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Deep Bay is a
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

bay
between
Yuen Long District Yuen Long District (, formerly romanised as Un Long) is one of the district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly i ...
, in the
New Territories The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over ...
, Hong Kong and the city of
Shenzhen Shenzhen (; ; ), also known as Sham Chun, is a major Sub-provincial division, sub-provincial city and one of the Special economic zones of China, special economic zones of China. The city is located on the east bank of the Pearl River (China), ...

Shenzhen
in
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
Province. It is otherwise known as Hau Hoi Wan () in Hong Kong, and Shenzhen Bay () in Mainland China.


Name

The local Cantonese name of the bay is Hau Hoi Wan (), which means the ''back (sea) bay''. It is opposite to another bay, Tsin Hoi Wan (), which means ''front (sea) bay'', on the other side of Nantau Peninsula. The Chinese character 后 (Hau, lit. queen) in 后海灣 is the homonym of 後 (Hau, lit. back), and also its simplified character. Some attribute the character 后 (Hau) to the goddess of mercy and sea,
Tin Hau Mazu is a Chinese folk religion, Chinese sea goddess also known by #Names, several other names and titles. She is the apotheosis, deified form of the purported historical Lin Mo or Lin Moniang, a Fujianese shamaness whose life span is traditi ...

Tin Hau
(). The name of Shenzhen Bay came much later, at least after the establishment of
Shenzhen Special Economic Zone The Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (), was established in May 1980, and is among the first special economic zones of China. Until 2010, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) comprised four of the nine districts of Shenzhen Sub-provincial city, City ...
in 1980. The name became more notable after a hotel was named Shenzhen Bay. While the government of China uses the name widely, the people and government in Hong Kong continue to use the official name ().


Ecology

As the bay is largely enclosed by land,
fresh water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ...

fresh water
from the surrounding land enters the bay from a shallow shore of
wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes prevailing, especially in the soils. ...

wetland
. The margin of fresh water and
salt water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the ...

salt water
forms a valuable habitat for a wide variety of life. The bay's northern shore used to be lined with
marsh A marsh is a wetland A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently (for years or decades) or seasonally (for weeks or months). Flooding results in oxygen-free (Anoxic waters, anoxic) processes prevail ...

marsh
es. As Shenzhen began to develop into a major urban centre, the northern shoreline was
reclaimed Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a waste landfill), is the process of creating new Terrestrial ecoregion, land from oceans, list of seas, seas, Stream bed, riverbeds or lake beds ...
to provide land for buildings. Some departments had tried to preserve the endangered environment but mistakenly introduced foreign species of
mangrove A mangrove is a shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is oft ...

mangrove
, which threatened their indigenous counterparts. The marshes remain largely intact along the southern part of the bay, which is under Hong Kong's jurisdiction.
Mai Po Mai Po Marshes (; Hakka Chinese, Hong Kong Hakka: ''Mi3bu4 Sip5ti4'') is a nature reserve located in San Tin near Yuen Long in Hong Kong. it is within Yuen Long District. It is part of Deep Bay, Hong Kong, Deep Bay, an internationally signifi ...
is an important
habitat In ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers at the ...
for
migrating birds Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between Breeding in the wild, breeding and wintering grounds. Many species of bird migrate. Animal migration, Migration carries high costs in predation and mo ...
in the area. Pools of former fish farms is another attraction to birds.


Agriculture and fisheries

The bay is rich in
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...

fish
and
oyster Oyster is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is someti ...

oyster
s. Lau Fau Shan is particularly famous for oysters in Hong Kong. From Lau Fau Shan to Mai Po, the villagers made use of the special environment's pools to cultivate fishes. A by-product of this cultivation, greasyback shrimp (), is also a delicacy in Hong Kong.


Illegal immigrants

Before 1949, Chinese people were free to travel between
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
and
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
. In order to halt a large influx of refugees from mainland China, the
Hong Kong Government The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, commonly known as the Hong Kong Government or HKSAR Government, refers to the executive authorities of Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), offici ...
established border control and compulsory registration of Hong Kong residents. As a result, it was harder to migrate to Hong Kong than before and thus many crossed the border illegally. Deep Bay became the main access for illegal immigrants because border controls were harder to enforce at sea. It was relatively easy to cross the bay and there were major roads to the urban centres of Hong Kong. The rural town of Lau Fau Shan was the major landing point.


See also

* Qianhai, the commercial district of Shenzhen named after "front bay" *
List of bays in Hong Kong The following is a list of bays in Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special admi ...
*
Hong Kong–Shenzhen Western Corridor The Hong Kong–Shenzhen Western Corridor, also known for the main component Shenzhen Bay Bridge, is a cross-border highway between Shenzhen, Guangdong Province and Hong Kong. The highway bridge is a dual three-lane controlled-access highway ...
, the bridge crossing the Deep Bay from Shenzhen to Hong Kong


External links


Google Maps of Deep Bay
{{coord, 22.4992, 113.9701, type:landmark_source:enwiki-googlemaplink, display=title Bays of Hong Kong Bays of Guangdong Yuen Long District Lau Fau Shan Mai Po Nanshan District, Shenzhen