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Operation Althea, formally the European Union Force Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUFOR), is a military deployment in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
to oversee the military implementation of the
Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement or the Dayton Accords ( hr, Daytonski sporazum, Serbian language, Serbian and Bosnian language, Bosnian: / ), is the peace agreement reach ...
. It is the successor to
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
's
SFOR The Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) was a NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernment ...
and
IFOR The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental organization, intergov ...

IFOR
. The transition from SFOR to
EUFOR The European Union (EU) has undertaken a number of overseas missions and operations, drawing on civilian and Defence forces of the European Union, military capabilities, in several countries across three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), as ...
was largely a change of name and commanders: 80% of the troops remained in place. It replaced SFOR on 2 December 2004.


General aspects

Civilian implementation of the Dayton Agreement is enforced by the
Office of the High Representative The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal direct ...
. In 2007, EUFOR had 600 troops from 21 countries, mostly from the member states of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU). There are however, additional troops from other non-EU member states such as
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
. EUFOR's commander is
Major General Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lie ...

Major General
Alexander Platzer of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
(all of EUFOR's commanders since 2009 have been Austrians). For this mission, the
European Union Military Staff The Military Staff of the European Union (EUMS) is the directorate-general of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which ...
is using NATO's
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the headquarters of the NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations (ACO). Since 1967 it has been located in Casteau, north of the Belgium, Belgian city of Mons, bu ...
(SHAPE) as the EU's Operational Headquarters (OHQ) and is working through the Deputy to the
Supreme Allied Commander Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances. It originated as a term used by the Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, stat ...
Europe, a European officer. EUFOR assumed all the missions of SFOR, except for the hunt for individuals indicted by the war crimes tribunal, notably Radovan Karadžić, former leader of
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...
, and Ratko Mladić, their former military leader, which remained a mission for NATO through NATO Headquarters Sarajevo. EUFOR does have police duties against organised crime, which is believed to be linked to suspected war criminals. It worked with the
European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina The European Union Police Mission (EUPM) was the European Union's mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina that aided the Bosnian Police, local police organizations, and was one of a number of European Union Police Missions worldwide. It was the first su ...
(EUPM) and with the Bosnian Police. The
European Union Special Representative The European Union Special Representatives (EUSR) are emissaries of the European Union with specific tasks abroad. While the Ambassadors of the European Union, EU's ambassadors are responsible for affairs with a single country, Special Representat ...
in Bosnia and Herzegovina provides political guidance on military issues with a local political dimension to the EUFOR. , the total force of
EUFOR The European Union (EU) has undertaken a number of overseas missions and operations, drawing on civilian and Defence forces of the European Union, military capabilities, in several countries across three continents (Europe, Africa and Asia), as ...

EUFOR
is at 600 troops from 19 countries, including EU member states and non-EU "Troop Contributing Countries" (TCC) are present within EUFOR (Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Chile, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, North Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland and Turkey). On 18th December 2020, the United Kingdom marked the end of its 16 year contribution to EUFOR, following Brexit. As of early 2021, EUFOR personnel are bases include: - Multinational Battalion is EUFOR's military maneuver unit for BiH, located at Camp Butmir, Sarajevo and comprises troops from Austria, Hungary and Turkey; - 17 LOT Houses located throughout BiH to connect EUFOR to local communities and authorities. From north to south, west to east - Cazin, Banja Luka (Roumania) and Banja Luka (Chile), Brcko, Duboj, Tuzla, Zavidovici, Travnik, Bartunac, Zenica, Sarajevo (headquarters), Livno, Jablonica, Visegrad, Foca, Mostar, and Trebinje.Accessed 29 April 2021 http://www.euforbih.org/index.php/eufor-elements/eufor-houses


Commanders


See also

*
Military of the European Union The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union's (EU) course of action in the fields of defence and Defence diplomacy, crisis management, and a main component of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The CSD ...
*
European Union rapid reaction mechanism The European Union rapid reaction mechanism (RRM) is a streamlining of existing European Union law and EU framework law, Framework Law regarding "the alleviation of crises, through human rights work, election monitoring, institution building, media ...
*
Common Security and Defence Policy The Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part ...
*
European Union Military Operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia EUFOR Concordia was a European Union (EU) peacekeeping mission in the Republic of North Macedonia, which started on 31 March 2003. The EU took over from NATO's operation Allied Harmony and deployed around 300 troops to provide security to EU and Org ...


References


Further reading


Le Monde (in French)
*http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/csdp/missions-and-operations/althea-bih/pdf/factsheet_eufor_althea_en.pdf * Dominik Tolksdor
The Difficulties of the European Union in Supporting the Europeanization of Bosnia and Herzegovina
EU Frontier Policy Paper, Budapest: Center for EU Enlargement Studies – Central European University, 2011


External links


Official EUFOR websiteThe Council of the European Union's page on EUFOR-AltheaThe European Union Special Representative (EUSR) for Bosnia and Herzegovinathe European Commission's Delegation to Bosnia & Herzegovina
{{DEFAULTSORT:Althea International law enforcement organizations Law enforcement in Bosnia and Herzegovina Althea Bosnia and Herzegovina–European Union relations