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Dionysius of Halicarnassus ( grc, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, ; – after 7 BC) was a
Greek historian Hellenic historiography (or Greek historiography) involves efforts made by Greeks to track and record History, historical events. By the 5th century BC, it became an integral part of ancient Greek literature and held a prestigious place in later Rom ...
and teacher of
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
, who flourished during the reign of
Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variet ...

Augustus Caesar
. His literary style was ''atticistic'' – imitating
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige diale ...
in its prime. Dionysius' opinion of the necessity of a promotion of
paideia In the culture of ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, ...
within education, from true knowledge of classical sources, endured for centuries in a form integral to the identity of the Greek elite.


Life

He was a Halicarnassian. At some time after the end of the civil wars he moved to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
, and spent twenty-two years studying
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and literature and preparing materials for his history. During this period, he gave lessons in
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
, and enjoyed the society of many distinguished men. The date of his death is unknown. In the 19th century, it was commonly supposed that he was the ancestor of Aelius Dionysius of Halicarnassus.


Works

His major work, entitled (), narrates the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first ...
in twenty books, of which the first nine remain extant while the remaining books only exist as fragments, in the excerpts of the Roman emperor
Constantine Porphyrogenitus Constantine VII Flavius Porphyrogenitus (; 17/18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another ...
and an epitome discovered by
Angelo Mai Angelo Mai (''Latin'' Angelus Maius; 7 March 17828 September 1854) was an Italy, Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal and philologist. He won a European reputation for publishing for the first time a series of previously unknown ancient texts ...
in a
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
manuscript. Dionysius is the first major historian of early Roman history whose work is now extant. Several other ancient historians who wrote of this period, almost certainly used Dionysius as a source for their material. The works of
Appian Appian of Alexandria (; grc-gre, Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς ''Appianòs Alexandreús''; la, Appianus Alexandrinus; ) was a historian with citizenship who flourished during the reigns of , , and . He was born c. 95 in . Afte ...
,
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
and Livy all describe similar people and events of Early Rome as Dionysius.


Summary outline of “Roman Antiquities”

In the preamble to Book I, Dionysius states that the Greek people lack basic information on Roman history, a deficiency he hopes to fix with the present work. :;Book I   (1300?)–753 BC: Mythic early history of Italy and its people. Book I also narrates the history of
Aeneas In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (, ; from Greek language, Greek: Αἰνείας, ''Aineíās'') was a Trojan hero, the son of the Trojan prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (equivalent to the Roman Venus (mythology), Venus). His father ...
and his progeny as well as Dionysius' telling of the , ending with the death of . :;Book II   753–673 BC: The Roman monarchy's first two Kings,
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
and
Numa Pompilius Numa Pompilius (; 753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest ...

Numa Pompilius
. Romulus formulates customs and laws for Rome. Sabine war- as in subsequent parts of the history, this early conflict is described as involving numerous categories of officer, thousands of infantry, and cavalry combatants. This is highly unlikely, but is a common anachronism found in ancient historians. :;Book III   673–575 BC: Kings
Tullus Hostilius Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) was the Roman mythology, legendary third king of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius and was succeeded by Ancus Marcius. Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king who according to the Roman Histor ...
through
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...
. :;Book IV   575–509 BC: Last of the Roman kings and end of the monarchy with overthrow of
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in ...
. :;Book V   509-497 BC: Start of
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
and Consular years. :;Book VI   496–493 BC: Includes the first instance of . :;Book VII   492–490 BC: This book describes at length the background leading to the Roman
Coriolanus ''Coriolanus'' ( or ) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1605 and 1608. The play is based on the life of the legendary Roman Republic, Roman leader Gaius Marcius Coriolanus, Caius Marcius Coriolanus. Sh ...
’ trial, ending in his exile. Much of the book is a debate between supporters of the oligarchy and the plebeians. :;Book VIII   489–482 BC: Coriolanus, now exiled, allies with Rome’s current primary enemy, the
Volscians The Volsci (, , ) were an Italic Osco-Umbrian The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before being replaced ...

Volscians
. Coriolanus leads the Volscian army on a successful campaign against Roman allies and finally is near to capturing Rome itself. Coriolanus’ mother intercedes for the Roman state and manages to end the military campaign. Coriolanus then is treacherously murdered by the Volscians. The remaining part of the book covers the military campaigns to recover land from the Volscians. :;Book IX   481–462 BC: Various military campaigns of mixed fortune in foreign matters. Domestically the plebeians and patricians argue and the
conflict of the orders The Conflict or Struggle of the Orders was a political struggle between the plebeians The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the It ...
continues. The number of
Tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

Tribune
s is raised from 5 to 10. Book IX ends with the first two years of the
decemvirate The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
and the creation of the first Roman Law Tables. ::;''Note'': The last ten books are fragmentary, based on excerpts from medieval Byzantine history compilations. Book XI is mostly extant at around 50 pages (Aeterna Press, 2015 edition), while the remaining books, have only 12–14 pages per book. :;Book X   461–449 BC: The
decemvirate The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
continued. :;Book XI   449–443 BC: ''fragments'' :;Book XII   442–396 BC: ''fragments'' :;Book XIII   394–390 BC: ''fragments'' :;Book XIV   390 BC:
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of peoples of in the and the (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The area they originally inhabited was known as . Their forms the main branch of th ...
sack of Rome. :;Book XV:
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Samnite War The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run throug ...
. :;Book XVI–XVII:
Third Samnite War The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC, and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains south of Rome and north of the Lucanians. * Th ...
. :;Book XIX: The beginnings of conflicts between Rome and the warlord Pyrrhus. The southern Italy city of has problems with Rome, who have recently expanded into southern Italy. invites Pyrrhus as muscle to protect them. :;Book XX: Roman-
Pyrrhic war The Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) was a war fought by Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus Epirus () is a geographical and historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the stu ...
, with Pyrrhus’s second invasion of Italy. Because his prime objective was to reconcile the Greeks to
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
rule, Dionysius focused on the good qualities of their conquerors, and also argued that – based on sources ancient in his own time – the Romans were genuine descendants of the older Greeks. According to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of a Greek rhetorician. But he carefully consulted the best authorities, and his work and that of
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
are the only connected and detailed extant accounts of early Roman history. Dionysius was also the author of several rhetorical treatises, in which he shows that he had thoroughly studied the best Attic models: :;
''The Art of Rhetoric'' : which is rather a collection of essays on the theory of rhetoric, incomplete, and certainly not all his work; :;     '
''The Arrangement of Words'' : treating of the combination of words according to the different styles of oratory; :;
''On Imitation'' : on the best models in the different kinds of literature and the way in which they are to be imitated—a fragmentary work; :;
''Commentaries on the Attic Orators'' : which, however, only covers
Lysias Lysias (; el, Λυσίας; c. 445 – c. 380 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek D ...

Lysias
,
Isaeus Isaeus ( el, Ἰσαῖος ''Isaios''; fl. early 4th century BC) was one of the ten Attic orators 300px, ''Lives of the Ten Orators'', from an unknown writer whose allonym is Pseudo-Plutarch, delivers a pseudepigraphy">Pseudo-Plutarch.html" ;"titl ...
,
Isocrates Isocrates (; grc, Ἰσοκράτης ; 436–338 BC) was an ancient Greek rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Tri ...
, and by way of supplement,
Dinarchus Dinarchus or Dinarch ( el, Δείναρχος; , c. 361 – c. 291 BC) was a (speechwriter) in Ancient Greece. He was the last of the ten included in the "Alexandrian Canon" compiled by and in the third century BC. Life A son of Sostratus ...
; :;
''On the Admirable Style of
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a statesman and orator of . His constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight in ...

Demosthenes
'' :   :;
''On the Character of Thucydides'' :   The last two treatises are supplemented by letters to Gn. Pompeius and Ammaeus (two, one of which is about Thucydides).


Dionysian ''imitatio''

''Dionysian imitatio'' is the
literary method Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expande ...
of imitation as formulated by Dionysius, who conceived it as the
rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), is one of the Trivium, three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the techniques writers or sp ...
al practice of emulating, adapting, reworking, and enriching a source text by an earlier author.Ruthven (1979) pp. 103–104Jansen (2008) It shows marked similarities with
Quintilian Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (; 35 – 100 AD) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome ...

Quintilian
’s view of imitation, and both may derive from a common source. Dionysius' concept marked a significant departure from the concept of ''
mimesis Mimesis (; grc, μίμησις, ''mīmēsis'') is a term used in literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by li ...

mimesis
'' formulated by
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
in the 4th century BC, which was only concerned with "imitation of nature" and not "imitation of other authors." Latin orators and rhetoricians adopted Dionysius' method of ''imitatio'' and discarded Aristotle's ''mimesis''.


History in the Roman Antiquities, and the Foundation Myth

Dionysius carried out extensive research for his Roman history, selecting among authorities, and preserving (for example) details of the Servian Census. His first two books present a unified account of the supposed Greek origin for Rome, merging a variety of sources into a firm narrative: his success, however, was at the expense of concealing the primitive Roman actuality (as revealed by archaeology). Along with
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Ancient Rome, Roman historian. He wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people, titled , covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditiona ...
, Dionysius is thus one of the primary sources for the accounts of the Roman foundation myth, and that of
Romulus and Remus 350px, Altar to Mars (divine father of Romulus and Remus) and Venus (their divine ancestress) depicting elements of their legend. Tiberinus, the Father of the Tiber and the infant twins being suckled by a she-wolf in the Ostia, now at the Na ...

Romulus and Remus
, and was relied on in the later publications of
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46 – after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonist Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC&nbs ...

Plutarch
, for example. He writes extensively on the myth, sometimes attributing direct quotations to its figures. The myth spans the first 2 volumes of his ''Roman Antiquities'', beginning with Book I chapter 73 and concluding in Book II chapter 56.


Romulus and Remus


Origins and survival in the wild

Dionysius claims that the twins, Romulus and Remus, were born to a vestal named Ilia Silvia (sometimes called Rea), descended from
Aeneas In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (, ; from Greek language, Greek: Αἰνείας, ''Aineíās'') was a Trojan hero, the son of the Trojan prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (equivalent to the Roman Venus (mythology), Venus). His father ...
of Troy and the daughter of of the Original Latin tribes, thus linking Rome to Trojans and Latins both. Dionysius lays out the different accounts of her pregnancy and the twins' conception, but declines to choose one over the others. Citing
Fabius In Roman mythology, Fabius was the son of Hercules and an unnamed mother. In "The Life of Fabius Maximus" from the ''Parallel Lives'' by Plutarch, Fabius, the first of his name, was the son of Hercules by a nymph or a woman native to the country, ...

Fabius
, Cincius, Porcius Cato, and Piso, Dionysius recounts the most common tale, whereby the twins are to be tossed into the
Tiber The Tiber (; la, Tiberis; it, Tevere ) is the third-longest and the longest in Central Italy, rising in the in and flowing through , , and , where it is joined by the River , to the , between and . It estimated at . The river has achi ...

Tiber
; are left at the site of the
ficus Ruminalis The ''Ficus Ruminalis'' was a wild ficus, fig tree that had Religion in ancient Rome, religious and Roman mythology, mythological significance in ancient Rome. It stood near the small cave known as the Lupercal at the foot of the Palatine Hill an ...
; and rescued by a she-wolf who
nurses Nursing is a profession within the health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...

nurses
them in front of her lair (the ''
Lupercal : The she-wolf is of unknown origin, the suckling twins were added circa 1500 The Lupercal (from Latin '' wikt:lupa, lupa'' "female wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to ...
'') before being adopted by
Faustulus In Roman mythology, Faustulus was the shepherd who found the infant Romulus (the future founder of the city of Rome) and his twin brother Romulus and Remus, Remus along the banks of the Tiber, Tiber River as they were being suckled by the she-wolf, ...
. Dionysius relates an alternate, "non-fantastical" version of Romulus and Remus' birth, survival and youth. In this version,
Numitor In Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also ...
managed to switch the twins at birth with two other infants. The twins were delivered by their grandfather to Faustulus to be fostered by him and his wife, Laurentia, a former
prostitute Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexualit ...
. According to Plutarch, ''lupa''(Latin for "wolf") was a common term for members of her profession and this gave rise to the she-wolf legend.


Falling out and Foundation of Rome

The twins receive a proper
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...
in the city of
Gabii Gabii was an ancient city of Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Definition Latium was originally a small triangle of fer ...
, before eventually winning control of the area around where Rome would be founded. Dispute over the particular hill upon which Rome should be built, the
Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill, (; la, Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; it, Palatino ) which is the centremost of the seven hills of Rome The seven hills of Rome ( la, Septem colles/montes Romae, it, Sette colli di Roma ) east of the river Tiber ...

Palatine Hill
or the
Aventine Hill The Aventine Hill (; la, Collis Aventinus; it, Aventino ) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legend ...
for its strategic advantages saw the brothers fall out and Remus killed. When the time came to actually construct the city of Rome, the two brothers disputed over the particular hill upon which Rome should be built, Romulus favoring the
Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill, (; la, Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; it, Palatino ) which is the centremost of the seven hills of Rome The seven hills of Rome ( la, Septem colles/montes Romae, it, Sette colli di Roma ) east of the river Tiber ...

Palatine Hill
and Remus favoring what later came to be known as Remoria (possibly the
Aventine Hill The Aventine Hill (; la, Collis Aventinus; it, Aventino ) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legend ...
). Eventually, the two deferred their decision to the gods at the advice of their grandfather. , the two brothers decided "he to whom the more favourable birds first appeared should rule the colony and be its leader." Since Remus saw nine vultures first, he claimed that the gods chose him and Romulus claimed that since he saw a greater (the "more favorable") number of vultures, the gods chose him. Unable to reach a conclusion, the two brothers and their followers fought, ultimately resulting in the death of Remus. After his brother's death, a saddened Romulus buried Remus at the site of Remoria, giving the location its namesake. Before the actual construction of the city began,
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...
made sacrifices and received good omens, and he then ordered the populace to ritually atone for their guilt. The city's fortifications were first and then housing for the populace. He assembled the people and gave them the choice as to what type of government they wanted - monarchy, democracy, or oligarchy - for its constitution. After his address, which extolled bravery in war abroad and moderation at home, and in which Romulus denied any need to remain in power, the people decided to remain a kingdom and asked him to remain its king. Before accepting he looked for a sign of the approval of the gods. He prayed and witnessed an auspicious lightning bolt, after which he declared that no king shall take the throne without receiving approval from the gods.


Institutions

Dionysus then provided a detailed account of the ‘Romulus’ constitution, most probably based on the work of Terentius Varro. Romulus supposedly divides Rome into 3
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living o ...
, each with a
Tribune Tribune () was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ...

Tribune
in charge. Each tribe was divided into 10
Curia Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came ...

Curia
, and each of those into smaller units. He divided the kingdom's land holdings between them, and Dionysus alone among our authorities insists that this was done in equal lots. The
Patrician Patrician may refer to: * Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage * Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval a ...
class was separated from the
Pleb The plebeians, also called plebs, were, in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in ...

Pleb
eian class; while each curiae was responsible for providing soldiers in the event of war. A system of
patronage Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows on another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists su ...
(''clientela''), a
senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

senate
(attributed by Dionysius to Greek influence) and a personal bodyguard of 300 of the strongest and fittest among the nobles were also established: the latter, the ''celeres'', were so-named either for their quickness, or, according to
Valerius Antias Numa Pompilius consulting Egeria (mythology), Egeria. Valerius Antias ( century BC) was an ancient Roman annalists, annalist whom Livy mentions as a source. No complete works of his survive but from the sixty-five fragments said to be his in the w ...
, for their commander. A
Separation of power ''Separation of Power'' is Vince Flynn Vincent Joseph Flynn (April 6, 1966 – June 19, 2013) was an American author of political thriller novels surrounding the story of the fictional assassin Mitch Rapp. He was a story consultant for the fif ...
and measures to increase manpower were also instituted, as were Rome's religious customs and practices, and a variety of legal measures praised by Dionysus. Again, Dionysius thoroughly describes the laws of other nations before contrasting the approach of Romulus and lauding his work. The Roman law governing marriage is, according to his ''Antiquities'', an elegant yet simple improvement over that of other nations, most of which he harshly derides. By declaring that wives would share equally in the possessions and conduct of their husband, Romulus promoted virtue in the former and deterred mistreatment by the latter. Wives could inherit upon their husband's death. A wife's adultery was a serious crime, however, drunkenness could be a mitigating factor in determining the appropriate punishment. Because of Romulus' laws, Dionysius claims that not a single Roman couple divorced over the following five centuries. Romulus' laws governing parental rights, in particular, those that allow fathers to maintain power over their adult children were also considered an improvement over those of others; while Dionysius further approved of how, under the laws of Romulus, native-born free Romans were limited to two forms of employment: farming and the army. All other occupations were filled by slaves or non-Roman labor. Romulus used the trappings of his office to encourage compliance with the law. His court was imposing and filled with loyal soldiers and he was always accompanied by the appointed to be his attendants.


The Rape of the Sabine Women and death of Romulus

Following his institutional account, Dionysus described the famous abducting of the Sabine women and suggesting thereby that the abduction was a pretext for alliance with the
Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of the ancient Italian Peninsula, also inhabiting Latium north of the An ...
. Romulus wished to cement relations with neighboring cities through intermarriage, but none of them found the fledgling city of Rome worthy of their daughters. To overcome this, Romulus arranged a festival in honor of Neptune (the
Consualia The Consuales Ludi ''Ludi'' (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the SPQR, Roman people (''populus Romanus''). ''Ludi'' were held in conjunction with, or sometimes as the major feature of, Religion in ancient ...
) and invited the surrounding cities to attend. At the end of the festival, Romulus and the young men at the festival and planned to marry them according to their customs. In his narrative, however, the cities of Caecina,
CrustumeriumCrustumerium (or Crustumium) was an ancient town of Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire. Definition Latium was originally a sma ...
, and
AntemnaeAntemnae was a town and ancient Rome, Roman colonia (Roman), colony of ancient Latium in Prehistoric Italy#Pre-Roman period, Italy. It was situated two miles north of ancient Rome on a hill (now Monte Antenne) commanding the confluence of the Aniene ...

Antemnae
petition for
Tatius According to the Roman foundation myth, Titus Tatius was the king of the Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apenn ...
, king of the
Sabines The Sabines (; lat, Sabini; grc, Σαβῖνοι ''Sabĩnoi''; it, Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic peoples, Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of the ancient Italian Peninsula, also inhabiting Latium north of the An ...
to lead them to war; and it is only after the famous intervention of the Sabine women that the nations agreed to become a single kingdom under the joint rule of Romulus and Tatius, both declared ''
Quirites Quirites is the name of Roman citizens in their peacetime functions. Etymology Latin ''Quirītis'' most likely stems from an earlier *''quiri-''. The origin of the latter is uncertain. Since the ''quirīs'' is connected with Sabellic immigrants ...
''.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ''Roman Antiquities'' Book II, Chapter 46 After the death of Tatius, however, Romulus became more dictatorial, until he met his end, either through actions divine or earthly. One tale tells of a "darkness" that took Romulus from his war camp to his father in heaven.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, ''Roman Antiquities'' Book II, Chapter 56 Another source claims that Romulus was killed by his Roman countrymen after releasing hostages, showing favoritism, and excessive cruelty in his punishments.


Editions

* Collected Works edited by
Friedrich Sylburg Friedrich Sylburg (1536 – 17 February 1596) was a Germany, German classical scholar. The son of a farmer, he was born at Wetter near Marburg. He studied at Marburg, Jena, Geneva, and, lastly, Paris, where his teacher was Henry Estienne (Stephanus ...
(1536–1596) (parallel Greek and Latin) (Frankfurt 1586)
available at Google Books
* Complete edition by Johann Jakob Reiske (1774–1777) * ''Archaeologia'' by A. Kiessling (1860-1870)
vol. 1vol. 2vol. 3vol. 4
and V. Prou (1886) and C. Jacoby (1885–1925)
vol. 1vol. 2vol. 3vol. 4supplementum
*
Opuscula
' by Hermann Usener and Ludwig Radermacher (1899-1929) in the Teubner series (vol. 1 contains ''Commentaries on the Attic Orators'', ''Letter to Ammaeus'', ''On the Admirable Style of Demosthenes'', ''On the Character of Thucydides'', ''Letter to Ammaeus about Thucydides'', vol. 2 contains ''The Arrangement of Words'', ''On Imitation'', ''Letter to Gn. Pompeius'', ''The Art of Rhetoric'', ''Fragments'') * ''Roman Antiquities'' by V. Fromentin and J. H. Sautel (1998–), and ''Opuscula rhetorica'' by Germaine Aujac, Aujac (1978–), in the Collection Budé * English translation by Edward Spelman (1758)
available at Google Books
* Trans. Earnest Cary, Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library: ** ''Roman Antiquities, I'', 1937. ** ''Roman Antiquities, II'', 1939. ** ''Roman Antiquities, III'', 1940. ** ''Roman Antiquities, IV'', 1943. ** ''Roman Antiquities, V'', 1945. ** ''Roman Antiquities, VI'', 1947. ** ''Roman Antiquities, VII'', 1950. * Trans. Stephen Usher, ''Critical Essays, I'', Harvard University Press, 1974, * Trans. Stephen Usher, ''Critical Essays, II'', Harvard University Press, 1985,


See also

*Diodorus Siculus


References


Further reading

* Bonner, S. F. 1939. ''The literary treatises of Dionysius of Halicarnassus: A study in the development of critical method.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. * Damon, C. 1991. ''Aesthetic response and technical analysis in the rhetorical writings of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.'' Museum Helveticum 48: 33–58. * Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 1975. ''On Thucydides.'' Translated, with commentary, by W. Kendrick Pritchett. Berkeley and London: Univ. of California Press. * Gabba, Emilio. 1991. ''Dionysius and the history of archaic Rome.'' Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. * Gallia, Andrew B. 2007. ''Reassessing the 'Cumaean Chronicle': Greek chronology and Roman history in Dionysius of Halicarnassus.'' Journal of Roman Studies 97: 50–67. * Jonge, Casper Constantijn de. 2008. ''Between Grammar and Rhetoric: Dionysius of Halicarnassus On Language, Linguistics and Literature.'' Leiden: Brill. * Jonge, Casper C. de, and Richard L. Hunter (ed.). 2018. ''Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Augustan Rome''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Sacks, Kenneth. 1986. ''Rhetoric and speeches in Hellenistic historiography.'' Athenaeum 74: 383–95. * Usher, S. 1974–1985. ''Dionysius of Halicarnassus: The critical essays.'' 2 vols. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard Univ. Press. * Wiater, N. 2011. ''The ideology of classicism: Language, history and identity in Dionysius of Halicarnassus.'' Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. * Wooten, C. W. 1994. ''The Peripatetic tradition in the literary essays of Dionysius of Halicarnassus.'' In: Peripatetic rhetoric after Aristotle. Edited by W. W. Fortenbaugh and D. C. Mirhady, 121–30. Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities 6. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.


External links


English translation of the Antiquities
(at LacusCurtius)
1586 Edition with the original Greek from the Internet Archive
{{DEFAULTSORT:Dionysius Of Halicarnassus Ancient Greek educators Roman-era Greek historians Ancient Greeks in Rome Ancient Halicarnassians 1st-century BC Romans 1st-century BC Greek people 1st-century BC historians 1st-century BC writers Ancient Roman antiquarians Atticists (rhetoricians) Historians from Roman Anatolia Year of death unknown 60s BC births 10s deaths Greek Latinists