temperton, V.K., Hobbs, R.J., Nuttle, T. & Halle, S. (Eds.), Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice, pp. 342–366. Washington, DC: Island Press. {{ISBN, 1-55963-375-1 * Wilson, E. O. (1988). Biodiversity. Washington DC: National Academy. {{ISBN, 0-309-03739-5 * Young, T.P. (2000). "Restoration ecology and conservation biology". Biological Conservation. 92, 73–83. * Young, T.P., Chase, J.M. & Huddleston, R.T. (2001). "Succession and assembly as conceptual bases in community ecology and ecological restoration". Ecological Restoration. 19, 5–19. * Young, T.P., Petersen, D.A. & Clary, J.J. (2005). "The ecology of restoration: historical links, emerging issues and unexplored realms". Ecology Letters 8, 662-673. {{refend


External links

{{Commons category, Ecological restoration
Restoration Ecology: The Journal of the Society for Ecological RestorationAustralian Ecological Restoration HistorySociety for Ecological RestorationRestoration ecology working group
at restoration-ecology.eu
Nature - Revive Service

Nature Education Knowledge entry on Restoration Ecology
(peer-reviewed) at nature.com
Green Infrastructure Resource Guide
at asla.org
Conservation Effects Assessment Project bibliographies
at nal.usda.gov
Seagrass Restoration Information
at seagrassli.org
Back to Natives Restoration
(''non-profit org.'') at backtonatives.org
A Guide to Prairie and Wetland Restoration In Eastern Nebraska

EEMP
– a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to communicate the lessons of restoration through media around the world.
Hope in a Changing Climate
awarded documentary film on the potential of global ecosystem restoration
Massachusetts Division of Ecological Restoration
{{Conservation of species {{Modelling ecosystems, expanded=none {{Portal bar, Biology, Ecology, Environment Ecological restoration, 01 Bioremediation Conservation biology Habitat Habitats Landscape ecology Phytoremediation plants Sustainable gardening Subfields of ecology