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Dresden (, ; wen, label= Upper Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
and its second most populous city, after
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
. It is the 12th most populous city of Germany, the fourth largest by area (after
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
,
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
and
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
), and the third most populous city in the area of former
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
, after Berlin and Leipzig. Dresden's urban area comprises the towns of
Freital Freital is a town in the district of Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or peop ...
,
Pirna Pirna (; hsb, Pěrno) is a town in the Free State of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian: ), is a landlocked States of Germany, state of Germany, bordering the states ...

Pirna
,
Radebeul Radebeul is a town (''große Kreisstadt'') in the Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German: ''Ilv'' or ''Elv'' , name_etymology = , image = Labe_udoli.jpg , image_size = , image_caption = The Elbe (Labe) near Dě ...
,
Meißen (Meissen)
Meißen (Meissen)
, Coswig,
Radeberg Radeberg is a small town in the Bautzen (district), district of Bautzen, Saxony, Germany. It is located approximately 20 kilometres north-east of Dresden. The town has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and an old castle. History Radeb ...
and
Heidenau Heidenau is a town in the Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of Ger ...
and has around 790,000 inhabitants. The Dresden metropolitan area has approximately 1.34 million inhabitants. Dresden is the second largest city on the
River Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = D ...
after Hamburg. Most of the city's population lives in the
Elbe Valley The Elbe river near the border between Bohemia (the Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany) The Elbe Valley (german: Elbtal or ''Elbetal'') is most often used as a term for that section of the river valley in which most of the quarters of Dresde ...
, but a large, albeit very sparsely populated area of the city east of the Elbe lies in the
West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands The West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands (german: Westlausitzer Hügel- und Bergland), sometimes just the West Lusatian Hills,
(the westernmost part of the
Sudetes The Sudetes ( ; pl, Sudety; german: Sudeten; cs, Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie) are a in , shared by , and the . They are the highest part of . They stretch from the capital of in the northwest across to the region of in Poland and ...
) and thus in
Lusatia Lusatia (german: Lausitz, pl, Łużyce, hsb, Łužica, dsb, Łužyca, cs, Lužice, la, Lusatia, rarely also referred to as Sorbia) is a historical region in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. Lusatia stretches from the Bóbr ...
, while many boroughs west of the Elbe lie in the foreland of the
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
as well as in the valleys of the rivers rising there and flowing through Dresden, the longest of which are the
Weißeritz The Weißeritz (also: ''Vereinigte Weißeritz'' in German language, German i.e. United Weißeritz, ''Bystrica'' in Sorbian languages, Sorbian) is a river of Saxony, Germany. It is long and a left tiburary of the Elbe. The river is formed by the c ...

Weißeritz
and the Lockwitzbach. The name of the city as well as the names of most of its boroughs and rivers are of
Slavic
Slavic
origin. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its
baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

baroque
and
rococo Rococo (, also ), less commonly Roccoco or Late Baroque, is an exceptionally ornamental and theatrical style of architecture, art and decoration which combines asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, ...
city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war, restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city. Since
German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, peop ...
in 1990, Dresden has again become a cultural, educational and political centre of Germany. The
Dresden University of Technology TU Dresden (for german: Technische Universität Dresden, abbreviated as TUD and often wrongly translated as "Dresden University of Technology") is a public research university, the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden ...
is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the
German Universities Excellence Initiative 350px, Map showing Germany's eleven elite "Universities of Excellence", in 2012 The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Research Foundation aims to promote cutting-edge research and to create out ...
. The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches, often called "
Silicon Saxony Silicon Saxony is a registered industry association of nearly 300 companies in the microelectronics and related sectors in Saxony, Germany, with around 40,000 employees. Many, but not all, of those firms are situated in the north of Dresden. Wit ...
". According to the Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI) and
Berenberg Bank The Berenberg family (Dutch language, Dutch for "bear mountain") was a Flanders, Flemish-origined Hanseaten (class), Hanseatic family of merchants, bankers and senators in Hamburg, with branches in London, Livorno and other European cities. The ...
, in 2019, Dresden had the seventh best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Dresden is one of the most visited cities in Germany with 4.7 million overnight stays per year. Its most prominent building is the
Frauenkirche
Frauenkirche
located at the Neumarkt. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Other famous landmarks include the
Zwinger A Zwinger () is an open kill zone In military tactics, the kill zone, also known as killing zone, is an area entirely covered by direct and effective fire, an element of ambush within which an approaching enemy force is trapped and destroyed. ...
, the
Semperoper The Semperoper () is the opera house An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usuall ...

Semperoper
and the
Dresden Castle Dresden Castle or Royal Palace (german: Dresdner Residenzschloss or ) is one of the oldest buildings in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German Stat ...

Dresden Castle
. Furthermore, the city is home to the renowned
Dresden State Art Collections Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (, ''Dresden State Art Collections'') is a cultural institution in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States o ...
, originating from the collections of the Saxon electors in the 16th century. Dresden's
Striezelmarkt The Striezelmarkt in Dresden is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. Founded as a one-day market in 1434, it celebrated its 585th anniversary in 2019. Its 240 stands attract about 3 million visitors from all over the world. ...
is one of the largest
Christmas market A Christmas market, also known as ''Christkindlmarkt'' (literally: ''Christ Child Market'', but the term "Christkind" usually refers to an angel-like "spirit of Christmas" rather than literally the Christ Child), ''Christkindlesmarkt'', ''Christ ...
s in Germany and is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. Nearby sights include the National Park of
Saxon Switzerland Saxon Switzerland (german: Sächsische Schweiz) is a hilly climbing area A climbing area is a small geographical region with a concentration of opportunities for climbing. The term is most commonly used of rock climbing areas, but there a ...

Saxon Switzerland
, the
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
and the countryside around
Elbe Valley The Elbe river near the border between Bohemia (the Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany) The Elbe Valley (german: Elbtal or ''Elbetal'') is most often used as a term for that section of the river valley in which most of the quarters of Dresde ...

Elbe Valley
and
Moritzburg Castle Moritzburg Castle (german: Schloss Moritzburg) or Moritzburg Palace is a Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting, B ...

Moritzburg Castle
.


History

Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of
Slavic people Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central Europe, ...

Slavic people
,. Retrieved 24 April 2007. the area had been settled in the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
era by
Linear Pottery culture 300px, Linear pottery: "The vessels are oblated globes, cut off on the top and slightly flattened on the bottom suggestive of a gourd."— Frank HibbenHibben, page 121. Note the imitation of painted bands by incising the edges of the band. S ...

Linear Pottery culture
tribes c. 7500 BC. Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the
eastward expansion of Germanic peoples
eastward expansion of Germanic peoples
, mining in the nearby
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
, and the establishment of the
Margraviate of Meissen The Margravate of Meissen (german: Markgrafschaft Meißen) was a medieval principality in the area of the modern German state of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon German, Upper Saxon: ''Saggsn''; hsb, Sakska), officially the Fr ...
. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian ''Drežďany'', meaning ''people of the forest'', from proto-Slavic ''*dręzga'' (dense forest) from ''*drězgà'' (murky space). Dresden later evolved into the capital of
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
.


Early history

Around the late 12th century, a Sorbian settlement called ''Drežďany''Fritz Löffler, ''Das alte Dresden'', Leipzig 1982, p.20 (meaning either "woods" or "lowland forest-dweller") had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as ''Antiqua Dresdin'' by 1350, and later as Altendresden, both literally "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate. It was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the
Margraviate of Brandenburg The Margraviate of Brandenburg (german: link=no, Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the ...
in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of
Valdemar the Great Valdemar I (14 January 1131 – 12 May 1182), also known as Valdemar the Great ( da, Valdemar den Store), was King of Denmark from 1154 until his death in 1182. The reign of King Valdemar I saw the rise of Denmark, which reached its zenith under ...
in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...
, and from 1547 the electors as well.


Early-modern age

The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King
Augustus II the Strong Augustus II; lt, Augustas II; in Saxony also known as Frederick Augustus I – Friedrich August I (12 May 16701 February 1733), most commonly known as Augustus the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duk ...
of
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians, architects and painters from all over Europe to Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and
Augustus III of Poland Augustus III ( pl, August III Sas, lt, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located i ...

Augustus III of Poland
most of the city's
baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
landmarks were built. These include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the , the
Taschenbergpalais Taschenbergpalais is a Palace (hotel), palace hotel owned by the Kempinski Group. It is located on Sophie Street next to the Dresden Castle and in front of the Zwinger (Dresden), Zwinger. In direct proximity are the Semperoper, the Theaterplatz (th ...
, the
Pillnitz Castle Pillnitz Palace (german: Schloss Pillnitz) is a restored Baroque architecture, Baroque schloss at the eastern end of the city of Dresden in the German state of Saxony. It is located on the bank of the River Elbe in the former village of Pillnitz. ...
and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran . In addition, significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints, Drawings and Photographs, the
Grünes Gewölbe The Green Vault (german: Grünes Gewölbe) is a museum located in Dresden, Germany, which contains the largest treasure collection in Europe. The museum was founded in 1723 by Augustus II the Strong, Augustus the Strong of Poland and Electorate of ...
and the
Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon which houses the museum , fullpage = The Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon (, ''Royal Cabinet of Mathematical and Physical Instruments'') in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the ...
. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had recently converted from Catholicism. In 1745, the
Treaty of Dresden The Treaty of Dresden was signed on 25 December 1745 at the Saxon capital of Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxon ...
between Prussia, Saxony, and Austria ended the
Second Silesian War The Second Silesian War (german: Zweiter Schlesischer Krieg, links=no) was a war between Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Pru ...
. Only a few years later, Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
(1756–1763), following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, and a failed Prussian siege in 1760.
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
completed his ''
Ode to Joy "Ode to Joy" (German language, German: , literally "To Joy") is an ode written in the summer of 1785 in literature, 1785 by German poet, playwright, and historian Friedrich Schiller and published the following year in ''Thalia (magazine), ...
'' (the literary base of the European anthem) in Dresden in 1785.


19th and early 20th century

In 1806, Dresden became the capital of the
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in French period, Napoleonic through German Confederation, post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was ...
established by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
. During the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
the French Emperor made it a
base of operations Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top ...

base of operations
, winning there the
Battle of Dresden The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle took place around the city of Dresden in modern-day Germany. With the recent addition of Austrian Empire, Austria, the Sixth Coalition felt e ...
on 27 August 1813. As a result of the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
, the Kingdom of Saxony became part of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
in 1815. Following the Polish uprisings of
1831 Events January–March * January 1 – William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing ''The Liberator (anti-slavery newspaper), The Liberator'', an anti-slavery newspaper, in Boston, Massachusetts. * January 10 – Japanese depart ...

1831
,
1848 It is historically famous for the wave of revolutions, a series of widespread struggles for more liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an a ...
and
1863 Events January–March * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since th ...

1863
many Poles fled to Dresden, among others composer
Frédéric Chopin Frédéric François Chopin, born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849), was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic music, Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as ...

Frédéric Chopin
. Dresden itself was a centre of the German Revolutions in 1848 with the May Uprising, which cost human lives and damaged the historic town of Dresden. The uprising forced
Frederick Augustus II of Saxony , image = Friedrich August II of Saxony.jpg , caption = Potrait by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein , image_size = 220px , reign = 6 June 1836 – 9 August 1854 , coronation = , predecessor = Anthony of ...
to flee from Dresden, but he soon after regained control over the city with the help of Prussia. In 1852, the population of Dresden grew to 100,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities within the German Confederation. As the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony, Dresden became part of the newly founded
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
in 1871. In the following years, the city became a major centre of economy, including
motor car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars'' say that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came ...
production, food processing, banking and the manufacture of
medical equipment A medical device is any device intended to be used for medical purposes. Significant potential for hazard A hazard is a potential source of harm. Substances, events, or circumstances can constitute hazards when their nature would allow them, e ...
. In the early 20th century, Dresden was particularly well known for its camera works and its cigarette factories. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the city did not suffer any war damage, but lost many of its inhabitants. Between 1918 and 1934, Dresden was the capital of the first Free State of Saxony as well as a cultural and economic centre of the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
. The city was also a centre of European
modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophies of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the tradi ...
until 1933.


Military history

During the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, a large military facility called Albertstadt was built. It had a capacity of up to 20,000
military personnel Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovere ...

military personnel
at the beginning of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. The garrison saw only limited use between 1918 and 1934, but was then reactivated in preparation for the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Its usefulness was limited by attacks on 13–15 February and 17 April 1945, the former of which destroyed large areas of the city. However, the garrison itself was not specifically targeted. including a list of all bombings on the railway network (especially towards Bohemia). Soldiers had been deployed as late as March 1945 in the Albertstadt garrison. The Albertstadt garrison became the headquarters of the Soviet 1st Guards Tank Army in the
Group of Soviet Forces in Germany The Western Group of Forces (WGF),. previously known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (GSOFG). and the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG),. were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany. The Group of Soviet Occupati ...
after the war. Apart from the
German army The German Army () is the land component of the armed forces of Federal Republic of Germany, Germany. The present-day German Army was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German ''Bundeswehr'' together with the German Navy, ''Marine' ...
officers' school (''Offizierschule des Heeres''), there have been no more
military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an int ...
s in Dresden since the army merger during German reunification, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces in 1992. Nowadays, the Bundeswehr operates the Military History Museum of the Federal Republic of Germany in the former Albertstadt garrison.


Second World War

During the Nazi era from 1933 to 1945, the Jewish community of Dresden was reduced from over 6,000 (7,100 people were persecuted as Jews) to 41, mostly as a result of emigration, but later also deportation and murder. Non-Jews were also targeted, and over 1,300 people were executed by the Nazis at the Münchner Platz, a courthouse in Dresden, including labour leaders, undesirables, resistance fighters and anyone caught listening to foreign radio broadcasts. The bombing stopped prisoners who were busy digging a large hole into which an additional 4,000 prisoners were to be disposed of. Dresden in the 20th century was a major communications hub and manufacturing centre with 127 factories and major workshops and was designated by the German military as a defensive strongpoint, with which to hinder the Soviet advance. Being the capital of the German state of
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...

Saxony
, Dresden not only had garrisons but a whole ''military borough'', the ''Albertstadt''. This military complex, named after
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxon
King Albert, was not specifically targeted in the
bombing of Dresden The bombing of Dresden was a British-American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly know ...
, though it was within the expected area of destruction and was extensively damaged. During the final months of the Second World War, Dresden harboured some 600,000 refugees, with a total population of . Dresden was attacked seven times between 1944 and 1945, and was occupied by the Red Army after the German capitulation. The
bombing of Dresden The bombing of Dresden was a British-American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly know ...
by the
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
(RAF) and the
United States Army Air Forces The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) was the major land-based aerial warfare Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft A military aircraft is any fixed-wing A fixed-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machi ...
(USAAF) between 13 and 15 February 1945 was controversial. On the night of 13–14 February 1945, 773 RAF Lancaster bombers dropped 1,181.6 tons of incendiary bombs and 1,477.7 tons of high explosive bombs, targeting the rail yards at the centre of the city. The inner city of Dresden was largely destroyed. The high explosive bombs damaged buildings and exposed their wooden structures, while the incendiaries ignited them, denying their use by retreating German troops and refugees. Widely quoted Nazi propaganda reports claimed 200,000 deaths, but the German Dresden Historians' Commission, made up of 13 prominent German historians, in an official 2010 report published after five years of research concluded that casualties numbered between 18,000 and 25,000. The Allies described the operation as the legitimate bombing of a military and industrial target. Several discredited researchers with a known pro-Nazi bias have argued that the February attacks were disproportionate. As a result of inadequate Nazi air raid measures for refugees, mostly women and children died. American author
Kurt Vonnegut Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (; November 11, 1922 – April 11, 2007) was an American writer. In a career spanning over 50 years, he published 14 novels, three short story collections, five plays, and five nonfiction works, with further collections being p ...

Kurt Vonnegut
's novel ''
Slaughterhouse Five ''Slaughterhouse-Five, or, The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance with Death'' is a science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imaginati ...
'' is loosely based on his first-hand experience of the raid as a
POW POW POW is "prisoner of war", a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. POW or pow may also refer to: Music * P.O.W (Bullet for My Valentine song), "P.O.W" ( ...

POW
. In remembrance of the victims, the anniversaries of the bombing of Dresden are marked with peace demonstrations, devotions and marches. The destruction of Dresden allowed
Hildebrand Gurlitt Hildebrand Gurlitt (15 September 1895 – 9 November 1956) was a German art history, art historian, art gallery director and subsequently, Nazi Party, Nazi-associated art dealer and war profiteer. During the Nazi era Gurlitt traded in "degenerate a ...
, a major Nazi museum director and art dealer, to hide a large collection of artwork worth over a billion dollars that had been stolen during the Nazi era, as he claimed it had been destroyed along with his house which was located in Dresden.


Post-war

Following his military service the German press photographer and photojournalist
Richard Peter Richard Peter (10 May 1895 – 3 October 1977) was a Germany, German press photographer and photojournalist. He is best known for his photographs of Dresden just after the end of the World War II, Second World War. Life Richard Peter was born an ...
returned to Dresden and began to document the ruined city. Among his best known works ''Blick auf Dresden vom Rathausturm'' (''View of Dresden from the Rathus Tower''). It has become one of the best known photographs of a ruined post-war Germany following its appearance in 1949 in his book ''Dresden, eine Kamera klagt an'' ("Dresden, a photographic accusation", ). When a skeleton previously used as a model for drawing art classes was found in the ruins of the Dresden Art Academy the photographer Edmund Kesting with the assistance of Peter posed it in a number of different locations to produce a series of haunting photographic images to give the impression that Death was wandering through the city in search of the dead. Kesting subsequently published them in the book ''Dresdner Totentanz'' (''Dresden’s Death Dance'') The damage from the Allied air raids was so bad that following the end of the Second World War a narrow gauge light railway system was constructed to remove the debris, though being makeshift there were frequent derailments. This railway system which had seven lines, employed 5,000 staff and 40 locomotives, all of which bore women’s names. The last train remained in service until 1958, though the last official debris clearance team was only disbanded in 1977. Rather than repair them the
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
(former East Germany) authorities razed the ruins of many churches, royal buildings and palaces in the 1950s and 1960s, such as the Gothic
Sophienkirche:''For the churches of this name in Berlin and Bayreuth, see Sophienkirche (Berlin) and Sophienkirche (Bayreuth).'' The Sophienkirche (Saint Sophia's Church) was a church in Dresden. It was located on the northeast corner of the Postplatz (Dresd ...
, the Alberttheater and the Wackerbarth-Palais as well as many historic residential buildings. The surroundings of the once lively Prager Straße resembled a wasteland before it was rebuilt in the socialist style at the beginning of the 1960s. However compared to
West Germany West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wieder ...
, the majority of historic buildings were saved. Among them were the Ständehaus (1946), the Augustusbrücke (1949), the Kreuzkirche (until 1955), the Zwinger (until 1963), the Catholic Court Church (until 1965), the Semperoper (until 1985), the Japanese Palace (until 1987) and the two largest train stations. Some of this work dragged on for decades often interrupted by the overall economic situation in the GDR. The ruins of the Frauenkirche were allowed to remain on Neumarkt as a memorial to the war. While the Theater and Schloßplatz were rebuilt in accordance with the historical model in 1990, the Neumarkt remained completely undeveloped. On the other hand buildings of socialist classicism and spatial design and orientation according to socialist ideals (e.g. Kulturpalast) were built at the Altmarkt. From 1955 to 1958, a large part of the art treasures looted by the Soviet Union was returned, which meant that from 1960 onwards many state art collections could be opened in reconstructed facilities or interim exhibitions. Important orchestras such as the Staatskapelle performed in alternative venues (for example in the Kulturpalast from 1969). Some cultural institutions were moved out of the city center (for example the state library in Albertstadt). The Outer Neustadt, which was almost undamaged during the war was threatened with demolition in the 1980s following years of neglect, but was preserved following public protests. To house the homeless large prefabricated housing estates were built on previously undeveloped land In Prohlis and Gorbitz. Damaged housing in the Johannstadt and other areas in the city center were demolished and replaced with large apartment blocks. The villa districts in Blasewitz, Striesen, Kleinzschachwitz, Loschwitz and on the Weißen Hirsch were largely preserved. Dresden became a major industrial centre in the
German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...
(former East Germany) with a great deal of research infrastructure. It was the centre of
Bezirk Dresden The Bezirk Dresden was a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several ...

Bezirk Dresden
(Dresden District) between 1952 and 1990. Many of the city's important historic buildings were reconstructed, including the Semper Opera House and the Zwinger Palace, although the city leaders chose to rebuild large areas of the city in a "socialist modern" style, partly for economic reasons, but also to break away from the city's past as the royal capital of Saxony and a stronghold of the German bourgeoisie. Until the end of the Cold War, the 1st Armored Guard Army of the Soviet Army and the 7th Panzer Division of the National People's Army were stationed in and around Dresden. Following reunification in 1989, the Soviet / Russian troops were withdrawn from Germany in the early 1990s and the NVA dissolved in accordance with the provisions of the Two-Plus-Four Treaty of 1990. From 1985 to 1990, the future
President of Russia The President of the Russian Federation ( rus, Президент Российской Федерации, Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (pl ...
,
Vladimir Putin Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is serving as the current president of Russia. He has been serving in this position since 2012, and he previously held this of ...

Vladimir Putin
, was stationed in Dresden by the
KGB The KGB ( rus, links=no, Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), a=ru-KGB.ogg, p=kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)əj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), translated ...
, where he worked for Lazar Matveev, the senior
KGB The KGB ( rus, links=no, Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), a=ru-KGB.ogg, p=kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)əj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), translated ...
liaison officer there. On 3 October 1989 (the so-called "battle of Dresden"), a convoy of trains carrying East German refugees from
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
passed through Dresden on its way to the
Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
. Local activists and residents joined in the growing
civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the co ...
movement spreading across the German Democratic Republic, by staging demonstrations and demanding the removal of the communist government.


Post-reunification

Dresden has experienced dramatic changes since the reunification of Germany in the early 1990s. The city still bears many wounds from the
bombing raids after the massive firebombing attack on the night of March 9–10, 1945, the single most destructive raid in military aviation history. The bombing of Tokyo in World War II cut the city's industrial productivity by half and killed around 100,000 ci ...
of 1945, but it has undergone significant reconstruction in recent decades. Restoration of the Dresden Frauenkirche, a Lutheran church, the rebuilding of which was started after the reunification of Germany in 1994, was completed in 2005, a year before Dresden's 800th anniversary, notably by privately raised funds. The gold cross on the top of the church was funded officially by "the British people and the House of Windsor". The
urban renewal Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom and urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment often used to address urban decay in cities. Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted area ...
process, which includes the reconstruction of the area around the Neumarkt square on which the Frauenkirche is situated, will continue for many decades, but public and government interest remains high, and there are numerous large projects underway—both historic reconstructions and modern plans—that will continue the city's recent architectural renaissance. Dresden remains a major cultural centre of historical memory, owing to the city's destruction in World War II. Each year on 13 February, the anniversary of the British and American fire-bombing raid that destroyed most of the city, tens of thousands of demonstrators gather to commemorate the event. Since reunification, the ceremony has taken on a more neutral and pacifist tone (after being used more politically during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
). Beginning in 1999, right-wing
Neo-Nazi Neo-Nazism refers to the post–World War II militant, social, and political movements seeking to revive and reinstate Nazism, Nazi ideology. Neo-Nazis seek to employ their ideology to promote hatred and white supremacy, attack racial and e ...
white nationalist White nationalism is a type of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular natio ...
groups have organised demonstrations in Dresden that have been among the largest of their type in the post-war
history of Germany The concept of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according t ...
. Each year around the anniversary of the city's destruction, people convene in the memory of those who died in the fire-bombing. The completion of the reconstructed Dresden Frauenkirche in 2005 marked the first step in rebuilding the Neumarkt area. The areas around the square have been divided into 8 "quarters", with each being rebuilt as a separate project, the majority of buildings to be rebuilt either to the original structure or at least with a facade similar to the original. The quarters I, II, IV, V, VI and VIII have since been completed, with quarter III and quarter VII still partly under construction in 2020. In 2002, torrential rains caused the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
to flood above its normal height, i.e., even higher than the old record height from 1845, damaging many landmarks (see 2002 European floods). The destruction from this "millennium flood" is no longer visible, due to the speed of reconstruction. The United Nations' cultural organization
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
declared the
Dresden Elbe Valley The Dresden Elbe Valley is a cultural landscape and former World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cult ...
to be a World Heritage Site in 2004. After being placed on the list of endangered World Heritage Sites in 2006, the city lost the title in June 2009,Dresden loses UNESCO world heritage status
, ''
Deutsche Welle Deutsche Welle (; "German Wave" in German) or DW is a German public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...

Deutsche Welle
'', 25 June 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
due to the construction of the '''', making it only the second ever World Heritage Site to be removed from the register. UNESCO stated in 2006 that the bridge would destroy the cultural landscape. The city council's legal moves, meant to prevent the bridge from being built, failed.


Geography


Location

Dresden lies on both banks of the
Elbe The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake o ...

Elbe
, mostly in the
Dresden Basin The Dresden BasinDickinson (1964). pp. 624-625. (german: (Dresdner) Elbtalkessel or ''Dresdner Elbtalweitung'') is a roughly 45 km long and 10 km wide area of the Elbe , german: Elbe, Low German: ''Ilv'' or ''Elv'' , name_etymology ...
, with the further reaches of the eastern
Ore Mountains The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range () (german: Erzgebirge ; cs, Krušné hory or historically ''Rudohoří'') in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are somet ...
to the south, the steep slope of the
Lusatia Lusatia (german: Lausitz, pl, Łużyce, hsb, Łužica, dsb, Łužyca, cs, Lužice, la, Lusatia, rarely also referred to as Sorbia) is a historical region in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland. Lusatia stretches from the Bóbr ...
n granitic crust to the north, and the
Elbe Sandstone Mountains The Elbe Sandstone Mountains, also called the Elbe Sandstone Highlands (german: Elbsandsteingebirge; cs, Labské pískovce) is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mounta ...
to the east at an altitude of about . Triebenberg is the highest point in Dresden at .Dresden.de
Location, area, geographical data
With a pleasant location and a mild climate on the Elbe, as well as Baroque-style architecture and numerous world-renowned museums and art collections, Dresden has been called "Elbflorenz" (
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
of the Elbe). The incorporation of neighbouring rural communities over the past 60 years has made Dresden the fourth largest urban district by area in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
.
List of cities in Germany with more than 100,000 inhabitants As defined by the German Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development, a ''Großstadt'' (large city) is a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants. As of December 31, 2015, 79 cities in Germany ) , ima ...
The nearest German cities are
Chemnitz Chemnitz (; cs, Saská Kamenice; from 1953 to 1990: ''Karl-Marx-Stadt'' ) is the third largest city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people ...

Chemnitz
to the southwest,
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. With a population of 605,407 inhabitants as of 2021 (1.1 million residents in the larger urban zone), it surpasses the Saxon c ...

Leipzig
to the northwest and Berlin to the north.
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
(Czech Republic) is about to the south and
Wrocław Wrocław (; german: Breslau ; sli, Brassel; cs, Vratislav), ''Wratislavia''. is a city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Centra ...

Wrocław
(Poland) to the east.


Nature

Dresden is one of the greenest cities in all of Europe, with 62% of the city being green areas and forests. The
Dresden Heath The Dresden Heath (german: Dresdner Heide) is a large forest in the city of Dresden. The heath is the most important recreation area in the city and is also actively forested. Approximately 6,133 hectares of the Dresden Heath are designated as a n ...
(''Dresdner Heide'') to the north is a forest in size. There are four
nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area) is a protected area Protected areas or conservation areas a ...
s. The additional Special Conservation Areas cover . The protected gardens, parkways, parks and old graveyards host 110 natural monuments in the city. The
Dresden Elbe Valley The Dresden Elbe Valley is a cultural landscape and former World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cult ...
is a former world heritage site which is focused on the conservation of the
cultural landscape Cultural landscape is a term used in the fields of geography, ecology, and heritage studies, to describe a symbiosis of human activity and environment. As defined by the World Heritage Site, World Heritage Committee, it is the "cultural properti ...
in Dresden. One important part of that landscape is the Elbe meadows, which cross the city in a 20 kilometre swath.
Saxon Switzerland Saxon Switzerland (german: Sächsische Schweiz) is a hilly climbing area A climbing area is a small geographical region with a concentration of opportunities for climbing. The term is most commonly used of rock climbing areas, but there a ...

Saxon Switzerland
is located south-east of the city.


Climate

Like many places in the eastern parts of Germany, Dresden has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
''Cfb''), with significant continental influences due to its inland location. The summers are warm, averaging 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) in July. The winters are slightly colder than the German average, with a January average temperature of . The driest months are February, March and April, with precipitation of around . The wettest months are July and August, with more than per month. The microclimate in the
Elbe valley The Elbe river near the border between Bohemia (the Czech Republic) and Saxony (Germany) The Elbe Valley (german: Elbtal or ''Elbetal'') is most often used as a term for that section of the river valley in which most of the quarters of Dresde ...

Elbe valley
differs from that on the slopes and in the higher areas, where the Dresden district
Klotzsche Klotzsche is a borough (''Geography and urban development of Dresden#City structuring, Ortsamtsbereich'') of Dresden, Germany. It consists of four quarters (''Stadtteile''): *Klotzsche proper *Hellerauabove sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
, hosts the Dresden
weather station A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' ...

weather station
. The weather in Klotzsche is colder than in the
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemi ...

inner city
at 112 metres
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
.


Flood protection

Because of its location on the banks of the Elbe, into which some water sources from the Ore Mountains flow, flood protection is important. Large areas are kept free of buildings to provide a flood plain. Two additional trenches, about 50 metres wide, have been built to keep the inner city free of water from the Elbe, by dissipating the water downstream through the inner city's gorge portion. Flood regulation systems like
detention basin A detention basin or retarding basin is an excavated area installed on, or adjacent to, tributaries of river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some case ...
s and
water reservoir A reservoir (; from French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily loca ...
s are almost all outside the city area. The
Weißeritz The Weißeritz (also: ''Vereinigte Weißeritz'' in German language, German i.e. United Weißeritz, ''Bystrica'' in Sorbian languages, Sorbian) is a river of Saxony, Germany. It is long and a left tiburary of the Elbe. The river is formed by the c ...

Weißeritz
, normally a rather small river, suddenly ran directly into the main station of Dresden during the 2002 European floods. This was largely because the river returned to its former route; it had been diverted so that a railway could run along the river bed. Many locations and areas need to be protected by walls and sheet pilings during floods. A number of districts become waterlogged if the Elbe overflows across some of its former floodplains. File:Weisseritz in Löbtau zur Jahrhundertflut 2002.jpg, Floods in 2002 File:Semperoper-flood-2005-03-22.jpg,
Semperoper The Semperoper () is the opera house An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usuall ...

Semperoper
during 2005 floods File:Flood dresden april2006 004.jpg, Elbe flood in April 2006 File:Elbe 030406 2.jpg, Dresden skyline in 2006 File:Elbe-Hochwasser-Dresden-Juni2013-18.jpg, Dresden under water in June 2013


City structuring

Dresden is a spacious city. Its districts differ in their structure and appearance. Many parts still contain an old village core, while some quarters are almost completely preserved as rural settings. Other characteristic kinds of urban areas are the historic outskirts of the city, and the former suburbs with scattered housing. During the German Democratic Republic, many apartment blocks were built. The original parts of the city are almost all in the districts of Altstadt (Old town) and Neustadt (New town). Growing outside the
city walls A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...

city walls
, the historic outskirts were built in the 18th and 19th century. They were planned and constructed on the orders of the Saxon monarchs and many of them are named after Saxon sovereigns (e.g.
Friedrichstadt Friedrichstadt ( da, Frederiksstad) is a town in the district of Nordfriesland island in the mudflat at low tide Nordfriesland ( da, Nordfrisland, en, North Frisia, frr, Nordfraschlönj) is the northernmost Districts of Germany, district of ...
and Albertstadt). Dresden has been divided into ten districts called "Ortsamtsbereich" and nine former boroughs ("Ortschaften") which have been incorporated since 1990.


Demographics

The population of Dresden grew to 100,000 inhabitants in 1852, making it one of the first German cities after Hamburg and Berlin to reach that number. The population peaked at 649,252 in 1933, and dropped to 368,519 in 1945 because of World War II, during which large residential areas of the city were destroyed. After large incorporations and city restoration, the population grew to 522,532 again between 1946 and 1983.Dresden
Einwohnerzahl
Since
German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, peop ...
, demographic development has been very unsteady. The city has struggled with migration and suburbanisation. During the 1990s the population increased to 480,000 because of several incorporations, and decreased to 452,827 in 1998. Between 2000 and 2010, the population grew quickly by more than 45,000 inhabitants (about 9.5%) due to a stabilised economy and re-urbanisation. Along with
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
and
Potsdam Potsdam () is the capital and largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the Havel, Ri ...

Potsdam
, Dresden is one of the ten fastest-growing cities in Germany. the population of the city of Dresden was 557,075, the population of the Dresden agglomeration was 790,400 , and the population of the Dresden metropolitan area, which includes the neighbouring districts of
Meißen Meissen (in German orthography: ''Meißen'', ) is a town of approximately 30,000 about northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Saxony, Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany. Meissen is the home of Meissen porcelain, the Al ...
,
Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains (German language, German: ''Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge''; cs, Saské Švýcarsko a východní Krušné hory; hsb, Wokrjes Sakska Šwica-Wuchodne Rudne hory) is a district (''Districts of Germany, Krei ...
,
Bautzen Bautzen (; Upper Sorbian: Budyšin ; until 1868 German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also Ger ...
and
Görlitz Görlitz (; Upper Lusatian dialect: ''Gerlz'', ''Gerltz'', and ''Gerltsch'', pl, Zgorzelec, szl, Gorlice, hsb, Zhorjelc, dsb, Zgórjelc, cz, Zhořelec) is a town in the Germany, German state of Saxony. Located in the region of Lusatia on ...
, was 1,343,305. As of 2018 about 50.0% of the population was female. the mean age of the population was 43 years, which is the lowest among the urban districts in Saxony. there were 67,841 people with a migration background (12.1% of the population, increased from 7.2% in 2010), and about two-thirds of these, 44,665 or about 8.0% of all Dresden citizens were foreigners. This percentage increased from 4.1% in 2010.


Governance

Dresden is one of Germany's 16 political centres and the capital of Saxony. It has institutions of democratic local self-administration that are independent from the capital functions. Some local affairs of Dresden receive national attention. Dresden hosted some international summits in recent years, such as the Petersburg Dialogue between Russia and Germany, the European Union's
Minister of the Interior An interior ministry (sometimes called ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry responsible for internal affairs, particularly public security, emergency management, civil registration and identification ...
conference and the labour ministers conference.


Mayor and city council

The
city council A municipal council is the legislature, legislative body of a municipality or local government area. Depending on the location and classification of the municipality it may be known as a city council, town council, town board, community council, ...
is the legislative branch of the city government. The council gives orders to the mayor (german: Bürgermeister) via resolutions and decrees, and thus also has some degree of executive power. The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Herbert Wagner of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who served from 1990 to 2001. The mayor was originally chosen by the city council, but since 1994 has been directly elected. Ingolf Roßberg of the
Free Democratic PartyFree Democratic Party is the name of several political parties around the world. It usually designates a party ideologically based on liberalism. Current parties with that name include: *Free Democratic Party (Germany), a liberal political party in ...
(FDP) served from 2001 until 2008. He was succeeded by Helma Orosz (CDU). Since 2015, the mayor has been
Dirk Hilbert Dirk Hilbert is a German politician serving as the current Lord Mayor of Dresden, the capital city of Saxony, since Helma Orosz's resignation in 2015. Biography Hilbert studied industrial engineering at the Technical University of Dresden from ...
(FDP). The most recent mayoral election was held on 7 June 2015, with a runoff held on 5 July, and the results were as follows: ! rowspan=2 colspan=2, Candidate ! rowspan=2, Party ! colspan=2, First round ! colspan=2, Second round , - ! Votes ! % ! Votes ! % , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Eva-Maria Stange , align=left, Together for Dresden
, 79,579 , 36.0 , 81,317 , 44.0 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Dirk Hilbert Dirk Hilbert is a German politician serving as the current Lord Mayor of Dresden, the capital city of Saxony, since Helma Orosz's resignation in 2015. Biography Hilbert studied industrial engineering at the Technical University of Dresden from ...
, align=left, Independent Citizens for Dresden
, 70,153 , 31.7 , 100,122 , 54.2 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Markus Ulbig , align=left, Christian Democratic Union , 33,931 , 15.4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Tatjana Festerling , align=left, EB Festerling , 21,306 , 9.6 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Gottfried Vogel , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, ...
, 10,543 , 4.8 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Lars Stosch/Lara Liqueur , align=left,
Die PARTEI (''Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative''), or Die PARTEI (''The PARTY''), is a German political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates t ...
, 5,444 , 2.5 , 3,412 , 1.8 , - ! colspan=3, Valid votes ! 220,956 ! 99.1 ! 184,851 ! 99.3 , - ! colspan=3, Invalid votes ! 1,985 ! 0.9 ! 1,361 ! 0.7 , - ! colspan=3, Total ! 222,941 ! 100.0 ! 186,212 ! 100.0 , - ! colspan=3, Electorate/voter turnout ! 436,094 ! 51.1 ! 436 192 ! 42.7 , - , colspan=7, Source
Wahlen in Sachsen
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows: ! colspan=2, Party ! Votes ! % ! +/- ! Seats ! +/- , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alliance 90/The Greens Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or '; ), is a green Green is the color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception descr ...
(Grüne) , 171,630 , 20.5 , 4.8 , 15 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, Christian Democratic Union (CDU) , 153,022 , 18.3 , 9.3 , 13 , 8 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, ...
(AfD) , 143,207 , 17.2 , 10.1 , 12 , 7 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, The Left (Die Linke) , 135,613 , 16.2 , 4.7 , 12 , 3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
(SPD) , 73,627 , 8.8 , 4.0 , 6 , 3 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Free Democratic PartyFree Democratic Party is the name of several political parties around the world. It usually designates a party ideologically based on liberalism. Current parties with that name include: *Free Democratic Party (Germany), a liberal political party in ...
(FDP) , 62,613 , 7.5 , 2.5 , 5 , 2 , - , , align=left, Free Voters Dresden (WV) , 44,725 , 5.3 , 5.2 , 4 , 4 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Pirate Party Germany The Pirate Party Germany (german: Piratenpartei Deutschland), commonly known as Pirates (German: ''Piraten''), is a political party in Germany founded in September 2006 at c-base. It states general agreement with the Swedish Piratpartiet as a p ...
(Piraten) , 20,516 , 2.4 , 0.9 , 1 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left,
Die PARTEI (''Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative''), or Die PARTEI (''The PARTY''), is a German political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates t ...
(PARTEI) , 15,268 , 1.8 , 0.9 , 1 , 1 , - , , align=left, Free Citizens Dresden (FBD) , 12,652 , 1.5 , 2.3 , 1 , 1 , - , bgcolor=, , align=left, (NPD) , 4,744 , 0.6 , 2.2 , 0 , 2 , - ! colspan=2, Valid votes ! 288,060 ! 98.7 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=2, Invalid votes ! 3,937 ! 1.3 ! ! ! , - ! colspan=2, Total ! 291,997 ! 100.0 ! ! 70 ! ±0 , - ! colspan=2, Electorate/voter turnout ! 436,179 ! 66.9 ! 17.9 ! ! , - , colspan=7, Source
Wahlen in Sachsen


Public institutions

As the capital of Saxony, Dresden is home to the Saxon state parliament (''Landtag'') and the ministries of the Saxon Government. The controlling
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
of Saxony is in Leipzig. The highest Saxon court in civil and
criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env ...
, the Higher Regional Court of Saxony, has its home in Dresden. Most of the Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden. Dresden is home to the Regional Commission of the Dresden Regierungsbezirk, which is a controlling authority for the Saxon Government. It has jurisdiction over eight
rural districts Rural districts were a type of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of ...
, two urban districts and the city of Dresden. Like many cities in Germany, Dresden is also home to a local court, has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many subsidiaries of federal agencies (such as the Federal Labour Office or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief). It hosts some divisions of the German Customs and . Dresden is home to a military subdistrict command, but no longer has large military units as it did in the past. Dresden is the traditional location for
army officer An officer is a member of an armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a soverei ...
schooling in Germany, today carried out in the .


Local affairs

Local affairs in Dresden often centre around the
urban development Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
of the city and its spaces. Architecture and the design of
public places A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the sidewalk, pavement), public squares, parks and beaches are typically considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are op ...
is a controversial subject. Discussions about the , a bridge under construction across the Elbe, received international attention because of its position across the
Dresden Elbe Valley The Dresden Elbe Valley is a cultural landscape and former World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cult ...
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. The city held a public referendum in 2005 on whether to build the bridge, prior to UNESCO expressing doubts about the compatibility between bridge and heritage. Its construction caused loss of World Heritage site status in 2009. In 2006, the city of Dresden sold its publicly
subsidized housing Subsidized housing is government sponsored economic assistance aimed towards alleviating home, housing costs and expenses for Poverty, impoverished people with low to moderate incomes. In the United States, subsidized housing is often called "aff ...
organization, WOBA Dresden GmbH, to the US-based private
investment company An investment company is a financial institution principally engaged in investing in securities A security is a tradable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the fiel ...
Fortress Investment Group Fortress Investment Group is an American investment management Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities, including shareholdings, bonds, and other asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, ...
. The city received euro and paid off its remaining loans, making it the first large city in Germany to become debt-free. Opponents of the sale were concerned about Dresden's loss of control over the subsidized housing market. Dresden has been the center of groups and activities of far-right movements. Politicians and politics of
Alternative for Germany Alternative for Germany (german: link=no, Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) is a German nationalist German nationalism is an ideological notion that promotes the unity of Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, ...
(AfD) have a strong backing. Starting in October 2014,
PEGIDA Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamicisation of the Occident (german: Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes), abbreviated Pegida (, stylised in its logo as PEGIDA), is a pan-European, anti-Islam, Far-right politics, ...

PEGIDA
, a
nationalistic Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territo ...
political movement based in Dresden has been organizing weekly demonstrations against what it perceives as the
Islamization Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; ar, أسلمة, ), Islamicization or Islamification, is the process of a society's shift towards the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in ...
of Europe at the height of the
European migrant crisis #REDIRECT European migrant crisis The European migrant crisis, also known as the refugee crisis, was a period characterised by high numbers of people arriving in the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic un ...
. As the number of demonstrators increased to 15,000 in December 2014, so has the international media coverage of it. However, since 2015, the number of demonstrators has decreased significantly. In 2019, the Dresden City Council passed a policy statement against "anti-democratic, anti-pluralist, misanthropic and right-wing-extremist developments". The motion was originally put forward by the satirical political party
Die Partei (''Party for Labour, Rule of Law, Animal Protection, Promotion of Elites and Grassroots Democratic Initiative''), or Die PARTEI (''The PARTY''), is a German political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates t ...
.
Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (german: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or '; ), is a Green politics, green List of political parties in Germany, political party in Germany. It was formed in 1993 as the merger of The Greens, formed in West G ...
, Die Linke,
SPD The Social Democratic Party of Germany (german: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, ; SPD, ) is a social democratic political party in Germany. It is one of the two major parties of contemporary Germany along with the CDU/CSU, Union parties ...
and Die Partei voted in favour of the statement. The
CDU CDU may refer to: Education * Catholic Distance University, a worldwide Catholic university based in Hamilton, Virginia, U.S offering theological instruction and degrees via Internet * Cebu Doctors' University, a medical university in the Phili ...
and AfD voted against it. Among other things, the statement calls on strengthening democracy, protecting human rights and raising spending on (political) education.


Twin towns – sister cities

Dresden and
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its c ...

Coventry
became twins after the Second World War in an act of
reconciliation Reconciliation may refer to: Sociology and politics * Conflict resolution Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members ...
, as both had suffered near-total destruction from massive aerial bombing. Similar symbolism occurred in 1988, when Dresden twinned with the Dutch city of
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2n ...

Rotterdam
. The
Coventry Blitz The Coventry Blitz (blitz Blitz, German for "lightning Lightning is a naturally occurring electrostatic discharge during which two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere or ground temporarily equalize themselves, causing the ...
and
Rotterdam Blitz The German bombing of Rotterdam in World War II, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam Rotterdam (, , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin ...
bombardments by the German
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial-warfare branch of the German ''Wehrmacht The ''Wehrmacht'' (, ) was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the German Army (1935–1945), ''Heer'' (army), th ...
are also considered to be disproportional. Dresden has had a triangular partnership with
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
and
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
since 1987. Dresden is twinned with: *
Coventry Coventry ( or ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city in the West Midlands (county), West Midlands, England. It is on the River Sherbourne. Coventry has been a large settlement for centuries, although it was not founded and given its c ...

Coventry
, England, United Kingdom (1959) *
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
, Russia (1961) *
Wrocław Wrocław (; german: Breslau ; sli, Brassel; cs, Vratislav), ''Wratislavia''. is a city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Centra ...

Wrocław
, Poland (1963) *
Skopje Skopje ( , , ; mk, Скопје ; sq, Shkup) is the capital and List of cities in North Macedonia by population, largest city of North Macedonia. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre. The territory of S ...

Skopje
, North Macedonia (1967) *
Ostrava Ostrava (; pl, Ostrawa; german: Ostrau ) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is ...

Ostrava
, Czech Republic (1971) *
Brazzaville Brazzaville (, kg, Kintamo, Nkuna, Kintambo, Mavula; Teke: ''Mfwa'', ''Mfoa'', ''M'fa'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in ...
, Congo (1975) *
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
, Italy (1978) *
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
, Germany (1987) *
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2n ...

Rotterdam
, Netherlands (1988) *
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...

Strasbourg
, France (1990) *
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...

Salzburg
, Austria (1991) *
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
, United States (1992) *
Hangzhou Hangzhou (, , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingua franca A lingua franca (; ...

Hangzhou
, China (2009)


Friendly cities

Dresden also has friendly relations with: *
Daejeon Daejeon () is South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, r ...

Daejeon
, South Korea * Gostyń, Poland *
Shiraz Shiraz (; fa, شیراز, Šîrâz ) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or So ...

Shiraz
, Iran


Cityscape


Architecture

Although Dresden is often said to be a
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
city, its architecture is influenced by more than one style. Other eras of importance are the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
and
Historicism Historicism is the idea of attributing significance to elements of space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture, in order to contextualize theories, narratives and other interpretative instruments. The term "his ...
, as well as the contemporary styles of
Modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
and
Postmodernism Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of philosophical skepticism, skepticism toward what it describes as the meta-narrative, grand narratives and ideology, ideologies of modernism, as well as oppos ...
. Dresden has some 13,000 listed cultural monuments and eight districts under general preservation orders.


Royal household

The
Dresden Castle Dresden Castle or Royal Palace (german: Dresdner Residenzschloss or ) is one of the oldest buildings in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German Stat ...

Dresden Castle
was the seat of the royal household from 1485. The wings of the building have been renewed, built upon and restored many times. Due to this integration of styles, the castle is made up of elements of the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
,
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...

Baroque
and
Classicist Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...
styles. The Zwinger Palace is across the road from the castle. It was built on the old stronghold of the city and was converted to a centre for the royal art collections and a place to hold festivals. Its gate by the moat is surmounted by a golden crown. Other royal buildings and ensembles: *
Brühl's Terrace Brühl's Terrace (german: Brühlsche Terrasse) is a historic architectural ensemble in Dresden, Germany. Nicknamed "The Balcony of Europe", the terrace stretches high above the shore of the river Elbe. Located north of the recently rebuilt Neumarkt ...

Brühl's Terrace
was a gift to Heinrich, count von Brühl, and became an ensemble of buildings above the river Elbe. *
Dresden Elbe Valley The Dresden Elbe Valley is a cultural landscape and former World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cult ...
with the
Pillnitz Castle Pillnitz Palace (german: Schloss Pillnitz) is a restored Baroque architecture, Baroque schloss at the eastern end of the city of Dresden in the German state of Saxony. It is located on the bank of the River Elbe in the former village of Pillnitz. ...
and other castles


Sacred buildings

The was the church of the royal household. Augustus the Strong, who desired to be
King of Poland Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes and princes (10th to 14th centuries) or by kings (11th to 18th centuries). During the latter period, a tradition of Royal elections in Poland, free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electab ...
, converted to Catholicism, as Polish kings had to be Catholic. At that time Dresden was strictly Protestant. Augustus the Strong ordered the building of the Hofkirche, the Roman Catholic Cathedral, to establish a sign of Roman Catholic religious importance in Dresden. The church is the cathedral "Sanctissimae Trinitatis" since 1980. The crypt of the
Wettin Dynasty The House of Wettin () is a dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of Univ ...
is located within the church. King Augustus III of Poland is buried in the cathedral, as one of very few Polish Kings to be buried outside the
Wawel Cathedral The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and WenceslausWenceslaus, Wenceslas and ''Wenzslaus'' (and other similar) are Latinized forms of the Slavic name (in different forms) cz, VáclavVáclav () is a Czech male first name of Slav ...

Wawel Cathedral
in
Kraków Kraków (, also , , ), written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula, Vistula River in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Lesser Poland Province, t ...

Kraków
. In contrast to the Hofkirche, the Lutheran located at the Neumarkt was built almost contemporaneously by the citizens of Dresden. The city's historic Kreuzkirche was reconsecrated in 1388. There are also other churches in Dresden, for example the
Russian Orthodox , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, Russia , abbreviation = ROC , type ...

Russian Orthodox
St. Simeon of the Wonderful Mountain Church in the Südvorstadt district.


Historicism

Historicist Historicism is an approach to Explanation, explaining the existence of Phenomenon, phenomena, especially social and cultural practices (including ideas and beliefs), by studying their history, that is, by studying the process by which they came abo ...
buildings made their presence felt on the cityscape until the 1920s. Notable examples of
Renaissance Revival Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival The Greek Revival was an architectural upright=1.45, alt=Plan d ...
architecture in Dresden include the
Albertinum The Albertinum () is a modern art museum. The sandstone-clad Renaissance Revival architecture, Renaissance Revival building is located on Brühl's Terrace in the historic center of Dresden, Germany. It is named after King Albert of Saxony. The Alb ...

Albertinum
located at Brühl's Terrace as well as the Saxon State Chancellery and the Saxon State Ministry of Finance located on the northern Elbe river banks. The
Villa Rosa Villa Rosa is a frazione of Martinsicuro in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. Frazioni of the Province of Teramo {{Abruzzo-geo-stub ...
was built in 1839 and was considered one of the most important villa buildings in Dresden, due to its
Renaissance Revival architecture , seat of the Rothschild family, 1874 Renaissance Revival architecture (sometimes referred to as "Neo-Renaissance") is a group of 19th century Revivalism (architecture), architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival architecture ...
.
Yenidze Yenidze is a former cigarette factory building in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most pop ...

Yenidze
is a former cigarette factory building built in the style of a mosque between 1907 and 1909. The most recent historicist buildings in Dresden date from the short era of
Stalinist architecture Stalinist architecture, mostly known in the former Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and South ...
in the 1950s, e.g. at the Altmarkt.


Modernism

The ''Garden City of
Hellerau Hellerau is a northern quarter ''(Stadtteil)'' in the city of Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its sec ...
'', at that time a suburb of Dresden, was founded in 1909. It was Germany's first
garden cityGarden City or Garden Suburb may refer to: Design and planning *Garden city movement, emphasizing self-contained communities surrounded by "greenbelts" *Town and Country Planning Association, originally known as the Garden City Association Plac ...
. In 1911,
Heinrich Tessenow Heinrich Tessenow (7 April 1876 – 1 November 1950) was a German architect, professor, and urban planner An urban planner is a professional who practices in the field of urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, to ...
built the (festival theatre). Until the outbreak of World War I, Hellerau was a centre for European
modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
with international standing. In 1950, Hellerau was incorporated into the city of Dresden. Today, the Hellerau reform architecture is recognized as exemplary. In the 1990s, the garden city of Hellerau became a
conservation area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...

conservation area
. The German Hygiene Museum (built 1928–1930) is a signal example of
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable ...

modern architecture
in Dresden in the interwar period. The building is designed in an impressively monumental style, but employs plain façades and simple structures. Important modernist buildings erected between 1945 and 1990 are the Centrum-Warenhaus (a large
department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics) ...
), representing the international Style, and the multi-purpose hall
Kulturpalast The Kulturpalast Dresden () is a Modern architecture, modernist building built by Wolfgang Hänsch during the era of the German Democratic Republic. It was the largest multi-purpose hall in Dresden when it opened in 1969, and was used for concerts, ...
.


Contemporary architecture

After 1990 and German reunification, new styles emerged. Important contemporary buildings include the New Synagogue, a
postmodern Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
building with few windows, the
Transparent Factory The Transparent Factory is a car factory and exhibition space in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its s ...
, the Saxon State Parliament and the New Terrace, the UFA-Kristallpalast cinema by
Coop Himmelb(l)au Coop Himmelb(l)au is an architecture, urban planning, design, and art firm founded by Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, and Michael Holzer in Vienna, Austria en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate ...
(one of the biggest buildings of
Deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in ...
in Germany), and the
Saxon State Library The Saxon State and University Library Dresden (full name in german: Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden), abbreviated SLUB Dresden, is located in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Uppe ...
.
Daniel Libeskind Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer. Libeskind founded Studio Daniel Libeskind in 1989 with his wife, Nina, and is its principal design architect. He is known for the design and ...

Daniel Libeskind
and
Norman Foster Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is an English architect and designer. Closely associated with the development of high-tech architecture, Foster is recognised as a key figure in British modernist architec ...
both modified existing buildings. Foster roofed the main railway station with translucent Teflon-coated synthetics. Libeskind changed the whole structure of the
Bundeswehr Military History Museum The Bundeswehr Military History Museum (german: Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr (MHMBw)) is the military museum of the German Armed Forces, the ''Bundeswehr'', and one of the major military history museums in Germany. It is located in a ...
by placing a wedge through the historical arsenal building. According to Libeskind's studio, " e façade’s openness and transparency is intended to contrast with the opacity and rigidity of the existing building."


Bridges

Important bridges crossing the Elbe river are the bridge and the Augustus Bridge.


Statues

Jean-Joseph Vinache Jean-Joseph Vinache (1696 – 1 December 1754) was a French sculptor who served as court sculptor to ''Kurfürst'' Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony Augustus II; lt, Augustas II; in Saxony also known as Frederick Augustus I – Friedrich Au ...
's golden
equestrian statue An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin ''eques'', meaning 'knight', deriving from ''equus'', meaning 'horse'. A statue of a riderless horse is strictly an equine statue. A full-sized equestrian statue is a d ...
of August the Strong, the ''Goldener Reiter'' (Golden Cavalier), is on the Neustädter Markt square. It shows August at the beginning of the Hauptstraße (Main street) on his way to Warsaw, where he was King of Poland in personal union. Another statue is the memorial of
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citiz ...

Martin Luther
in front of the Frauenkirche.


Parks and gardens

Großer Garten The Großer Garten (English: Great Garden) is a Baroque style park in central Dresden. It is rectangular in shape and covers about 1.8 km². Originally established in 1676 on the orders of John George III, Elector of Saxony, it has been a pub ...

Großer Garten
is a
Baroque garden The Baroque garden was a style of garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthes ...
in central Dresden. It includes the
Dresden Zoo Dresden Zoo or Zoo Dresden, is a zoo situated in the city of Dresden, Germany. It was opened in 1861, making it Germany's fourth oldest zoo. It was originally designed by Peter Joseph Lenné. The zoo is located on the southern edge of the Große ...
and the Dresden Botanical Garden. The
Dresden Heath The Dresden Heath (german: Dresdner Heide) is a large forest in the city of Dresden. The heath is the most important recreation area in the city and is also actively forested. Approximately 6,133 hectares of the Dresden Heath are designated as a n ...
is a large forest located in the northeast of Dresden and one of the city's most important recreation areas. The park of Pillnitz Palace is famous for its botanical treasures, including a more than 230-year-old and about 400 potted plants.


Main sights

File:Dresden-Frauenkirche-night.jpg,
Dresden Frauenkirche The Dresden Frauenkirche (german: Dresdner Frauenkirche, , ''Church of Our Lady'') is a Evangelical Church in Germany, Lutheran church in Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony. An earlier church building was Catholic until it beca ...

Dresden Frauenkirche
File:Dresden-Zwinger.courtyard.07.JPG, Zwinger Palace File:Dresden Germany Exterior-of-Semperoper-01.jpg,
Semperoper The Semperoper () is the opera house An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usuall ...

Semperoper
File:Dresden - Blick auf die Altstadt.jpg, Dresden New Town Hall File:Akademie. Dresden.jpg,
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts The Dresden Academy of Fine Arts ( German ''Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden''), often abbreviated HfBK Dresden or simply HfBK, is a vocational university of visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, print ...
File:Dresden Kreuzkirche 2008.jpg,
Kreuzkirche, Dresden The Dresden Kreuzkirche (Church of the Holy Cross) is a Protestant Church in Germany (EKD), Lutheran church in Dresden, Germany. It is the main church and seat of the ''Landesbischof'' of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony, and the largest ...
File:Dresden Fürstenzug 065.JPG, Fürstenzug File:Dresden-Muenzgasse1.jpg, Münzgasse at Neumarkt File:DD-Schloss-gp.jpg,
Dresden Castle Dresden Castle or Royal Palace (german: Dresdner Residenzschloss or ) is one of the oldest buildings in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German Stat ...

Dresden Castle
File:Dresden-Hofkirche.04.jpg, Katholische Hofkirche File:Dresden-Yenidze-night.jpg,
Yenidze Yenidze is a former cigarette factory building in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its second most pop ...

Yenidze
at night File:Dresden_Aeussere_Neustadt.jpg, Äußere Neustadt, Dresden-Neustadt File:Pillnitz13.jpg,
Pillnitz Castle Pillnitz Palace (german: Schloss Pillnitz) is a restored Baroque architecture, Baroque schloss at the eastern end of the city of Dresden in the German state of Saxony. It is located on the bank of the River Elbe in the former village of Pillnitz. ...
File:Hygienemuseum.jpg, German Hygiene Museum File:Militärhistorisches_Museum_der_Bundeswehr_October_2011.jpg,
Bundeswehr Military History Museum The Bundeswehr Military History Museum (german: Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr (MHMBw)) is the military museum of the German Armed Forces, the ''Bundeswehr'', and one of the major military history museums in Germany. It is located in a ...
File:Blaueswunder01.jpg, Blue Wonder File:Nymphenbad_1.JPG, ''Nymphenbad'' File:Luftbildaufnahme des Großen Gartens in Dresden.jpg,
Großer Garten The Großer Garten (English: Great Garden) is a Baroque style park in central Dresden. It is rectangular in shape and covers about 1.8 km². Originally established in 1676 on the orders of John George III, Elector of Saxony, it has been a pub ...

Großer Garten


Culture

Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner had a number of their works performed for the first time in Dresden. Other artists, such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Richard Strauss, Gottfried Semper and Gret Palucca, were also active in the city. Dresden is also home to several art collections and musical ensembles.


Entertainment

The Saxon State Opera descends from the opera company of the former electors and Kings of Saxony. Their first opera house was the Opernhaus am Taschenberg, opened in 1667. The Opernhaus am Zwinger presented opera from 1719 to 1756, when the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
began. The later
Semperoper The Semperoper () is the opera house An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usuall ...

Semperoper
was completely destroyed during the bombing of Dresden during the second world war. The opera's reconstruction was completed exactly 40 years later, on 13 February 1985. Its musical ensemble is the ''Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden'', founded in 1548. The Staatsschauspiel Dresden, Dresden State Theatre runs a number of smaller theatres. The Dresden State Operetta is the only independent operetta in Germany. The ''Herkuleskeule'' (Hercules club (weapon), club) is an important site in Kabarett, German-speaking political cabaret. There are several choirs in Dresden, the best-known of which is the Dresdner Kreuzchor (Choir of Christian cross, The Holy Cross). It is a boys' choir drawn from pupils of the Kreuzschule, and was founded in the 13th century. The ''Dresdner Kapellknaben'' are not related to the ''Staatskapelle'', but to the former ''Hofkapelle'', the Catholic cathedral, since 1980. The Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra is the orchestra of the city of Dresden. Throughout the summer, the outdoor concert series "Zwingerkonzerte und Mehr" is held in the Zwinger (Dresden), ''Zwingerhof''. Performances include dance and music. There are several small cinemas presenting cult films and low-budget or low-profile films chosen for their cultural value. Dresden also has a few multiplex cinemas, of which the Rundkino is the oldest. Dresden's
Striezelmarkt The Striezelmarkt in Dresden is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. Founded as a one-day market in 1434, it celebrated its 585th anniversary in 2019. Its 240 stands attract about 3 million visitors from all over the world. ...
is one of the largest
Christmas market A Christmas market, also known as ''Christkindlmarkt'' (literally: ''Christ Child Market'', but the term "Christkind" usually refers to an angel-like "spirit of Christmas" rather than literally the Christ Child), ''Christkindlesmarkt'', ''Christ ...
s in Germany. Founded as a one-day market in 1434, it is considered the first genuine Christmas market in the world. A big event each year in June is the Bunte Republik Neustadt, a culture festival lasting three days in the city district of Innere Neustadt (Dresden), Dresden-Neustadt. Bands play live concerts for free in the streets and there are refreshments and food.


Museums

Dresden hosts the ''Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden'' (Dresden State Art Collections) which, according to the institution's own statements, place it among the most important museums presently in existence. The art collections consist of twelve museums, including the ''Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister'' (Old Masters Gallery) and the ''
Grünes Gewölbe The Green Vault (german: Grünes Gewölbe) is a museum located in Dresden, Germany, which contains the largest treasure collection in Europe. The museum was founded in 1723 by Augustus II the Strong, Augustus the Strong of Poland and Electorate of ...
'' (Green Vault) and the ''Japanese Palace'' (Japanisches Palais). Also known are ''Galerie Neue Meister'' (New Masters Gallery), ''Dresden Armory, Rüstkammer'' (Armoury) with the Dresden Armory#Turkish Chamber, Turkish Chamber, and the ''Dresden Museum of Ethnology, Museum für Völkerkunde Dresden'' (Museum of Ethnology). Other museums and collections owned by the Free State of Saxony in Dresden are: * The ''German Hygiene Museum, Deutsche Hygiene-Museum'', founded for mass education in hygiene, health, human biology and medicine * The ''Landesmuseum für Vorgeschichte'' (State Museum of Prehistory) * The ''Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden'' (Senckenberg Natural History Collections Dresden) * The ''Universitätssammlung Kunst + Technik'' (Collection of Art and Technology of the Dresden University of Technology) * ''Dresden Transport Museum, Verkehrsmuseum Dresden'' (Transport Museum) * ''Festung Dresden'' (Dresden Fortress) * ''Panometer Dresden (Dresden Panometer)'' (Panorama museum) The Dresden City Museum is run by the city of Dresden and focused on the city's history. The
Bundeswehr Military History Museum The Bundeswehr Military History Museum (german: Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr (MHMBw)) is the military museum of the German Armed Forces, the ''Bundeswehr'', and one of the major military history museums in Germany. It is located in a ...
is placed in the former garrison in the Albertstadt. The book museum of the
Saxon State Library The Saxon State and University Library Dresden (full name in german: Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden), abbreviated SLUB Dresden, is located in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Uppe ...
presents the Dresden Codex. The Kraszewski Museum is a museum dedicated to the most prolific Poles, Polish writer Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, who lived in Dresden from 1863 to 1883.


Transport


Roads

The Bundesautobahn 4 (European route E40) crosses Dresden in the northwest from west to east. The Bundesautobahn 17 leaves the A4 in a south-eastern direction. In Dresden it begins to cross the Ore Mountains towards Prague. The Bundesautobahn 13 leaves from the three-point interchange "Dresden-Nord" and goes to Berlin. The A13 and the A17 are on the European route E55. In addition, several Bundesstraßen (federal highways) run through Dresden.


Rail

There are two main inter-city transit hubs in the railway network in Dresden: Dresden Hauptbahnhof and Dresden-Neustadt railway station. The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague, Leipzig and Chemnitz. A Regional rail, commuter train system (Dresden S-Bahn) operates on three lines alongside the long-distance routes.


Aviation

Dresden Airport is the city's international airport, located at the north-western outskirts of the city. After German reunification the airport's infrastructure has been considerably improved. In 1998, a motorway access route was opened. In March 2001, a new terminal building was opened along with the underground Dresden S-Bahn, S-Bahn station Dresden Flughafen station, Dresden Flughafen, a multi-storey car park and a new aircraft handling ramp.


Trams

Dresden has a Trams in Dresden, large tramway network operated by Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe, the municipal transport company. The Transport Authority operates twelve lines on a network. Many of the new low floor, low-floor vehicles are up to 45 metres long and produced by Bombardier Transportation in Bautzen. While about 30% of the system's lines are on reserved track (often sown with grass to avoid noise), many tracks still run on the streets, especially in the inner city. The CarGoTram is a tram that supplies Volkswagen's
Transparent Factory The Transparent Factory is a car factory and exhibition space in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its s ...
, crossing the city. The transparent factory is located not far from the city centre next to the city's largest park. The districts of Loschwitz and Weisser Hirsch are connected by the Dresden Funicular Railway, which has been carrying passengers back and forth since 1895.


Economy

Until enterprises like Dresdner Bank left Dresden in the communist era to avoid nationalisation, Dresden was one of the most important German cities, an important industrial centre of the German Democratic Republic. The period of the German Democratic Republic, GDR until 1990 was characterized by low economic growth in comparison to western German cities. In 1990 Dresden had to struggle with the economic collapse of Soviet Union, the Soviet Union and the other export markets in Eastern Europe. After reunification enterprises and production sites broke down almost completely as they entered the social market economy, facing competition from the Federal Republic of Germany. After 1990 a completely new legal system and currency system was introduced and infrastructure was largely rebuilt with funds from the Federal Republic of Germany. Dresden as a major urban centre has developed much faster and more consistently than most other regions in the former German Democratic Republic. Between 1990 and 2010 the unemployment, unemployment rate fluctuated between 13% and 15%, but has decreased significantly ever since. In December 2019 the unemployment rate was 5.3%, the fourth lowest among the 15 largest cities of Germany (after
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
, Stuttgart and Nuremberg). In 2017, the Gross domestic product, GDP per capita of Dresden was 39,134 euros, the highest in Saxony. Thanks to the presence of public administration centres, a high density of semi-public research institutes and an extension of publicly funded high technology sectors, the proportion of highly qualified workers Dresden is again among the highest in Germany and by European criteria. In 2019, Dresden had the seventh-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, after being ranked fourth in 2017. According to the 2019 study by Forschungsinstitut Prognos, Dresden is one of the most dynamic regions in Germany. It ranks at number 41 of all 401 German regions and second of all regions in former East Germany (only surpassed by Jena).


Enterprises

Three major sectors dominate Dresden's economy:
Silicon Saxony Silicon Saxony is a registered industry association of nearly 300 companies in the microelectronics and related sectors in Saxony, Germany, with around 40,000 employees. Many, but not all, of those firms are situated in the north of Dresden. Wit ...
Saxony's semiconductor industry was built up in 1969. Major enterprises today include Advanced Micro Devices, AMD's semiconductor fabrication spin-off GlobalFoundries, Infineon Technologies, ZMDI and Toppan Photomasks. Their factories attract many suppliers of material and cleanroom technology enterprises to Dresden. The pharmaceutical sector developed at the end of the 19th century. The 'Sächsisches Serumwerk Dresden' (Saxon Serum Plant, Dresden), owned by GlaxoSmithKline, is a global leader in vaccine production. Another traditional pharmaceuticals producer is Arzneimittelwerke Dresden (Pharmaceutical Works, Dresden). A third traditional branch is that of mechanical and electrical engineering. Major employers are the Volkswagen
Transparent Factory The Transparent Factory is a car factory and exhibition space in Dresden Dresden (, ; wen, label=Sorbian languages, Upper and Lower Sorbian, Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony and its s ...
, Elbe Flugzeugwerke (Elbe Aircraft Works), Siemens AG, Siemens and The Linde Group, Linde-KCA-Dresden. The tourism industry enjoys high revenue and supports many employees. There are around one hundred bigger hotels in Dresden, many of which cater in the upscale range. Dresden still has a shortage of corporate headquarters.


Media

The media in Dresden include two major newspapers of regional record: the ''Sächsische Zeitung'' (''Saxon Newspaper'', circulation around 228,000) and the ''Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten'' (''Dresden's Latest News'', circulation around 50,000). Dresden has a broadcasting centre belonging to the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. The ''Dresdner Druck- und Verlagshaus'' (Dresden printing plant and publishing house) produces part of Der Spiegel, Spiegel's print run, amongst other newspapers and magazines.


Education and science


Universities

Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German cities it is a more recent location for academic education. * The
Dresden University of Technology TU Dresden (for german: Technische Universität Dresden, abbreviated as TUD and often wrongly translated as "Dresden University of Technology") is a public research university, the largest institute of higher education in the city of Dresden ...
(Technische Universität Dresden, abbreviated as TU Dresden or TUD) with more than 36,000 students (2011) was founded in 1828 and is among the oldest and largest University of Technology, Universities of Technology in Germany. It is currently the university of technology in Germany with the largest number of students but also has many courses in social studies, economics and other non-technical sciences. It offers 126 courses. In 2006, the TU Dresden was successful in the
German Universities Excellence Initiative 350px, Map showing Germany's eleven elite "Universities of Excellence", in 2012 The Excellence Initiative of the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Research Foundation aims to promote cutting-edge research and to create out ...
of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany). * The Dresden University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden) was founded in 1992 and had about 5,300 students in 2005. * The
Dresden Academy of Fine Arts The Dresden Academy of Fine Arts ( German ''Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden''), often abbreviated HfBK Dresden or simply HfBK, is a vocational university of visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, print ...
(Hochschule für Bildende Künste Dresden) was founded in 1764 and is known for its former professors and artists such as George Grosz, Sascha Schneider, Otto Dix, Oskar Kokoschka, Bernardo Bellotto, Carl-Gustav Carus, Caspar David Friedrich and Gerhard Richter. * The Palucca School of Dance (Palucca Hochschule für Tanz) was founded by Gret Palucca in 1925 and is a major European school of free dance. * The Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber Dresden, Carl Maria von Weber College of Music was founded in 1856. Other universities include the ''Hochschule für Kirchenmusik'', a school specialising in Christian music, church music, and the ''Evangelische Hochschule für Sozialarbeit'', an education institution for social work. The ''Dresden International University'' is a private postgraduate university, founded in 2003 in cooperation with the Dresden University of Technology.


Research institutes

Dresden hosts many research institutes, some of which have gained an international standing. The domains of most importance are micro- and nanoelectronics, transport and infrastructure systems, material and photonic technology, and bio-engineering. The institutes are well connected among one other as well as with the academic education institutions. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is the largest complex of research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban areas. It focuses on nuclear medicine and physics. As part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Helmholtz Association it is one of the German Big Science research centres. The Max Planck Society focuses on research, fundamental research. There are three Max Planck Institutes (MPI) in Dresden: the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, MPI of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, MPI for Chemical Physics of Solids, and the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, MPI for the Physics of Complex Systems. The Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also offer mission-oriented research to enterprises. With eleven institutions or parts of institutes, Dresden is the largest location of the Fraunhofer Society worldwide. The Fraunhofer Society has become an important factor in location decisions and is seen as a useful part of the "knowledge infrastructure". The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community, Leibniz Community is a union of institutes with science covering fundamental research and applied research. In Dresden there are three Leibniz Institutes. The Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research and the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research are both in the material and high tech, high-technology domain, while the Leibniz Institute for Ecological and Regional Development is focused on more fundamental research into urban planning. The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf was member of the Leibniz Community until the end of 2010.


Higher secondary education

Dresden has more than 20 Gymnasium (Germany), gymnasia which prepare for a tertiary education, five of which are private. The ''Sächsisches Landesgymnasium für Musik'' with a focus on music is supported, as its name implies by the State of Saxony, rather than by the city. There are some ''Berufliche Gymnasien'' which combine vocational education and secondary education and a ''Abendgymnasium'' which prepares higher education of adults avocational.


Sport

Dresden is home to Dynamo Dresden, which had a tradition in European Cup and Champions League history, UEFA club competitions up to the early 1990s. Dynamo Dresden won eight titles in the DDR-Oberliga. Currently, the club is a member of the 2. Bundesliga after some seasons in the Bundesliga and 3. Liga. In the early 20th century, the city was represented by Dresdner SC, who were one of Germany's most successful clubs in football. Their best performances came during World War II, when they were twice German German football champions, champions, and twice DFB Pokal, Cup winners. Dresdner SC is a multisport club. While its football team plays in the sixth-tier Landesliga Sachsen, its volleyball section has a team in the women's Bundesliga (volleyball), Bundesliga. Dresden has a third association football, football team SC Borea Dresden. Dresdner Eislöwen, ESC Dresdner Eislöwen is an ice hockey club playing in the second-tier ice hockey league DEL2. Dresden Monarchs are an American football team in the German Football League. The Dresden Titans are the city's top basketball team. Due to good performances, they have moved up several divisions and currently play in Germany's second division ProA. The Titans' home arena is the Margon Arena. Since 1890, horse races have taken place and the Dresdener Rennverein 1890 e.V. are active and one of the big sporting events in Dresden. Major sporting facilities in Dresden are the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion, the Heinz-Steyer-Stadion and the EnergieVerbund Arena for ice hockey.


Quality of life

According to the 2017 Global Least & Most Stressful Cities Ranking, Dresden was one of the least stressful cities in the world. It was ranked 15th out of 150 cities worldwide and above Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Dortmund, Cologne, Frankfurt, and Berlin.


Notable people

* Georg Bartisch (c. 1535–1607), eye surgeon and author of first German-language textbook of ophthalmology * Gerhart Baum (b. 1932), politician (FDP) * Amelie Beese (1886–1925), aviator * Christine Bergmann (b. 1939), politician (SPD) * August Buchner (1591–1661), influential Baroque poet * Andreas von Bülow (b. 1937), politician and writer * Thomas Fritsch (1944–2021) film, television and dubbing actor * Siegfried Geißler (1929–2014), composer, conductor, hornist and politician * Carle Hessay (1911–1978), Canadian painter * Peter Hoffmann (historian), Peter Hoffmann (b. 1930), historian * Andrea Ihle (b. 1953), operatic soprano * Max Immelmann (1890–1916), World War I fighter pilot, also first pilot awarded the Pour Le Merite, known as the “Blue Max” in his honor * Annette Jahns (1958–2020), operatic mezzo-soprano and contralto, and opera director * Erich Kästner (1899–1974), author of books * Christoph M. Kimmich (b. 1939), German-American historian and eighth President of Brooklyn College * Katja Kipping (b. 1978), politician (The Left) * Victor Klemperer (1881–1960) Jewish author of ''I Will Bear Witness'' * Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel (1809–1885), Prussian general field marshal * Paul Miersch (1868–1956), composer * Siarhei Mikhalok (b. 1972), Belarusian rock musician and actor *Wolfgang Mischnick (1921–2002), politician (FDP) *
Augustus III of Poland Augustus III ( pl, August III Sas, lt, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located i ...

Augustus III of Poland
(1696–1763), Elector of Saxony and King of Poland * Karl Reinisch (1921–2007), engineer * Gerhard Richter (b. 1932), painter * Ludwig Richter (1803–1884), painter * Gernot Roll (1939–2020), cinematographer, film director and script writer * Matthias Sammer (b. 1967), footballer and football coach * Ad Santel (1887–1966), professional wrestler * Albert of Saxony (1828–1902), King of Saxony * Anthony of Saxony (1755–1836), King of Saxony * Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (1750–1827), King of Saxony *
Frederick Augustus II of Saxony , image = Friedrich August II of Saxony.jpg , caption = Potrait by Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein , image_size = 220px , reign = 6 June 1836 – 9 August 1854 , coronation = , predecessor = Anthony of ...
(1797–1854), King of Saxony * Frederick Augustus III of Saxony (1865–1932), King of Saxony * George, King of Saxony (1832–1904), King of Saxony * John of Saxony (1801–1873), King of Saxony * Helmut Schön (1915–1996), football coach * Edith Schönert-Geiß (1933–2012), numismatist *
Augustus II the Strong Augustus II; lt, Augustas II; in Saxony also known as Frederick Augustus I – Friedrich August I (12 May 16701 February 1733), most commonly known as Augustus the Strong, was Elector of Saxony from 1694 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duk ...
(1670–1733), Elector of Saxony and King of Poland * Herbert Wehner (1906–1990), politician (SPD) * Fritz Wiessner (1900–1988), pioneer of free climbing *Elsa Laura Wolzogen (1876–1945), composer


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* ''Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945'' by Frederick Taylor, 2005; * ''Dresden and the Heavy Bombers: An RAF Navigator's Perspective'' by Frank Musgrove, 2005; * ''Return to Dresden'' by Maria Ritter, 2004; * ''Dresden: Heute/Today'' by Dieter Zumpe, 2003; * ''Destruction of Dresden'' by David Irving, 1972; * ''Slaughterhouse-Five'' by Kurt Vonnegut, 1970; * ''Disguised Visibilities: Dresden'' by Mark Jarzombek in ''Memory and Architecture'', Ed. By Eleni Bastea, (University of Mexico Press, 2004). * * ''Preserve and Rebuild: Dresden during the Transformations of 1989–1990. Architecture, Citizens Initiatives and Local Identities'' by Victoria Knebel, 2007; * ''La tutela del patrimonio culturale in caso di conflitto'' Fabio Maniscalco (editor), 2002;


Further reading


External links


Official homepage of the city
*
Official tourist office

Homepage of the Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe, the public transport provider

Network maps of the public transport system
* https://web.archive.org/web/20200412221256/http://www.neumarkt-dresden.de/ Organisation for reconstruction of the Neumarkt {{Authority control Dresden, Cities in Saxony German state capitals Kingdom of Saxony Bezirk Dresden Populated places established in the 12th century Holocaust locations in Germany