HOME

TheInfoList




Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou (), was a member of the royal family of the early
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China ( ...
who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother
King Wu
King Wu
. He was renowned for acting as a capable and loyal regent for his young nephew
King Cheng
King Cheng
, and for successfully suppressing the
Rebellion of the Three Guards The Rebellion of the Three Guards (), or less commonly the Wu Geng Rebellion, was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or countr ...

Rebellion of the Three Guards
and establishing firm rule of the Zhou dynasty over eastern China. He is also a Chinese
culture hero A culture hero is a mythological Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral trad ...
credited with writing the ''
I Ching The ''I Ching'' or ''Yi Jing'' (, ), usually translated as ''Book of Changes'' or ''Classic of Changes'', is an ancient Chinese divination Divination (from Latin ''divinare'', 'to foresee, to foretell, to predict, to prophesy') is the at ...
'' and the ''
Book of Poetry The ''Classic of Poetry'', also ''Shijing'' or ''Shih-ching'' (), translated variously as the ''Book of Songs'', ''Book of Odes'' or simply known as the ''Odes'' or ''Poetry'' (), is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 3 ...
'', establishing the ''
Rites of Zhou The ''Rites of Zhou'' (), originally known as "Officers of Zhou" () is a work on bureaucracy and organizational theory. It was renamed by Liu Xin to differentiate it from a chapter in the ''Book of History The ''Book of Documents'' (''Shūj ...
'', and creating the ''
yayue ''Yayue'' () was a form of classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), state ...
'' of Chinese classical music.


Life

His personal name was Dan (). He was the fourth son of
King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of the Shang dynasty * Predynastic Zhou (), 11th-century BC precursor to the Z ...

King Wen of Zhou
and Queen
Tai Si Tai Si (, c. 12th – 11th century BC) was the wife of King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was Count of ZhouZhou may refer to: Chinese history * King Zhou of Shang () (1105 BC–1046 BC), the last king of ...
. His eldest brother
Bo Yikao Bo Yikao was the eldest son of King Wen of Zhou King Wen of Zhou (; 1112–1050 BC, the Civilizing King) was count of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country ...
predeceased their father (supposedly a victim of cannibalism); the second-eldest defeated the
Shang Dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang Dynasty
at the
Battle of Muye The Battle of Muye or Battle of Mu () was a battle fought in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's ...

Battle of Muye
around 1046 BC, ascending the throne as
King Wu
King Wu
. King Wu distributed many fiefs to his relatives and followers and Dan received the ancestral territory of Zhou near present-day
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...

Luoyang
. Only three years after assuming power, King Wu died and left the kingdom to his young son
King Cheng
King Cheng
. Chin, Annping. (2007). The Authentic Confucius. Scribner. The Duke of Zhou successfully attained the regency and administered the kingdom himself, leading to revolts not only from disgruntled Shang partisans but also from his own relatives, particularly his older brother
Guan Shu Guan Shu Xian () was the first and only ruler of the Chinese state of Guan and a younger of brother of King Wu of Zhou. He was the third son of King Wen of Zhou, and one of the Three Guards responsible for overseeing the eastern lands of the newly ...
. Within five years, the Duke of Zhou had managed to defeat the
Three Guards The Rebellion of the Three Guards (), or less commonly the Wu Geng Rebellion, was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country) ...
and other rebellions and his armies pushed east, bringing more land under Zhou control. The Duke of Zhou was credited with elaborating the doctrine of the
Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven () is a Chinese political philosophy that was used in ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsAztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of cont ...
, which countered Shang propaganda that as descendants of the god
Shangdi Shangdi (), also written simply, "Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may in ...

Shangdi
they should be restored to power. According to this doctrine, Shang injustice and decadence had so grossly offended
Heaven Heaven or the heavens, is a common religious cosmological or transcendent supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also ...

Heaven
that Heaven had removed their authority and commanded the reluctant Zhou to replace the Shang and restore order. On a more practical level, the Duke of Zhou expanded and codified his brother's
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disco ...
, granting titles to loyal Shang clansmen and even establishing a new holy city at
Chengzhou Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, afte ...
around 1038 BC.Schinz, Alfred. ''The Magic Square: Cities in Ancient China''
pp. 69 ff.
Axel Menges (Stuttgart), 1996. Accessed 8 Jan 2014.
Laid out according to exact geomantic principles, Chengzhou was the home of King Cheng, the Shang nobility, and the
nine tripod cauldrons The Nine Tripod Cauldrons () were a collection of ding Ding may refer to: Bronze and ceramics * Ding (vessel) ''Ding'' () are prehistoric China, prehistoric and ancient China, ancient China, Chinese cauldrons, standing upon legs with a lid and ...
symbolic of imperial rule, while the Duke continued to administer the kingdom from the former capital of
Haojing Hao or Haojing (), also called Zongzhou (), was one of the two settlements comprising the capital of the Western Zhou dynasty (1066–770 BCE), the other being Fēng or Fēngjīng (). Together they were known as Fenghao and stood on opposite banks ...
. Once Cheng came of age, the Duke of Zhou dutifully gave up the throne without trouble.


Legacy

The duke's eight sons all received land from the king. The eldest son received Lu; the second succeeded to his father's fief. In later centuries, subsequent emperors considered the Duke of Zhou a paragon of virtue and honored him with
posthumous name A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern He ...
s. The empress
Wu Zetian Wu Zhao, commonly known as Wu Zetian (17 February 624 – 26 November 705), alternatively Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, ...
named her short-lived 8th-century Second Zhou Dynasty after him and called him the Honorable and Virtuous King (, ''Bāodé Wáng''). In 1008, the Zhenzong Emperor gave the Duke the posthumous title King of Exemplary Culture ( s , t , ''Wénxiàn Wáng''). He was also known as the First Sage ( s , t , ''Yuán Shèng''). In 2004, Chinese archaeologists reported that they may have found his tomb complex in
Qishan County Qishan County () is a county in the west of Shaanxi province, China, under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Baoji. It was the site of Zhouyuan (), the first capital of the Zhou Dynasty (1066–256 BCE). Historically, the site was ...
,
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
.


God of Dreams

Duke of Zhou is also known as the "God of Dreams". ''
The Analects The ''Analects'' (; ; Old Chinese: '' ŋ(r)aʔ''; meaning "Selected Sayings"), also known as the ''Analects of Confucius'', is an ancient Chinese book composed of a large collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosophe ...
'' record
Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; ) was a Chinese philosopher Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period () and Warring States period (), ...

Confucius
saying, "How I have gone downhill! It has been such a long time since I dreamt of the Duke of Zhou." This was meant as a lamentation of how the governmental ideals of the Duke of Zhou had faded, but was later taken literally. In Chinese legends, if an important thing is going to happen to someone, the Duke of Zhou will let the person know through dreams: hence the Chinese expression "Dreaming of Zhou Gong". ''Zhou Gong's'' ''Explanations of Dreams'' (Chinese: 周公解夢, pinyin: ''Zhōu gōng jiěmèng'') is attributed to him.


Descendants

東野家族大宗世系 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke of Zhou in Chinese The main line of the Duke of Zhou's descendants came from his firstborn son, the
State of Lu Lu (, c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

State of Lu
ruler
Bo Qin Bo Qin (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous countr ...
's third son Yu () whose descendants adopted the surname Dongye (). The Duke of Zhou's offspring held the title of Wujing Boshi ( 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì). One of the Duke of Zhou's 72 generation descendants family tree was examined and commented on by .
Duke Huan of Lu Duke Huan of Lu (, died 694 BC) was from 711 to 694 BC the 15th ruler of the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China. His ancestral name In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's ...
's son through Qingfu () was the ancestor of
Mencius Mencius ( ); born Mèng Kē (); or Mengzi (; 372–289 BC) was a Chinese Confucian , Shanxi Shanxi (; ; Chinese postal romanization, formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's R ...

Mencius
. He was descended from Duke Yang of the
State of Lu Lu (, c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

State of Lu
魯煬公 Duke Yang was the son of
Bo Qin Bo Qin (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous countr ...
, who was the son of the Duke of Zhou. The genealogy is found in the Mencius family tree (). The Zhikou (Chikow) Chiangs such as
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and Romanization of Chinese, romanized via Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese Kuomintang, Nationalist politician, ...

Chiang Kai-shek
were descended from Chiang Shih-chieh who during the 1600s (17th century) moved there from Fenghua district, whose ancestors in turn came to southeastern China's Zhejiang (Chekiang) province after moving out of Northern China in the 13th century AD. The 12th-century BC Duke of Zhou's (Duke of Chou) third son was the ancestor of the Chiangs.


See also

*
Family tree of ancient Chinese emperorsThis is a family tree of Chinese kings covering the period from 2697 BCE up through the end of the Spring and Autumn period in 453 BCE, before the establishment of the title emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a mon ...


References


Citations


Works cited

*


External links


Tomb of Zhou Gong
{{DEFAULTSORT:Zhou, Duke of Zhou dynasty nobility Regents of China Chinese dukes Politicians from Shaanxi 11th-century BC Chinese people Deified Chinese people