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Duke of Alba de Tormes ( es, Duque de Alba de Tormes), commonly known as Duke of Alba, is a title of
Spanish nobility Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocr ...
that is accompanied by the dignity of
Grandee of Spain Grandee (; es, Grande de España, ) is an official royal and noble ranks, aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility. Holders of this dignity enjoyed similar privileges to those of the peerage of France during the , though in neithe ...
. In 1472, the title of ''Count of Alba de Tormes'', inherited by García Álvarez de Toledo, was elevated to the title of ''Duke of Alba de Tormes'' by King
Henry IV of Castile Henry IV of Castile (Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilia ...
.Hidalgos de España (2018). p. 36


History

The
dukedom Dukedom may refer to: * The title and office of a duke * Duchy, the territory ruled by a duke * Dukedom, Kentucky and Tennessee, United States * Dukedom (video game), ''Dukedom'' (game), a land management game See also

* Lists of dukedoms {{ ...

dukedom
of
Alba de Tormes Alba de Tormes is a municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. The town is on the River Tormes upstream from the city of Salamanca. Alba gave its name to House of Alba, one of S ...

Alba de Tormes
is one of the most significant noble titles of Spain and gives its name to the
House of Alba The House of Alba de Tormes ( es, Casa de Alba de Tormes), commonly known as the House of Alba, is a prominent Spanish noble family that descended from 12th-century nobility of post-conquest Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain ...
. Over the centuries, members of three distinct family dynasties have held the title in succession – the , the
House of Silva The House of Silva () is an aristocratic family of Spanish and Portuguese origin. History Juan de Mena's ''Memorias de algunos linages antiguos e nobles de Castilla'', a work of the first half of the 15th century of noble family ancestries, ma ...
(extinct in 1802) and the House of Fitz-James Stuart, which descends from an illegitimate son of King
James II of England James II and VII (14 October 1633Old Style and New Style dates, O.S.16 September 1701) was King of England and King of Ireland as James II, and King of Scotland as James VII from the death of his elder brother, Charles II of England, Charles II ...

James II of England
. Famous holders of this dukedom include ''
Don Don, don or DON and variants may refer to: Places *Don, Benin Don is a town in Benin Benin ( , ; french: Bénin ), officially the Republic of Benin (french: République du Bénin) (formerly known as Dahomey The Kingdom of Dahomey () ...
''
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29 October 150711 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba (, pt, Grão Duque de Alba) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Esc ...
, governor of the
Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands es, Países Bajos Españoles; nl, Spaanse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas espagnols; german: Spanische Niederlande. (historically in Spanish: ''Flandes'', the name "Flanders" was used as a ''pars pro toto ''Pars pro toto'' (, ...

Spanish Netherlands
(references to "Alba" (or "Alva" in Dutch), particularly in the context of Dutch history, are usually about him), and ''Doña'' María del Pilar de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba, a
muse In ancient Greek religion Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and Greek mythology, mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and Cult (religious practice), cult practi ...

muse
of the painter
Francisco Goya Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (; ; 30 March 174616 April 1828) was a Spanish Romanticism, romantic painter and Printmaking, printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His p ...
. Various dukes have married into the families of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
and
Cosimo de Medici Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician who established the House of Medici, Medici family as effective rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance. His power derived ...

Cosimo de Medici
, as well as the line of the
Dukes of Berwick Duke of Berwick () ''()'' is a title that was created in the Peerage of England on 19 March 1687 for James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, James FitzJames, the illegitimate son of James II of England, King James VII of Scotland and Arabella Churchi ...
, making them distant relatives of the Earls Spencer and the
Dukes of Marlborough Duke of Marlborough (pronounced ) is a title in the Peerage of England The Peerage of England comprises all peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are ...
. Today, the ducal family of Alba retains a large and valuable collection of art and historic documents. The largest part of this treasure is kept at the main residence of the family in Madrid, the
Liria Palace The Liria Palace (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Palacio de Liria'') is a Neoclassical architecture, neoclassical palace in Madrid, Spain. It is the Madrid residence of the Dukes of Alba. History Built around 1770 to a design by the architect Ventu ...
.


Lords of Alba de Tormes (1429)

* Don Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo (also
Bishop of Palencia The Roman Catholic Diocese of Palencia ( la, Palentin(sis)) is a diocese located in the city of Palencia in the ecclesiastical province of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Burgos, Burgos, Spain.Archbishop of Seville The Archdiocese of Seville is part of the Catholic Church in Seville, Spain. The Diocese of Seville was founded in the 3rd century. It was raised to the level of an archdiocese in the 4th century. The current archbishop is Josep Àngel Sáiz Mene ...
, then
Archbishop of Toledo This is a list of Bishops A bishop is an ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (u ...
)Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo
/ref> * Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, nephew of Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo (created Count of Alba de Tormes in 1439)


Counts of Alba de Tormes (1439)

* Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Count of Alba * Don García Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Count of Alba (created Duke of Alba de Tormes in 1472)


Dukes of Alba de Tormes (1472)

* Don
García Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Duke of Alba García Álvarez de Toledo y Carrillo de Toledo, 1st Duke of Alba de Tormes ( – 20 June 1488) was a Spanish nobleman, military leader and politician, whose family had presided over the lands of Alba since the year 1369. Biography He was the so ...
* Don Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba * Don
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29 October 150711 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba (, pt, Grão Duque de Alba) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Esc ...
known in The Netherlands as the Iron Duke for his harsh action in the
Eighty Years' War The Eighty Years' War ( nl, Tachtigjarige Oorlog; es, Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a Dutch Revolt, revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg a ...
* Don
Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y Enríquez de Guzmán, 4th Duke of Alba, Grandee of Spain Grandee (; es, Grande de España, ) is an official royal and noble ranks, aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility. Holders of this dignity ...
* Don Antonio Álvarez de Toledo, 5th Duke of Alba * Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 6th Duke of Alba * Don Antonio Álvarez de Toledo, 7th Duke of Alba * Don Antonio Álvarez de Toledo, 8th Duke of Alba * Don Antonio Álvarez de Toledo, 9th Duke of Alba * Don Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, 10th Duke of Alba * Doña María Teresa Álvarez de Toledo, 11th Duchess of Alba * Don Fernando de Silva, 12th Duke of Alba * Doña María Cayetana de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba, María Teresa de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba * Don Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Alba (see also Duke of Berwick) * Don Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 15th Duke of Alba * Don Carlos María Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Alba * Don Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 17th Duke of Alba * Doña Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba, María del Rosario Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart y Silva, 18th Duchess of Alba * Don Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Huéscar, Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 19th Duke of Alba''Boletín Oficial del Estado''
no. 143, p. 50250
16 June 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015 .


References

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Bibliography

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External links


House of Alba Foundation


{{DEFAULTSORT:Alba, Duke of Dukes of Alba, House of Alba, Dukedoms of Spain Grandees of Spain Lists of dukes Lists of Spanish nobility Noble titles created in 1472