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Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
. It is bordered by
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a self-declared soverei ...

Somaliland
in the south,
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
in the southwest,
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖 ...

Eritrea
in the north, and the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
and the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden
in the east. Across the Gulf of Aden is
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
. The country has a total area of . In antiquity, the territory together with Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somaliland was part of the
Land of Punt The Land of Punt ( Egyptian: 40px ''wikt:pwnt#Egyptian, pwnt''; alternate Egyptian language#Egyptological pronunciation, Egyptological readings ''Pwene''(''t'') /pu:nt/) was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Ancient Egypt, it was know ...
. Nearby
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
, now in Somaliland, was the seat of the medieval
Adal Adal may refer to: *A short form for Germanic names in ''aþala-'' (Old High German ''adal-''), "nobility, pedigree"; see Othalan ** Adál Maldonado (born 1948), Puerto Rican artist **Adal Ramones (born 1969), Mexican television show host **Ad ...
and Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony of
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is its legal successor s ...
was established following treaties signed by the ruling
Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the Roman emperors from 27 BC to 1453 AD * Detroit International Riverfront, an area of Detroit, Michigan in the United States * Develop ...
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
sultans with the French and its
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface ...
to
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, ድሬዳዋ, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diri Dhaba, meaning "where Dir (clan), Dir hit his spear into the ground" or "The true Dir", ar, ديري داوا) is a city in eastern Ethiopia near the Som ...
(and later
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the capital city, capital and largest city of Ethiopia. According to the 2007 census, the city has a populatio ...
) allowed it to quickly supersede
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
as the port for southern
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
and the
Ogaden Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled ''Ogadēn''; so, Ogaadeen) is one of the three historical names given to the modern Somali Region The Somali Regional State ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, የሶማሌ ክልል, ar, المن ...
. It was subsequently renamed to the
French Territory of the Afars and the Issas The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (french: Territoire français des Afars et des Issas) was the name given to present-day Djibouti Djibouti ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti , officially the Republi ...
in 1967. A decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of the ''Republic of Djibouti'', named after its
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a country, Constituent state, state, province, Department (country subdivision), department, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capital ...
. The new state joined the United Nations the same year, on 20 September 1977. In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to
armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...
, which ended in a power-sharing agreement in 2000 between the ruling party and the opposition. Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of over 921,804 inhabitants ( the smallest in mainland Africa). French and Arabic are the country's two official languages, Afar and Somali are national languages. About 94% of residents adhere to
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
, which is the official religion and has been predominant in the region for more than a thousand years. The
Somalis Somalis ( so, Soomaalida) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the shared mother tongue of ethnic Somalis, which is part of the ...

Somalis
and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups, with the former comprising the majority of the population. Both speak the
Cushitic The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜 ...
branch of the
Afroasiatic languages Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...
. Djibouti is strategically located near some of the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
and
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia (continent), Australia to the east. To the so ...

Indian Ocean
. It serves as a key refuelling and transshipment center, and is the principal maritime port for imports from and exports to neighboring
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various foreign military bases. The
Intergovernmental Authority on Development The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is an eight-country trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and N ...
(IGAD) regional body also has its headquarters in Djibouti City.


Name and etymology

''Djibouti'' is officially known as the ''Republic of Djibouti''. In local languages it is known as ''Yibuuti'' (in Afar) and ''Jabuuti'' (in
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
). The country is named for its capital, the City of Djibouti. The etymology of the name is disputed. Several theories and legends exist regarding its origin, varying based on ethnicity. One theory derives it from the Afar word , meaning "plate", possibly referring to the geographical features of the area. Another connects it to ''gabood'', meaning "upland/plateau". Djibouti could also mean "Land of ''Tehuti''" or "Land of
Thoth Thoth (; from grc-koi, Θώθ ', borrowed from cop, Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ, the reflex of egy, wikt:ḏḥwtj, ḏḥwtj " eis like the Ibis") is an ancient Egyptian deity. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an African sacred ...

Thoth
(
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
: ''Djehuti''/ ''Djehuty'')", after the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...
Moon God. From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
was called "
Obock Obock (also Obok, aa, Hayyú) is a small port town in Djibouti. It is located on the northern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, where it opens out into the Gulf of Aden. The town is home to an airstrip and has ferries to Djibouti City, while man ...

Obock
". Under French administration, from 1883 to 1967 the area was known as
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is its legal successor s ...
(French: ''Côte française des Somalis''), and from 1967 to 1977 as the
French Territory of the Afars and the Issas The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (french: Territoire français des Afars et des Issas) was the name given to present-day Djibouti Djibouti ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti , officially the Republi ...
(French: ''Territoire français des Afars et des Issas'').


History


Prehistory

The
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Micha ...
region has often been considered a primary crossing point for early hominins following a southern coastal route from
East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including ...
to
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

South
and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
. The Djibouti area has been inhabited since the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
. According to linguists, the first
Afroasiatic Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...
-speaking populations arrived in the region during this period from the family's proposed
urheimat In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes ...
("original homeland") in the
Nile Valley The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In som ...

Nile Valley
, or the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental r ...
. Other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Cut stones dated about 3 million years old have been collected in the area of
Lake Abbe Lake Abbe, also known as Lake Abhe Bad, is a salt lake (geography), salt lake, lying on the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. It is one of a chain of six connected lakes, which also includes (from north to south) lakes Lake Gargori, Gargori, Lake Laitali, ...
. In the Gobaad plain (between Dikhil and Lake Abbe), the remains of a Palaeoloxodon recki elephant were also discovered, visibly butchered using basalt tools found nearby. These remains would date from 1.4 million years BCE. Subsequently, other similar sites were identified as probably the work of
Homo ergaster ''Homo ergaster'' is an extinct species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest ...

Homo ergaster
. An
Acheulean . The types shown are (clockwise from top) cordate, ficron, and ovate. in Nice, France as postulated by Henry de Lumley dated to 400 thousand years ago. Acheulean (; also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French ''acheuléen'' after the ty ...
site (from 800,000 to 400,000 years BCE), where
stone A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks form the Earth's outer solid layer, th ...

stone
was cut, was excavated in the 1990s, in Gombourta, between Damerdjog and Loyada, 15 km south of
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
. Finally, in Gobaad, a
Homo erectus ''Homo erectus'' (meaning " upright man") is an extinct species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ofte ...

Homo erectus
jaw was found, dating from 100,000 BCE. On
Devil's Island The penal colony of Cayenne ( French: ''Bagne de Cayenne''), commonly known as Devil's Island (''Île du Diable''), was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation Islands of French Guiana French Gu ...

Devil's Island
, tools dating back 6,000 years have been found, which were used to open shells. In the area at the bottom of (Dankalélo, not far from Devil's Island), circular stone structures and fragments of painted
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcel ...

pottery
have also been discovered. Previous investigators have also reported a fragmentary maxilla, attributed to an older form of
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal ...

Homo sapiens
and dated to ~250 Ka, from the valley of the Dagadlé Wadi. Pottery predating the mid-2nd millennium has been found at Asa Koma, an inland lake area on the Gobaad Plain. The site's ware is characterized by punctate and incision geometric designs, which bear a similarity to the Sabir culture phase 1 ceramics from Ma'layba in
Southern Arabia South Arabia also known as Greater Yemen is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior an ...
. Long-horned humpless cattle bones have likewise been discovered at Asa Koma, suggesting that domesticated cattle were present by around 3,500 years ago. Rock art of what appear to be antelopes and a giraffe are also found at Dorra and Balho. Handoga, dated to the fourth millennium BCE, has in turn yielded obsidian microliths and plain ceramics used by early nomadic pastoralists with domesticated cattle. The site of Wakrita is a small
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
establishment located on a
wadi Wadi ( ar, وَادِي, wādī), alternatively ''wād'' ( ar, وَاد), North African Arabic Oued, is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, w ...

wadi
in the tectonic depression of Gobaad in Djibouti in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
. The 2005 excavations yielded abundant ceramics that enabled us to define one Neolithic cultural facies of this
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...

region
, which was also identified at the nearby site of Asa Koma. The faunal remains confirm the importance of fishing in Neolithic settlements close to Lake Abbé, but also the importance of bovine husbandry and, for the first time in this area, evidence for caprine herding practices. Radiocarbon dating places this occupation at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, similar in range to Asa Koma. These two sites represent the oldest evidence of herding in the region, and they provide a better understanding of the development of Neolithic societies in this region. Up to 4000 years BCE, the region benefited from a climate very different from the one it knows today and probably close to the
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters. The climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and ...
. The water resources were numerous with lakes in Gobaad, lakes Assal and Abbé larger and resembling real bodies of water. The humans therefore lived by gathering, fishing and hunting. The region was populated by a very rich fauna:
felines The Felinae are a subfamily of the Family (biology), family Felidae. This subfamily comprises the small cats having a bony hyoid, because of which they are able to purr but not Roar (vocalization), roar. Other authors proposed an alternative def ...
, es,
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are an paraphyly, informal grouping within the proboscidean F ...
s,
rhino A rhinoceros (, , ), commonly abbreviated to rhino, is a member of any of the five extant species of odd-toed ungulate Odd-toed ungulates, mammals which constitute the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic Order (biology), order Perissodactyla (, ...

rhino
s, etc., as evidenced, for example, by the bestiary of cave paintings at Balho. In the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE, few nomads settled around the lakes and practiced fishing and cattle breeding. The burial of an 18-year-old woman, dating from this period, as well as the bones of hunted animals, bone tools and small
jewels A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a ...

jewels
have been unearthed. By about 1500 BCE, the climate was already beginning to change, with sources of fresh water becoming more scarce. Engravings show dromedaries (animal of arid zones), some of which are ridden by armed warriors. The sedentary people now returned to a , nomadic life. Stone
tumuli of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries; originally the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain. File:Sulm valley tumulus.jpg, One of the Sulm valley necropolis A tumulus (plura ...

tumuli
of various shapes and sheltering graves dating from this period have been unearthed all over the territory.


Punt (2,500 BCE)

Together with northern Ethiopia, Somaliland, Eritrea and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Djibouti is considered the most likely location of the territory known to the
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric ...
ians as ''
Punt Punt or punting may refer to: Boats *Punt (boat), a flat-bottomed boat with a square-cut bow developed on the River Thames *Falmouth Quay Punt, a small sailing vessel hired by ships anchored in Falmouth harbour *Norfolk Punt, a type of racing ding ...
'' (or ''Ta Netjeru'', meaning "God's Land"). The first mention of the Land of Punt dates to the 25th century BC. The Puntites were a nation of people who had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the reign of the 5th dynasty Pharaoh
Sahure Sahure (also Sahura, meaning "He who is close to Re") was a pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Bost ...

Sahure
and the 18th dynasty Queen
Hatshepsut Hatshepsut (; also Hatchepsut; Egyptian language, Egyptian: ''wikt:ḥꜣt#Egyptian, ḥꜣt-wikt:špst#Egyptian, špswt'' "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; c. 1507–1458 BC) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the ...

Hatshepsut
. According to the temple murals at
Deir el-Bahari Deir el-Bahari or Dayr al-Bahri ( ar, الدير البحري ''al-Dayr al-Baḥrī'' "the Monastery of the North") is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt Egypt ( ...
, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati.


Macrobians (247 BCE)

The
Macrobians The Macrobians (Μακροβίοι) was an ancient Somali people, Proto-Somali tribal kingdom positioned in the Horn of Africa mentioned by Herodotus.Herodotus, the Histories book 3.114 It is one of the legendary peoples postulated at the extremity ...
(Μακροβίοι) were a legendary people and kingdom positioned in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
mentioned by
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
. Later authors (so
Pliny Pliny may refer to: People from antiquity * Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79), ancient Roman nobleman, scientist, historian, and author of ''Naturalis Historia'' (''Pliny's Natural History'') * Pliny the Younger (died 113), ancient Roman statesman, ...

Pliny
on the authority of
Ctesias Ctesias (; grc, Κτησίας, ''Ktēsíās'', fifth century BC), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Hellenic civilization, Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, who lived during the time that ...
' '' Indika'') place them in
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest ...
instead. It is one of the legendary peoples postulated at the extremity of the known world (from the perspective of the Greeks), in this case in the extreme south, contrasting with the Hyperboreans in the extreme east. Their name is due to their legendary
longevity Image:Comparison gender life expectancy CIA factbook.svg, 400px, Comparison of male and female life expectancy at birth for countries and territories as defined in the 2018 CIA Factbook, with selected bubbles labelled. The green dotted line corresp ...

longevity
, an average person supposedly living to the age of 120. They were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men".Wheeler pg 526 According to Herodotus' account, the
Persian Emperor This article lists the monarchs of Persia (Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to t ...
Cambyses II Cambyses II ( peo, 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 ''Kabūjiya'') was the second King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, wa ...

Cambyses II
upon his conquest of Egypt (525 BC) sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission. The Macrobian ruler, who was elected based at least in part on stature, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to string it, they would have the right to invade his country; but until then, they should thank the gods that the Macrobians never decided to invade their empire.John Kitto, James Taylor, ''The popular cyclopædia of Biblical literature: condensed from the larger work'', (Gould and Lincoln: 1856), p.302.


Kingdom of Adal (900–1285)

The ''Kingdom of Adal'' (also ''Awdal'', ''Adl'', or ''Adel'')Mohamed Haji Mukhtar, ''Historical Dictionary of Somalia'', new edn, African Historical Dictionary Series, 87 (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2003), s.v. ''Awdal'' . 44 was centered around
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
, its capital. It was established by the local
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
tribes in the early 9th century. Zeila attracted merchants from around the world, contributing to the wealth of the city. Zeila is an ancient city and it was one of the earliest cities in the world to embrace
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
, shortly after the hijra.
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
's two-
mihrab Mihrab ( ar, محراب, ', pl. ') is a niche Niche may refer to: Science * Developmental niche, a concept for understanding the cultural context of child development *Ecological niche, a term describing the relational position of an organism ...
Masjid al-Qiblatayn The Masjid al-Qiblatayn ( ar, مسجد القبلتين, lit=Mosque of the Two Qiblas), also spelt Masjid al-Qiblatain, is a mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, i ...
dates to the 7th century, and is the oldest mosque. In the late 9th century,
Al-Yaqubi Aḥmad ibn Abī Ya‘qūb ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb ibn Waḍīḥ al-Ya‘qūbī (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi ( ar, اليعقوبي), was a Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monothei ...
, an Armenian Muslim scholar and traveler, wrote that the Kingdom of Adal was a small wealthy kingdom and that Zeila served as the headquarters for the kingdom, which dated back to the beginning of the century.


Ifat Sultanate (1285–1415)

Through close contacts with the adjacent Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the region became among the first populations on the continent to embrace Islam. The
Ifat Sultanate The Sultanate of Ifat, or Awfat was a medieval Somali Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabi ...
was a Muslim medieval kingdom in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
. Founded in 1285 by the
Walashma dynastyThe Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submi ...
, it was centered in Zeila. Ifat established bases in Djibouti and Somaliland, and from there expanded southward to the
Ahmar Mountains The Ahmar Mountains is a mountain range of the Ethiopian Highlands The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bed ...
. Its
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

Sultan
Umar Walashma (or his son Ali, according to another source) is recorded as having conquered the in 1285. Taddesse Tamrat explains Sultan Umar's military expedition as an effort to consolidate the Muslim territories in the Horn, in much the same way as Emperor
Yekuno Amlak Yekuno Amlak (Ge’ez: ይኩኖ አምላክ); throne name Tasfa Iyasus (Ge’ez: ተስፋ ኢየሱስ) was the Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 10 August 1270 – 19 June 1285), and the founder of the Solomonic dynasty, which lasted until 1974. He was ...

Yekuno Amlak
was attempting to unite the Christian territories in the highlands during the same period. These two states inevitably came into conflict over Shewa and territories further south. A lengthy war ensued, but the Muslim sultanates of the time were not strongly unified. Ifat was finally defeated by Emperor
Amda Seyon I Amda Seyon I, also Amde Tsiyon and other variants, ( gez, ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን , am, āmde ṣiyōn, "Pillar of Zion") was Emperor of Ethiopia (nəgusä nägäst) 1314–1344; throne name Gebre Mesqel ( gez, ገብረ ፡ መስቀል , am, g ...
of Ethiopia in 1332, and withdrew from Shewa.


Adal Sultanate (1415–1577)

According to the 16th-century explorer
Leo Africanus Joannes Leo Africanus (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan Fez, Morocco, al-Fasi, ar, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي; c. 1494 – c. 1554) was a Berbers, Berber Al-Andalus, Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known f ...
, the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the
Bab el Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic language, Arabic: ,  'Gate of Tears') is a strait between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. Name The strait derives ...
and
Cape Guardafui Cape Guardafui ( so, Gees Gardafuul, or Raas Caseyr, or Ras Asir, it, Capo Guardafui) is a headland in the autonomous Puntland Puntland ( so, Buntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland St ...
. It was therefore flanked to the south by the
Ajuran Empire The Ajuran Empire ( so, Saldanadda Ajuuraan, ar, سلطنة الأجورانية), also spelled Ajuuraan Empire, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times in the Horn of Africa that dominated the trade in northern I ...
(Kingdom of Ajuuran) and to the west by the
Abyssinian Empire The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic ''al-Habash''), or just simply known as Ethiopia (; Amharic and Tigrinya language, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ , , Oromo language, Oromo: Itoophiyaa, So ...
(Abassin Empire). Adal is mentioned by name in the 14th century in the context of the battles between the Muslims of the Somali and Afar seaboard and the Abyssinian King
Amda Seyon I Amda Seyon I, also Amde Tsiyon and other variants, ( gez, ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን , am, āmde ṣiyōn, "Pillar of Zion") was Emperor of Ethiopia (nəgusä nägäst) 1314–1344; throne name Gebre Mesqel ( gez, ገብረ ፡ መስቀል , am, g ...
's
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
troops. Adal originally had its capital in the port city of Zeila, situated in the western Awdal region. The polity at the time was an
Emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes Romanization of Arabic, transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is a word of Arabic language, Arabic origin that can refer to a male monarch, aristocratic, aristocrat, holder of high-ranking military or politica ...

Emir
ate in the larger
Ifat Sultanate The Sultanate of Ifat, or Awfat was a medieval Somali Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabi ...

Ifat Sultanate
ruled by the
Walashma dynastyThe Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submi ...
. According to I.M. Lewis, the polity was governed by local dynasties consisting of Afarized Arabs or Arabized Somalis, who also ruled over the similarly established
Sultanate of Mogadishu This article includes a list of successive Muslim states and dynasties from the rise of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and of the Early Muslim conquests which began in 622 CE and continues through to this current day. In the decades after his dea ...
in the Benadir region to the south. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring
Abyssinia The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify ...
. At its height, the Adal kingdom controlled large parts of modern-day Djibouti,
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a self-declared soverei ...

Somaliland
,
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖 ...

Eritrea
and Ethiopia. Between
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
and Loyada are a number of anthropomorphic and phallic
stelae A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek , ''stēlē''. The Greek plural is written , ''stēlai'', but this is only rarely encountered in English. or occasionally stela (plural ''stelas'' or ''stelæ''), ...

stelae
. The structures are associated with graves of rectangular shape flanked by vertical slabs, as also found in
Tiya Tiya is a town in central Ethiopia. It is situated in the Gurage Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region south of Addis Ababa. It is also the location of an Tiya (archaeological site), archaeological site. Demographics Base ...

Tiya
, central
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
. The Djibouti-Loyada stelae are of uncertain age, and some of them are adorned with a T-shaped symbol. Additionally, archaeological excavations at Tiya have yielded tombs. As of 1997, 118 stelae were reported in the area. Along with the stelae in the
Hadiya Zone Hadiya (also transliterated Hadiyya) is a Zone in the Ethiopia Ethiopia (; am, ኢትዮጵያ, , aa, Itiyoophiyaa, gez, ኢትዮጵያ, om , Itoophiyaa, so, Itoobiya, ti , ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republi ...
, the structures are identified by local residents as ''Yegragn Dingay'' or "Gran's stone", in reference to Imam
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi ( so, Axmed Ibraahim al-Qaasi or Ahmed Gurey, Harari: አህመድ ኢብራሂም አል-ጋዚ, ar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي ; c. 1506 – 21 February 1543) was a Somali Imam Imam (; ar, إ ...
(Ahmad "Gurey" or "Gran"), ruler of the
Adal Sultanate The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal or Awdal or Bar Sa'ad ad-din (alt. spelling ''Adel Sultanate'' , ''Awdal Sultanate''), was a Muslim Somalis, Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II aft ...
.


Ottoman Eyalet (1577–1867)

Although nominally part of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
since 1577, between 1821 and 1841,
Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali (; born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, entertainer and philanthropist. Nicknamed The Greatest, he is widely regarded as one of the most significant and c ...
, Pasha of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
, came to control
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
,
Harar Harar ( amh, ሐረር; Gē "the City", om, Harar, ar, هرر) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Wali, Saints ( ar, مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء). Harar is the capital of the East Hararghe Zone ...

Harar
,
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
with
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
and
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate bef ...
included. The Governor Abou Baker ordered the Egyptian garrison at Sagallo to retire to
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
. The cruiser Seignelay reached Sagallo shortly after the Egyptians had departed. French troops occupied the fort despite protests from the British Agent in Aden, Major Frederick Mercer Hunter, who dispatched troops to safeguard British and Egyptian interests in
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
and prevent further extension of French influence in that direction. FRENCH SOMALI COAST Timeline On 14 April 1884 the Commander of the patrol sloop L'Inferent reported on the Egyptian occupation in the Gulf of Tadjoura. The Commander of the patrol sloop Le Vaudreuil reported that the Egyptians were occupying the interior between Obock and Tadjoura. Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia signed an accord with Great Britain to cease fighting the Egyptians and to allow the evacuation of Egyptian forces from
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
and the Somaliland littoral. The Egyptian garrison was withdrawn from Tadjoura. Léonce Lagarde deployed a patrol sloop to Tadjoura the following night.


French rule (1883–1977)

File:A-demonstration-in-Djibouti-Africa-1967-352022097779 (cropped).jpg, upReferendum demonstration in Djibouti in 1967 The boundaries of the present-day Djibouti state were established as the first French establishment in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
during the Scramble for Africa. The March 11, 1862, agreement the Afar sultan, Raieta Dini Ahmet, signed in Paris was a treaty where the Afars sold lands surrounding in Obock. The French were interested in having a coaling station for steamships, which would become especially important upon the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. (Up to that time French ships had to buy coal at the British port of Aden across the gulf, an unwise dependency in case of war.) Later on, that treaty was used by the captain of the Fleuriot de Langle to colonize the south of the
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
. On March 26, 1885, the French signed another treaty with the Issas where the latter would become a protectorate under the French, no monetary exchange occurred and Issa clan did not sign away any of their rights to the land, the agreement was to kick the Gadebuursi, who were against the French, and the Isaaq from the country with the help of the French. It was established between 1883 and 1887, after the ruling Somali people, Somalis and Afar sultans each signed a treaty with the French Third Republic, French.Raph Uwechue, ''Africa year book and who's who'', (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p. 209 .''A Political Chronology of Africa'', (Taylor & Francis: 2001), p. 132 . An attempt by Nikolay Ivanovitch Achinov, a Russian Empire, Russian adventurer, to establish a settlement at Sagallo in 1889 was promptly thwarted by French forces after just one month. In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is its legal successor s ...
. As is shown in "Morin" (2005), this name has been proposed by Mohamed Haji Dide of the Mahad 'Ase branch of the Gadabuursi. It lasted from 1896 until 1967, when it was renamed the ''Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas'' (TFAI) ("
French Territory of the Afars and the Issas The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (french: Territoire français des Afars et des Issas) was the name given to present-day Djibouti Djibouti ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti , officially the Republi ...
"), after France, the colonial power, has empowered the Issas clan at the expense of the Gadabuursi. The construction of the Imperial Ethiopian Railway west into
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
turned the Djibouti (city), port of Djibouti into a boomtown of 15,000" at a time when
Harar Harar ( amh, ሐረር; Gē "the City", om, Harar, ar, هرر) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Wali, Saints ( ar, مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء). Harar is the capital of the East Hararghe Zone ...

Harar
was the only city in Ethiopia to exceed that. Although the population fell after the completion of the railwayline to
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, ድሬዳዋ, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diri Dhaba, meaning "where Dir (clan), Dir hit his spear into the ground" or "The true Dir", ar, ديري داوا) is a city in eastern Ethiopia near the Som ...
and the original company failed and required a government bail-out, the rail link allowed the territory to quickly supersede the caravan-based trade carried on at
Zeila Zeila ( so, Saylac, ar, زيلع, Zayla), also known as Zaila or Zayla, is a historical port town in the western Awdal Awdal ( so, Awdal, ar, أودَل) is a region in Somaliland. It was separated from Woqooyi Galbeed and became a province i ...
(then in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British area of British Somaliland, Somaliland) and become the premier port for Harari coffee, coffee and other goods leaving southern Ethiopia and the
Ogaden Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled ''Ogadēn''; so, Ogaadeen) is one of the three historical names given to the modern Somali Region The Somali Regional State ( so, Dawlad Deegaanka Soomaalida, am, የሶማሌ ክልል, ar, المن ...
through
Harar Harar ( amh, ሐረር; Gē "the City", om, Harar, ar, هرر) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Wali, Saints ( ar, مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء). Harar is the capital of the East Hararghe Zone ...

Harar
. After the Italian Second Italo-Abyssinian War, invasion and occupation of Ethiopia in the mid-1930s, constant border skirmishes occurred between French forces in French Somaliland and Italian forces in Italian East Africa. In June 1940, during the early stages of World War II, fall of France, France fell and the colony was then ruled by the pro-Axis powers, Axis Vichy France, Vichy (French) government. British and Commonwealth forces fought the neighboring Italians during the East African Campaign (World War II), East African Campaign. In 1941, the Italians were defeated and the Vichy forces in French Somaliland were isolated. The Vichy French administration continued to hold out in the colony for over a year after the Italian collapse. In response, the British blockaded the port of
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
but it could not prevent local French from providing information on the passing ship convoys. In 1942, about 4,000 British troops occupied the city. A local battalion from French Somaliland participated in the Liberation of Paris in 1944. In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a French Somaliland overseas territory referendum, 1958, referendum was held in Djibouti to decide whether to remain with France or to be an independent country. The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident French.Barrington, Lowell (2006
''After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States''
. University of Michigan Press. p. 115.
There were also allegations of widespread vote rigging. The majority of those who had voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later under suspicious circumstances. In 1966, France rejected the United Nations' recommendation that it should grant French Somaliland independence. In August of the same year, an official visit to the territory by then French President, General Charles de Gaulle, was also met with demonstrations and rioting.''Newsweek'', Volume 81, (Newsweek: 1973), p.254. In response to the protests, de Gaulle ordered another referendum. In 1967, a French Somaliland independence referendum, 1967, second plebiscite was held to determine the fate of the territory. Initial results supported a continued but looser relationship with France. Voting was also divided along ethnic lines, with the resident Somalis generally voting for independence, with the goal of eventual union with Somalia, and the Afars largely opting to remain associated with France. The referendum was again marred by reports of vote rigging on the part of the French authorities.American Universities Field Staff (1968) ''Northeast Africa series'', Volume 15, Issue 1, p. 3. Shortly after the plebiscite was held, the former ''Côte française des Somalis'' (French Somaliland) was renamed to ''Territoire français des Afars et des Issas''. Announcement of the plebiscite results sparked civil unrest, including several deaths. France also increased its military force along the frontier.Alvin J. Cottrell, Robert Michael Burrell, Georgetown University. Center for Strategic and International Studies, ''The Indian Ocean: its political, economic, and military importance'', (Praeger: 1972), p.166. During the 1960s, the struggle for independence was led by the Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis, Front for the Liberation of the Somali Coast (FLCS), who waged an armed struggle for independence with much of its violence aimed at French personnel. FLCS used to initiate few mounting cross-border operations into
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is its legal successor s ...
from Somali Democratic Republic, Somalia and Derg, Ethiopia to attacks on French targets. On March 24, 1975, the Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis kidnapped the French Ambassador to Somalia, Jean Guery, to be exchanged against two activists of FLCS members who were both serving life terms in mainland France. He was exchanged for the two FLCS members in Aden, South Yemen. The FLCS was recognized as a national liberation movement by the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which participated in its financing. The FLCS evolved its demands between the request of integration in a possible "Greater Somalia" influenced by the Somali Democratic Republic, Somali government or the simple independence of the territory. In 1975 the African People's League for the Independence (LPAI) and FLCS met in Kampala, Uganda with several meeting later they finally opted for independence path, causing tensions with Somali Democratic Republic, Somalia. In 1976, members of the Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis which sought Djibouti's independence from France, also clashed with the Gendarmerie Nationale Intervention Group over a bus hijacking en route to Loyada. This event, by showing the difficulties of maintaining the French colonial presence in Djibouti, was an important step in the independence of the territory. The likelihood of a third referendum appearing successful for the French had grown even dimmer. The prohibitive cost of maintaining the colony, France's last outpost on the continent, was another factor that compelled observers to doubt that the France, French would attempt to hold on to the territory.


Djibouti Republic

A 1977 Afars and Issas independence referendum, third independence referendum was held in the
French Territory of the Afars and the Issas The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (french: Territoire français des Afars et des Issas) was the name given to present-day Djibouti Djibouti ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti , officially the Republi ...
on 8 May 1977. The previous referendums were held in 1958 French Somaliland overseas territory referendum, 1958 and 1967 French Somaliland independence referendum, 1967,Kevin Shillington, ''Encyclopedia of African history'', (CRC Press: 2005), p.360. which rejected independence. This referendum backed independence from France. A landslide 98.8% of the electorate supported disengagement from France, officially marking Independence Day (Djibouti), Djibouti's independence. Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Djiboutian politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, became the nation's first president (1977–1999). During its first year, Djibouti joined the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), the Arab League and United Nations. In 1986, the nascent republic was also among the founding members of the
Intergovernmental Authority on Development The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is an eight-country trade bloc A trade bloc is a type of trade pact, intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and N ...
regional development organization. During the Ogaden War, influential Issa politicians envisioned a Greater Djibouti or "Issa-land", where Djibouti's borders would extend from the Red Sea to
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, ድሬዳዋ, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diri Dhaba, meaning "where Dir (clan), Dir hit his spear into the ground" or "The true Dir", ar, ديري داوا) is a city in eastern Ethiopia near the Som ...
. That dream however was dashed towards the end of the war as Somali forces were routed from Ethiopia. In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to
armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...
between Djibouti's ruling People's Rally for Progress (PRP) party and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) opposition group. The impasse ended in a power-sharing agreement in 2000.


Politics

Djibouti is a Unitary state, unitary Presidential system, presidential republic, with executive power resting in the presidency, which is by turn dominant over the cabinet, and legislative power in both the government and the National Assembly (Djibouti), National Assembly.


Governance

The President of Djibouti, President, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh, is the prominent figure in Djiboutian politics; the head of state and commander-in-chief. The President exercises their executive power assisted by their appointee, the Prime Minister of Djibouti, Prime Minister, Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed. The Council of Ministers (cabinet) is responsible to and presided over by the President. The judicial system consists of courts of first instance, a High Court of Appeal, and a Supreme Court. The legal system is a blend of Civil law (legal system), French civil law and customary law (''Xeer'') of the Somali and Afar peoples. The National Assembly (formerly the ''Chamber of Deputies'') is the country's legislature, consisting of 65 members elected every five years. Although unicameral, the Constitution provides for the creation of a Senate. The Djiboutian parliamentary election, 2018, last election was held on 23 February 2018. Djibouti has a dominant-party system, with the People's Rally for Progress (RPP) controlling the legislature and the executive since its foundation in 1979 (the party rules as a part of the Union for a Presidential Majority, which holds a supermajority of seats). Opposition parties are allowed (limited) freedom, but the main opposition party, the Union for National Salvation, boycotted the 2005 and 2008 elections, citing government control of the media and repression of the opposition candidates. The government is dominated by the Somali Issa (clan), Issa
Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the Roman emperors from 27 BC to 1453 AD * Detroit International Riverfront, an area of Detroit, Michigan in the United States * Develop ...
clan, who enjoy the support of the Somali clans, especially the Gadabuursi
Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the Roman emperors from 27 BC to 1453 AD * Detroit International Riverfront, an area of Detroit, Michigan in the United States * Develop ...
clan. The country emerged from a decade-long Djiboutian Civil War, civil war at the end of the 1990s, with the government and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) signing a peace treaty in 2000. Two FRUD members subsequently joined the cabinet, and beginning with Djiboutian presidential election, 1999, the presidential elections of 1999, the FRUD has campaigned in support of the RPP. Djibouti's president, Guelleh, succeeded Hassan Gouled Aptidon in office in 1999. Guelleh was sworn in for his second six-year term after a Djiboutian presidential election, 2005, one-man election on 8 April 2005. He took 100% of the votes in a 78.9% turnout. In early 2011, the Djiboutian citizenry took part in a 2011 Djiboutian protests, series of protests against the long-serving government, which were associated with the larger Arab Spring demonstrations. Guelleh was Djiboutian presidential election, 2011, re-elected to a third term later that year, with 80.63% of the vote in a 75% turnout. Although opposition groups boycotted the ballot over changes to the constitution permitting Guelleh to run again for office, international observers from the African Union generally described the election as free and fair. On 31 March 2013, Guelleh replaced long-serving Prime Minister Dilleita Mohamed Dilleita with former president of the Union for a Presidential Majority (UMP) Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed. In December 2014, the ruling Union for the Presidential Majority also signed a framework agreement with the Union of National Salvation coalition, which paves the way for opposition legislators to enter parliament and for reformation of the national electoral agency.


Foreign relations

Foreign relations of Djibouti are managed by the Djiboutian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. Djibouti maintains close ties with the governments of Somalia,
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
, France and the United States. It is likewise an active participant in African Union, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Arab League affairs. Since the 2000s, Djiboutian authorities have also strengthened relations with Turkey.


Military

The Djibouti Armed Forces include the Djibouti National Army, which consists of the Coastal Navy, the Djiboutian Air Force (Force Aerienne Djiboutienne, FAD), and the National Gendarmerie (GN). , the manpower available for military service was 170,386 males and 221,411 females aged 16 to 49. Djibouti List of countries by military expenditures, spent over US$36 million annually on its military (141st in the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI database). After independence, Djibouti had two regiments commanded by French officers. In the early 2000s, it looked outward for a model of army organization that would best advance defensive capabilities by restructuring forces into smaller, more mobile units instead of traditional divisions. The first war which involved the Djiboutian Armed Forces was the Djiboutian Civil War between the Djiboutian government, supported by France, and the Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (''FRUD''). The war lasted from 1991 to 2001, although most of the hostilities ended when the moderate factions of FRUD signed a peace treaty with the government after suffering an extensive military setback when the government forces captured most of the rebel-held territory. A radical group continued to fight the government, but signed its own peace treaty in 2001. The war ended in a government victory, and FRUD became a political party. As the headquarters of the IGAD regional body, Djibouti has been an active participant in the Somali peace process, hosting the Arta, Djibouti, Arta conference in 2000.The Rise and Fall of the Somalia Airforce: A Diary Reflection
Following the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia in 2012, a Djibouti delegation also attended the inauguration ceremony of Somalia's new president. In recent years, Djibouti has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it. Now deployed to Somalia and Sudan.


Foreign military presence

The French Armed Forces, French Forces remained present in Djibouti when the territory gained independence, first as part of a provisional protocol of June 1977 laying down the conditions for the stationing of French forces, constituting a defense agreement. A new defence cooperation treaty between France and Djibouti was signed in Paris on 21 December 2011. It entered into force on 1 May 2014. By that treaty and its security clause, France reaffirmed its commitment to the independence and territorial integrity of the Republic of Djibouti. As well before independence, in 1962, a French Foreign Legion unit, the 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion (13 DBLE) was transferred from Algeria to Djibouti to form the core of the French garrison there. On 31 July 2011, the (13 DBLE) left Djibouti to the United Arab Emirates. Djibouti's strategic location by the
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Micha ...
Strait, which separates the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden
from the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
and controls the approaches to the Suez Canal, has made it a desirable location for foreign military bases. Camp Lemonnier was abandoned by the French and later leased to the United States Central Command in September 2002. The lease was renewed in 2014 for another 20 years. The French Foreign Legion's 13 DBLE is still stationed in Djibouti as the largest French military presence abroad, the only one commanded by a Three-star rank, 3-star general. The country also hosts the only overseas Chinese People's Liberation Army Support Base in Djibouti, Chinese support base and the only overseas Japan Self-Defense Force Base Djibouti, Japanese military base. The Italian National Support Military Base is also located in Djibouti. The hosting of foreign military bases is an important part of Djibouti's economy. The United States pays $63 million a year to rent Camp Lemonnier, France and Japan each pay about $30 million a year, and China pays $20 million a year. The lease payments added up to more than 5% of Djibouti's GDP of in 2017. China has, in recent times, stepped up its military presence in Africa, with ongoing plans to secure an even greater military presence in Djibouti specifically. China's presence in Djibouti is tied to strategic ports to ensure the security of Chinese assets. Djibouti's strategic location makes the country prime for an increased military presence.


Human rights

In its 2011 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House ranked Djibouti as "Not Free", a downgrading from its former status as "Partly Free". The US State Department Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2019 points out that Djibouti's significant human rights issues included: unlawful or arbitrary killings by government agents; arbitrary detention by government agents; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy; unjustified arrests or prosecutions of journalists; criminal libel; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association; significant acts of corruption; and violence against women and girls with inadequate government action for prosecution and accountability, including female genital mutilation/cutting. It states also that impunity was a problem, with the government seldom taking steps to identify and punish officials who committed abuses, whether in the security services or elsewhere in the government.


Administrative divisions

Djibouti is partitioned into six administrative regions, with Djibouti (city), Djibouti city representing one of the official regions. It is further subdivided into twenty Districts of Djibouti, districts.


Geography


Location and habitat

Djibouti is situated in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
on the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden
and the
Bab-el-Mandeb The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Micha ...
, at the southern entrance to the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
. It lies between latitudes 11° and 14°N and longitudes 41° and 44°E, at the northernmost point of the Great Rift Valley. It is here in Djibouti that the rift between the African Plate and the Somali Plate meet the Arabian Plate, forming a geologic tripoint. The tectonic interaction at this tripoint has created the Extreme points of Africa, lowest elevation of any place in Africa at Lake Assal (Djibouti), Lake Assal, and indeed, the second lowest depression on dry land found anywhere on earth (surpassed only by the depression along the border of Jordan and Israel). The country's coastline stretches , with terrain consisting mainly of plateau, plains and highlands. Djibouti has a total area of . Its borders extend , of which are shared with
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖 ...

Eritrea
, with
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
, and with
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a self-declared soverei ...

Somaliland
. Djibouti is the southernmost Arabian Plate country, country on the Arabian Plate. Djibouti has eight mountain ranges with peaks of over .Highest Mountains in Djibouti
. geonames.org
The Mousa Ali range is considered the country's highest mountain range, with the tallest peak on the border with Ethiopia and Eritrea. It has an elevation of . The Grand Bara desert covers parts of southern Djibouti in the Arta, Ali Sabieh and Dikhil regions. The majority of it sits at a relatively low elevation, below . Extreme geographic points include: to the north, Ras Doumera and the point at which the border with Eritrea enters the Red Sea in the Obock Region; to the east, a section of the Red Sea coast north of Ras Bir; to the south, a location on the border with Ethiopia west of the town of As Ela; and to the west, a location on the frontier with Ethiopia immediately east of the Ethiopian town of Afambo (woreda), Afambo. Most of Djibouti is part of the Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands ecoregion. The exception is an eastern strip located along the Red Sea coast, which is part of the Eritrean coastal desert. File:Djib 003.JPG, Lake Assal (Djibouti), Lake Assal File:Traditional houses on the Mabla Mountains.jpg, Traditional houses on the Mabla Mountains File:Lac Abbe-02.JPG,
Lake Abbe Lake Abbe, also known as Lake Abhe Bad, is a salt lake (geography), salt lake, lying on the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. It is one of a chain of six connected lakes, which also includes (from north to south) lakes Lake Gargori, Gargori, Lake Laitali, ...
File:The mountains near Dasbiyo.png, The mountains near Dasbiyo File:South Djibouti Beach.png, Beach south of
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
, overlooking the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden


Climate

Djibouti's climate is significantly warmer and has significantly less seasonal variation than the world average. The mean daily maximum temperatures range from 32 to 41 °C (90 to 106 °F), except at high elevations. In
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
, for instance, average afternoon highs range from 28 to 34 °C (82 to 93 °F) in April. But at Airolaf, which ranges from 1,535 to 1,600 m (5,036 to 5,249 ft), maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F) in summer and minimum 9 °C (48 °F) in winter. In the wikt:upland, uplands ranges from 500 to 800 m (1,640 to 2,624 ft), are comparable and cooler to those on the coast in the hottest months of June until August. December and January is the coolest month with averages low temperatures falling as low as 15 °C (59 °F). Djibouti has either a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) or a hot desert climate (BWh), although temperatures are much moderated at the highest elevations. Djibouti's climate ranges from arid in the northeastern coastal regions to semiarid, semi-arid in the central, northern, western and southern parts of the country. On the eastern seaboard, annual rainfall is less than 5 inches (131 mm); in the central highlands, precipitation is about 8 to 16 inches (200 to 400 mm). The hinterland is significantly less humid than the coastal regions.


Wildlife

The country's flora and fauna live in a harsh landscape with forest accounting for less than one percent of the total area of the country. Wildlife is spread over three main regions, namely from the northern mountain region of the country to the volcanic plateaux in its southern and central part and culminating in the coastal region. Most species of wildlife are found in the northern part of the country, in the ecosystem of the Day Forest National Park. At an average altitude of , the area includes the Goda massif, with a peak of . It covers an area of of Juniperus procera forest, with many of the trees rising to height. This forest area is the main habitat of the endangered and endemic Djibouti francolin (a bird), and another recently noted vertebrate, ''Platyceps afarensis'' (a colubrine snake). It also contains many species of woody and herbaceous plants, including boxwood and olive trees, which account for 60% of the total identified species in the country. According to the country profile related to biodiversity of wildlife in Djibouti, the nation contains more than 820 species of plants, 493 species of invertebrates, 455 species of fish, 40 species of reptiles, three species of amphibians, 360 species of birds and 66 species of mammals. Wildlife of Djibouti is also listed as part of
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
biodiversity hotspot and the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
and
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden
coral reef hotspot. Mammals include several species of antelope, such as Soemmerring's gazelle and Pelzeln's gazelle. As a result of the hunting ban imposed since early 1970 these species are well conserved now. Other characteristic mammals are Grevy's zebra, hamadryas baboon and Hunter's antelope. The warthog, a vulnerable species, is also found in the Day National park. The coastal waters have dugongs and Abyssinian genet; the latter needs confirmation by further studies. Green turtles and hawksbill turtles are in the coastal waters where nestling also takes place. The Northeast African cheetah ''Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii'' is thought to be extinct in Djibouti.


Economy

Djibouti's economy is largely concentrated in the service sector. Commercial activities revolve around the country's free trade policies and strategic location as a Red Sea transit point. Due to limited rainfall, vegetables and fruits are the principal production crops, and other food items require importation. The GDP (purchasing power parity) in 2013 was estimated at $2.505 billion, with a real growth rate of 5% annually. Per capita income is around $2,874 (PPP). The services sector constituted around 79.7% of the GDP, followed by industry at 17.3%, and agriculture at 3%. , the container terminal at the Port of Djibouti handles the bulk of the nation's trade. About 70% of the seaport's activity consists of imports to and exports from neighboring
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
, which depends on the harbour as its main maritime outlet. As of 2018, 95% of Ethiopian transit cargo was handled by the Port of Djibouti. The port also serves as an international refueling center and transshipment hub. In 2012, the Djiboutian government in collaboration with DP World started construction of the Doraleh Container Terminal, a third major seaport intended to further develop the national transit capacity. A $396 million project, it has the capacity to accommodate 1.5 million twenty foot container units annually. Djibouti was ranked the 177th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings. To improve the environment for direct foreign investment, the Djibouti authorities in conjunction with various non-profit organizations have launched a number of development projects aimed at highlighting the country's commercial potential. The government has also introduced new private sector policies targeting high interest and inflation rates, including relaxing the tax burden on enterprises and allowing exemptions on consumption tax. Additionally, efforts have been made to lower the estimated 60% urban unemployment rate by creating more job opportunities through investment in diversified sectors. Funds have especially gone toward building telecommunications infrastructure and increasing disposable income by supporting small businesses. Owing to its growth potential, the fishing and agro-processing sector, which represents around 15% of GDP, has also enjoyed rising investment since 2008. To expand the modest industrial sector, a 56 megawatt geothermal power plant slated to be completed by 2018 is being constructed with the help of OPEC, the World Bank and the Global Environmental Facility. The facility is expected to solve the recurring electricity shortages, decrease the nation's reliance on Ethiopia for energy, reduce costly oil imports for diesel-generated electricity, and thereby buttress the GDP and lower debt. The Djibouti firm Salt Investment (SIS) began a large-scale operation to industrialize the plentiful salt in Djibouti's Lake Assal (Djibouti), Lake Assal region. Operating at an annual capacity of 4 million tons, the desalination project has lifted export revenues, created more job opportunities, and provided more fresh water for the area's residents. In 2012, the Djibouti government also enlisted the services of the China Harbor Engineering Company Ltd for the construction of an ore terminal. Worth $64 million, the project enabled Djibouti to export a further 5,000 tons of salt per year to markets in Southeast Asia. Djibouti's gross domestic product expanded by an average of more than 6 percent per year, from US$341 million in 1985 to US$1.5 billion in 2015. The Djiboutian franc is the currency of Djibouti. It is issued by the Central Bank of Djibouti, the country's monetary authority. Since the Djiboutian franc is pegged to the U.S. dollar, it is generally stable and inflation is not a problem. This has contributed to the growing interest in investment in the country. , 10 conventional and Islamic banks operate in Djibouti. Most arrived within the past few years, including the Somali money transfer company Dahabshiil and BDCD, a subsidiary of Swiss Financial Investments. The banking system had previously been monopolized by two institutions: the Indo-Suez Bank and the Commercial and Industrial Bank (BCIMR). To assure a robust credit and deposit sector, the government requires commercial banks to maintain 30% of shares in the financial institution; a minimum of 300 million Djiboutian francs in up-front capital is mandatory for international banks. Lending has likewise been encouraged by the creation of a guarantee fund, which allows banks to issue loans to eligible small- and medium-sized businesses without first requiring a large deposit or other collateral. Saudi investors are also reportedly exploring the possibility of linking the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
with the Arabian Peninsula via a oversea bridge through Djibouti, referred to as the Bridge of the Horns. The investor Tarek bin Laden has been linked to the project. However, it was announced in June 2010 that Phase I of the project had been delayed.


Transport

The Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport in
Djibouti City Djibouti (also called Djibouti City; ar, مدينة جيبوتي, french: Ville de Djibouti, so, Magaalada Jabuuti, aa, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti. It is located in the coastal Djibouti Region on th ...
, the country's only international airport, serves many intercontinental routes with scheduled and chartered flights. Air Djibouti is the flag carrier of Djibouti and is the country's largest airline. The new and electrified standard gauge Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway started operation in January 2018. Its main purpose is to facilitate freight services between the Ethiopian hinterland and the Djiboutian Port of Doraleh. Car ferries pass the
Gulf of Tadjoura The Gulf of Tadjoura (; ) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and t ...

Gulf of Tadjoura
from Djibouti City to Tadjoura. There is the Port of Doraleh west of Djibouti City, which is the main port of Djibouti. The Port of Doraleh is the terminal of the new Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway. In addition to the Port of Doraleh, which handles general cargo and oil imports, Djibouti (2018) has three other major ports for the import and export of bulk goods and livestock, the Tadjoura, Port of Tadjourah (potash), the Damerjog, Damerjog Port (livestock) and the Port of Goubet (salt). Almost 95% of Ethiopia's imports and exports move through Djiboutian ports. The Djiboutian highway system is named according to the road classification. Roads that are considered primary roads are those that are fully asphalted (throughout their entire length) and in general they carry traffic between all the major towns in Djibouti. Djibouti is part of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road that runs from the Chinese coast to the Upper Adriatic region with its connections to Central and Eastern Europe.


Media and telecommunications

Telecommunications in Djibouti fall under the authority of the Ministry of Communication. Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunication services. It mostly utilizes a microwave radio relay network. A fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital, whereas rural areas are connected via wireless local loop radio systems. Mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city. , 23,000 telephone main lines and 312,000 mobile/cellular lines were in use. The SEA-ME-WE 3 (cable system), SEA-ME-WE 3 Submarine communications cable, submarine cable operates to Jeddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseille, Colombo, Singapore and beyond. Telephone satellite earth stations include 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat. Medarabtel is the regional microwave radio relay telephone network. Radio Television of Djibouti is the state-owned national broadcaster. It operates the sole terrestrial TV station, as well as the two domestic radio networks on AM broadcasting, AM 1, FM broadcasting, FM 2, and shortwave 0. Licensing and operation of broadcast media is regulated by the government. Movie theaters include the Odeon Cinema in the capital. , there were 215 local internet service providers. Internet users comprised around 99,000 individuals (2015). The internet country top-level domain is .dj.


Tourism

Tourism in Djibouti is one of the growing economic sectors of the country and is an industry that generates less than 80,000 arrivals per year, mostly the family and friends of the soldiers stationed in the country's major naval bases. Although the numbers are on the rise, there are talks of the visa on arrival being stopped, which could limit tourism growth. Infrastructure makes it difficult for tourists to travel independently and costs of private tours are high. Since the re-opening of the train line from Addis Ababa to Djibouti in January 2018, travel by land has also resumed. Djibouti's two main geological marvels, Lake Abbe and Lake Assal, are the country's top tourist destinations. The two sites draw hundreds of tourists every year looking for remote places that are not visited by many.


Energy

Djibouti has an installed electrical power generating capacity of 126 MW from fuel oil and diesel plants. In 2002 electrical power output was put at 232 GWh, with consumption at 216 GWh. At 2015, per capita annual electricity consumption is about 330 kilowatt-hours (kWh); moreover, about 45% of the population does not have access to electricity, and the level of unmet demand in the country's power sector is significant. Increased hydropower imports from
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south ...

Ethiopia
, which satisfies 65% of Djibouti's demand, will play a significant role in boosting the country's renewable energy supply. The geothermal potential has generated particular interest in Japan, with 13 potential sites; they have already started the construction on one site near Lake Assal. The construction of the photovoltaic power station (solar farms) in Grand Bara will generate 50 MW capacity.


Demographics

Djibouti has a population of about 921,804 inhabitants. It is a multiethnic country. The local population grew rapidly during the latter half of the 20th century, increasing from about 69,589 in 1955 to around 869,099 by 2015. The two largest ethnic groups native to Djibouti are the
Somalis Somalis ( so, Soomaalida) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the shared mother tongue of ethnic Somalis, which is part of the ...

Somalis
(60%) and the Afar (35%). The Somali clan component is mainly composed of the Issa (clan), Issa, followed by the Gadabuursi and the Isaaq. The remaining 5% of Djibouti's population primarily consists of Yemenis, Yemeni Arabs, People of Ethiopia, Ethiopians and Europeans (French people, French and Italians). Approximately 76% of local residents are urban dwellers; the remainder are Pastoralism, pastoralists. Djibouti also hosts a number of immigrants and refugees from neighboring states, with Djibouti City nicknamed the "French Hong Kong in the Red Sea" due to its cosmopolitan urbanism. Djibouti's location on the eastern coast of Africa makes it a hub of regional Human migration, migration, with Somalis, Yemenis, and Ethiopians traveling through the country en route to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Gulf and North Africa, northern Africa. Djibouti has received a massive influx of migrants from
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
.


Languages

Djibouti is a multilingual nation. The majority of local residents speak
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
(524,000 speakers) and Afar (306,000 speakers) as first languages. These idioms are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively. Both languages belong to the larger
Afroasiatic Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed lang ...
Cushitic family. Northern Somali is the main dialect spoken in the country and in neighbouring Somaliland, in contrast to Benadiri Somali which is the main dialect spoken in Somalia. There are two official languages in Djibouti: Arabic language, Arabic and French language, French. Arabic is of religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 59,000 local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as ''Djibouti Arabic''. French serves as a statutory national language. It was inherited from the colonial period, and is the primary language of instruction. Around 17,000 Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic (38,900 speakers), Amharic (1,400 speakers), and Greek language, Greek (1,000 speakers).


Religion

Djibouti's population is predominantly Muslim.
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
is observed by around 94% of the nation's population (approximately 740,000 ), whereas the remaining 6% of residents are Christian adherents. Islam entered the region very early on, as a group of persecuted Muslims had sought refuge across the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر ''Al Baḥr al aḥmar''; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regar ...

Red Sea
in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
at the urging of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In 1900, during the early part of the colonial era, there were virtually no Christians in the territories, with only about 100–300 followers coming from the schools and orphanages of the few Catholic missions in the
French Somaliland French Somaliland (french: Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis" so, Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1884 and 1967. Djibouti is its legal successor s ...
. The Constitution of Djibouti names Islam as the sole state religion, and also provides for the equality of citizens of all faiths (Article 1) and freedom of religious practice (Article 11). Most local Muslims adhere to the Sunni Islam, Sunni denomination, following the Shafi'i school. The non-denominational Muslims largely belong to Sufism, Sufi orders of varying schools. According to the International Religious Freedom Report 2008, while Muslim Djiboutians have the legal right to convert to or marry someone from another faith, converts may encounter negative reactions from their family and clan or from society at large, and they often face pressure to go back to Islam. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Djibouti, Diocese of Djibouti serves the small local Catholicism, Catholic population, which it estimates numbered around 7,000 individuals in 2006.


Largest cities


Health

The life expectancy at birth is around 64.7 for both males and females. Fertility is at 2.35 children per woman. In Djibouti there are about 18 doctors per 100,000 persons. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Djibouti is 300. This is compared with 461.6 in 2008 and 606.5 in 1990. The under 5 mortality rate per 1,000 births is 95 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality are 37. In Djibouti the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 6 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 93. About 93.1% of Djibouti's women and girls have undergone female genital mutilation (female circumcision), a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the Near East.Bodman, Herbert L. and Tohidi, Nayereh Esfahlani (1998
''Women in Muslim societies: diversity within unity''
. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 41. .
Although legally proscribed in 1994, the procedure is still widely practiced, as it is deeply ingrained in the local culture. Encouraged and performed by women in the community, circumcision is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.Suzanne G. Frayser, Thomas J. Whitby
Studies in human sexuality: a selected guide
, (Libraries Unlimited: 1995), p. 257 .
About 94% of Djibouti's male population have also reportedly undergone Circumcision, male circumcision, a figure in line with adherence to Islam, which requires this.


Education

Education is a priority for the government of Djibouti. , it allocates 20.5% of its annual budget to scholastic instruction.Hare, Harry (2007
ICT in Education in Djibouti
, World Bank
The Djiboutian educational system was initially formulated to cater to a limited pupil base. As such, the schooling framework was largely elitist and drew considerably from the French colonial paradigm, which was ill-suited to local circumstances and needs. In the late 1990s, the Djiboutian authorities revised the national educational strategy and launched a broad-based consultative process involving administrative officials, teachers, parents, national assembly members and NGOs. The initiative identified areas in need of attention and produced concrete recommendations on how to go about improving them. The government subsequently prepared a comprehensive reform plan aimed at modernizing the educational sector over the 2000–10 period. In August 2000, it passed an official Education Planning Act and drafted a medium-term development plan for the next five years. The fundamental academic system was significantly restructured and made compulsory; it now consists of five years of primary school and four years of middle school. Secondary schools also require a Certificate of Fundamental Education for admission. In addition, the new law introduced secondary-level vocational instruction and established university facilities in the country. As a result of the Education Planning Act and the medium-term action strategy, substantial progress has been registered throughout the educational sector. In particular, school enrollment, attendance, and retention rates have all steadily increased, with some regional variation. From 2004 to 2005 to 2007–08, net enrollments of girls in primary school rose by 18.6%; for boys, it increased 8.0%. Net enrollments in middle school over the same period rose by 72.4% for girls and 52.2% for boys. At the secondary level, the rate of increase in net enrollments was 49.8% for girls and 56.1% for boys.Djibouti Assistance to Education Evaluation
. USAID (April 2009)
The Djiboutian government has especially focused on developing and improving institutional infrastructure and teaching materials, including constructing new classrooms and supplying textbooks. At the post-secondary level, emphasis has also been placed on producing qualified instructors and encouraging out-of-school youngsters to pursue vocational training. , the literacy rate in Djibouti was estimated at 70%. Institutions of higher learning in the country include the University of Djibouti.


Culture

Djiboutian attire reflects the region's hot and arid climate. When not dressed in Western clothing such as jeans and T-shirts, men typically wear the , which is a traditional sarong-like garment worn around the waist. Many nomadic people wear a loosely wrapped white cotton robe called a ''tobe'' that goes down to about the knee, with the end thrown over the shoulder (much like a Roman toga). Women typically wear the ''dirac'', which is a long, light, diaphanous voile dress made of cotton or polyester that is worn over a full-length Slip (clothing), half-slip and a bra. Married women tend to sport head-scarves referred to as ''shash'' and often cover their upper body with a shawl known as ''garbasaar''. Unmarried or young women, however, do not always cover their heads. Traditional Arabian garb such as the male jellabiya (''jellabiyaad'' in Somali) and the female jilbāb is also commonly worn. For some occasions such as festivals, women may adorn themselves with specialized jewelry and head-dresses similar to those worn by the Berber people, Berber tribes of the Maghreb. A lot of Djibouti's original art is passed on and preserved orally, mainly through song. Many examples of Islamic, Ottoman, and French influences can also be noted in the local buildings, which contain plasterwork, carefully constructed Motif (visual arts), motifs, and calligraphy.


Music

Somalis have a rich musical heritage centered on traditional Somali folklore. Most Somali songs are Pentatonic scale, pentatonic. That is, they only use five Pitch (music), pitches per octave in contrast to a Heptatonic scale, heptatonic (seven note) scale such as the major scale. At first listen, Somali music might be mistaken for the sounds of nearby regions such as Ethiopia, Sudan or the Arabian Peninsula, but it is ultimately recognizable by its own unique tunes and styles. Somali songs are usually the product of collaboration between lyricists (), songwriters () and singers ( or "voice"). Balwo is a Somali musical style centered on love themes that is popular in Djibouti. Traditional Afar music resembles the folk music of other parts of the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al ...

Horn of Africa
such as Music of Ethiopia, Ethiopia; it also contains elements of Arabic music. The history of Djibouti is recorded in the poetry and songs of its nomadic people, and goes back thousands of years to a time when the peoples of Djibouti traded hides and skins for the perfumes and spices of ancient
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
, India and China. Afar oral literature is also quite musical. It comes in many varieties, including songs for weddings, war, praise and boasting. – ''Website no longer exists; link is to Internet Archive''


Literature

Djibouti has a long tradition of poetry. Several well-developed Somali forms of verse include the , , , , , , and . The (epic poem) has the most complex length and meter, often exceeding 100 lines. It is considered the mark of poetic attainment when a young poet is able to compose such verse, and is regarded as the height of poetry. Groups of memorizers and reciters () traditionally propagated the well-developed art form. Poems revolve around several main themes, including (elegy), (praise), (romance), (diatribe), (gloating) and (guidance). The baroorodiiq is composed to commemorate the death of a prominent poet or figure.Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001) ''Culture and Customs of Somalia'', Greenwood Press. pp. 75–76. The Afar are familiar with the , a kind of warrior-poet and diviner, and have a rich oral tradition of folk stories. They also have an extensive repertoire of battle songs.Phillips, Matt and Carillet, Jean-Bernard (2006) ''Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea'', Lonely Planet. p. 301. Additionally, Djibouti has a long tradition of Islamic literature. Among the most prominent historical works is the medieval ''Futuh Al-Habash'' by Shihāb al-Dīn, which chronicles the
Adal Sultanate The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal or Awdal or Bar Sa'ad ad-din (alt. spelling ''Adel Sultanate'' , ''Awdal Sultanate''), was a Muslim Somalis, Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II aft ...
army's Ethiopian-Adal War, conquest of Abyssinia during the 16th century. In recent years, a number of politicians and intellectuals have also penned memoirs or reflections on the country.


Sport

Football is the most popular sport amongst Djiboutians. The country became a member of FIFA in 1994, but has only taken part in the qualifying rounds for the African Cup of Nations as well as the FIFA World Cup in the mid-2000s. In November 2007, the Djibouti national football team beat Somalia national football team, Somalia's national squad 1–0 in the qualification rounds for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, marking its first ever World Cup-related win. Recently, the World Archery Federation has helped to implement the Djibouti Archery Federation, and an international archery training center is being created in Arta, Djibouti, Arta to support archery development in East Africa and Red Sea area.


Cuisine

Djiboutian cuisine is a mixture of Somali cuisine, Somali, Afar, Yemeni cuisine, Yemeni, and French cuisine, with some additional South Asian cuisine, South Asian (especially Indian cuisine, Indian) culinary influences. Local dishes are commonly prepared using a lot of Middle Eastern spices, ranging from saffron to cinnamon. Grilled Yemeni fish, opened in half and often cooked in tandoori style ovens, are a local delicacy. Spicy dishes come in many variations, from the traditional ''Fah-fah'' or "''Soupe Djiboutienne''" (spicy boiled beef soup), to the (spicy mixed vegetable stew). (pronounced "halwo") or halva is a popular confection eaten during festive occasions, such as Eid ul-Fitr, Eid celebrations or wedding receptions. Halva is made from sugar, corn starch, cardamom powder, nutmeg powder and ghee. Peanuts are sometimes added to enhance texture and flavor.Ali, Barlin (2007) ''Somali Cuisine''. AuthorHouse. p. 79. After meals, homes are traditionally perfumed using incense () or frankincense (), which is prepared inside an incense burner referred to as a ''dabqaad''.


See also

* Index of Djibouti-related articles * Outline of Djibouti


Notes


References


Online sources

*


External links

; Government * * ; Profile
Djibouti
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Djibouti profile
from the BBC News. * * ; Others
The State of the World's Midwifery – Djibouti Country Profile
from UNFPA
Key Development Forecasts for Djibouti
from International Futures. *

{{Authority control Djibouti, 1977 establishments in Djibouti Arabic-speaking countries and territories Countries in Africa East African countries Former French colonies French-speaking countries and territories Gulf of Aden Horn African countries Least developed countries Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Member states of the African Union Member states of the Arab League Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the United Nations Republics Somali-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1977