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Dual naming is the adoption of an official
place name Place may refer to: Geography * Place (United States Census Bureau), defined as any concentration of population ** Census-designated place, a populated area lacking its own municipal government * "Place", a type of street or road name ** Often ...
that combines two earlier names, or uses both names, often to resolve a disagreement over which of the two individual names is more appropriate. In some cases, the reasons are political. Sometimes the two individual names are from different languages; in some cases this is because the country has more than one official language, and in others, one language has displaced another. In several countries dual naming has only been applied recently, where a colonial settler community displaced the indigenous peoples and started using names in the settler language centuries ago, and efforts have now been made to use names in the indigenous language alongside the newer names, as an act of reconciliation.


Australia

In Australia, a dual naming policy is often now used officially to name landmarks that are of significance to local
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continen ...
, but for which the most common name is European. For example, the landmark with the
Pitjantjatjara The Pitjantjatjara (; or ) are an Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aborigin ...
name ''
Uluru Uluru (; pjt, Uluṟu ), also known as Ayers Rock ( ) and officially gazetted A gazette is an official journal, a newspaper of record File:Le Figaro, boulevard Haussmann.JPG, The headquarters of ''Le Figaro'', France's centre-right news ...

Uluru
'' and English name Ayers Rock is now officially named ''Uluru / Ayers Rock''. In the city of
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...

Adelaide
, the
Adelaide City Council The City of Adelaide, also known as the Corporation of the City of Adelaide and Adelaide City Council is a local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArtic ...
began the process of dual naming all of the city squares, each of the parks making up the parklands which surround the
Adelaide city centre Adelaide city centre is the inner city locality of Adelaide, Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide local ...

Adelaide city centre
and
North Adelaide North Adelaide is a predominantly residential precinct (Australia), precinct and suburb of the City of Adelaide in South Australia, situated north of the River Torrens and within the Adelaide Park Lands. History Surveyor-General William Ligh ...
, and other sites of significance to the
Kaurna people The Kaurna people (, ; also Coorna, Kaura, Gaurna and other variations) are a group of Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. They were known as the Adelaide tribe by the ...
(the "Adelaide tribe") in 1997. The naming process, which assigned an extra name in the
Kaurna language Kaurna ( or ) is a Pama-Nyungan language historically spoken by the Kaurna The Kaurna people (, ; also Coorna, Kaura, Gaurna and other variations) are a group of Aboriginal people whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of So ...
to each place, was mostly completed in 2003, and the renaming of 39 sites finalised and endorsed by the council in 2012. The
Cocos (Keeling) Islands ) , anthem = , song_type = , song = , image_map = Australia on the globe (Cocos (Keeling) Islands special) (Southeast Asia centered).svg , map_alt = Location of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands , map_caption = Location of the Cocos (Keeli ...
had their official dual name attested from 1916, and was made official by the Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955.


Finland

In Finland, many towns have two names, one in
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
and one in
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
(the two official languages of the country). The two names are considered equally correct but are not used as a formal duality of names.


France and Switzerland

The official names of bilingual areas of
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancie ...

Alsace
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
also apply. For instance, the German and French Swiss town of
Biel/Bienne Biel/Bienne (official bilingual wording; , ; it, Bienna; rm, Bienna; la, Belna) is a List of towns in Switzerland, town and a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Biel/Bienne (administrative district), Biel/Bienne administrative di ...
is the combination of its German name (Biel) and its French name (Bienne).


New Zealand

Similarly, some places in New Zealand have dual Māori and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
names, such as
Aoraki / Mount Cook Aoraki / Mount Cook is the highest mountain in New Zealand. Its height, as of 2014, is listed as . It lies in the Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana, the mountain range which runs the length of the South Island. A popular tourist destinati ...
. The practice of officially giving certain New Zealand places dual names began in the 1920s, but dual names have become much more common in the 1990s and 2000s, in part due to Treaty of Waitangi settlements.


Northern Ireland

"Derry/Londonderry" has been used unofficially to circumvent the
Derry/Londonderry name dispute The names of the Derry, city and County Londonderry, county of Derry or Londonderry in Northern Ireland are the subject of a Geographical renaming, naming dispute between Irish nationalism, Irish nationalists and Unionists (Ireland), unionists. ...
, in which Irish nationalists used "Derry" and Ulster unionists use "Londonderry" for the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
and
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...

county
in
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
. The "Derry stroke Londonderry" spoken form of this has in turn engendered the city's nickname "Stroke City".


Romania

In
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
, the city of Cluj was renamed
Cluj-Napoca ; hu, kincses város) , official_name=Cluj-Napoca , native_name= , image_skyline= , subdivision_type1 = Region , subdivision_name1 = Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region in central Romania. To the east and south its natural bor ...

Cluj-Napoca
for political reasons in the 1970s, as the communist government wanted to emphasize the city's Roman origins.


Spain

Another example of the phenomenon can be seen in the name of the capital of the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
Basque Country Image:Euskal Herriaren terminologia.png, Map showing the geographical and political divisions of the Basque Country Basque Country may refer to: *Basque Country (autonomous community) (''Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa'' in Basque; ''Comunidad Autónoma ...
,
Vitoria-Gasteiz Vitoria-Gasteiz (; ; ) is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country and of the provinces of Spain, province of Álava in northern Spain. It holds the autonomous community's Basque Parl ...
. This combines the city's
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
name of Vitoria and
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
name of Gasteiz.


United States

The
Denali–Mount McKinley naming dispute The name of the highest mountain in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. ...
is an example of a dual naming issue in the US.


Border geographical features

A special problem occurs when the landmark lies on the border between two (or more) countries, for example
Mount Everest Mount Everest (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's ...

Mount Everest
has several different locally-used names.


See also

* List of dual place names in New Zealand * Names of places in Finland in Finnish and in Swedish * Bilingual tautological names


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Dual Naming Alternative place names Concepts in language policy Naming controversies