David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician, businessman,
lobbyist In politics, lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of lawfully attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, most often legislators or members of regulatory agency, regulatory agenc ...

, and author who served as
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
from 2010 to 2016. He was
Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
(MP) for
Witney Witney is a historic market town on the River Windrush The River Windrush is a tributary of the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England includi ...
2001 2001 was designated as International Year of Volunteers. Events January * January 1 – Kolkata (in West Bengal, India) officially restores its name from Calcutta. * January 9 – iTunes is launched. * January 10 – The U.S. ...
2016 2016 was designated as: * International Year of Pulses 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the sixty eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 2013. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ...
and leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016. He identifies as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both
economically liberal Economic liberalism (also known as fiscal conservatism in United States politics) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decisio ...
and socially liberal policies. Born in London to an upper-middle-class family, Cameron was educated at
Heatherdown School Heatherdown School, formally called Heatherdown Preparatory School, was an independent preparatory school (United Kingdom), preparatory school for boys, near Ascot, Berkshire, Ascot, in the England, English county of Berkshire. Set in of grounds, i ...
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
, and
Brasenose College, Oxford Brasenose College (BNC), officially The Principal and Scholars of the King’s Hall and College of Brasenose in Oxford, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, coll ...

Brasenose College, Oxford
. From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the
Conservative Research Department The Conservative Research Department (CRD) is part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's P ...
, latterly assisting the Conservative Prime Minister
John Major Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served in the Third Thatcher mi ...

John Major
, before leaving politics to work for
Carlton Communications Carlton was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common cul ...
in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the opposition shadow cabinet under Conservative leader
Michael Howard Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, (born Michael Hecht; 7 July 1941) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the le ...

Michael Howard
, and succeeded Howard in 2005. Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an increasingly socially liberal and
centrist Centrism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, su ...
position. Following the
2010 general election2010 general election may refer to: * 2010 Anguillan general election * 2010 Australian federal election * 2010 Bougainvillean general election * 2010 Brazilian general election * 2010 Burmese general election * 2010 Cook Islands general election * ...
negotiations Negotiation is a dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English lang ...
led to Cameron becoming prime minister as the head of a
coalition government A coalition government is a form of government in which political parties cooperate to form a government. The usual reason for such an arrangement is that no single party has achieved an absolute majority after an election An election is a ...
with the Liberal Democratsthe youngest holder of the office since the 1810s. His
premiership Premiership (the state of being a wikt:premier, premier) may refer to: * The post of premier or prime minister, who is the head of government in many parliamentary systems * Premier League, England's highest-level football league competition * Scot ...
was marked by the ongoing effects of the late-2000s financial crisis; these involved a large deficit in government finances that his government sought to reduce through
austerity measures Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. There are three primary types of austerity measures: higher taxes to fund spending, ...
. His administration passed the Health and Social Care Act and the
Welfare Reform Act Welfare Reform Act is a stock short title used for legislation in the United Kingdom relating to social security benefits. The Bill for an Act with this short title may have been known as a Welfare Reform Bill during its passage through Parliament. ...
, which introduced large-scale changes to
healthcare Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the , is "a state of complete physical, and social and not merely the absence of and ".. (2006)''Constitution of the World Health Organization''– ''Basic Docume ...
welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
. He also enforced stricter immigration policies, introduced reforms to education and oversaw the 2012 London Olympics. It privatised the
Royal Mail Royal Mail Group plc is a British multinational mail, postal service and courier company, originally established in 1516 as a department of the English government. The company's subsidiary Royal Mail Group Limited operates the brands Royal Mail (le ...

Royal Mail
and some other state assets, and legalised same-sex marriage in England and Wales. Internationally, Cameron's government intervened militarily in the
First Libyan Civil War The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes define ...
and authorised the bombing of the
Islamic State , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al-Qaeda , 3 = 13 October 2006: Declaration of an Islamic ...
. Domestically, his government oversaw the referendum on voting reform and
Scottish independence referendum A referendum took place on Thursday 18 September 2014 on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. The referendum question was, "Should Scotland be an independent country?", which voters answered with "Yes" or "No". The "No" side won ...
, both of which confirmed Cameron's favoured outcome. When the Conservatives secured an unexpected majority in the
2015 general election This national electoral calendar for 2015 lists the national/Federation, federal direct elections that were held in 2015 in all List of sovereign states, sovereign states and their Dependent territory, dependent territories. By-elections are e ...
, he remained as prime minister, this time leading a Conservative-only government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he introduced a referendum on the UK's continuing membership of the EU. Cameron supported continued membership; following the success of the Leave vote, he resigned to make way for a new prime minister and was succeeded by
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
. Cameron has been the President of since 2017. Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and for decreasing the United Kingdom's national deficit. However, he has been criticised for his decision to hold the referendum on Britain's membership of the EU, which led to political instability in the UK during the late
2010s File:2010s collage v21.png, From left, clockwise: Anti-government protests during the Arab Spring The Arab Spring ( ar, الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across ...
. He has also been accused of elitism and political opportunism. After leaving office he was implicated in the Greensill scandal after lobbying government ministers and civil servants on behalf of Greensill Capital.

Early life and career

Early family life

David William Donald Cameron was born on 9 October 1966 in
Marylebone Marylebone (usually , also , , , ) is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is th ...
, London, and raised at Peasemore in
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers ...

. He has a brother, Alexander Cameron QC (born 1963), a
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialis ...

, and two sisters. He is the younger son of Ian Donald Cameron (1932–2010) a
stockbroker A stockbroker is a regulated broker A broker is a person or firm who arranges transactions between a Purchasing, buyer and a sales, seller for a commission (remuneration), commission when the deal is executed. A broker who also acts as a sell ...

, and his wife Mary Fleur, a retired
Justice of the Peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
and a daughter of Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet. The journalist
Toby Young Toby Daniel Moorsom Young (born 17 October 1963) is a British social commentator and the London associate editor at ''Quillette'', for whom he has written since 2017. A graduate of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord ...

Toby Young
has described Cameron's background as being "upper-upper-middle class". Cameron's father, Ian, was born at Blairmore House near
Huntly Huntly ( gd, Srath Bhalgaidh or ''Hunndaidh'') is a town in Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a g ...

Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administr ...

, and died near
Toulon Toulon (, , ; oc, label=Occitan language, Provençal, Tolon , , ) is a city on the French Riviera and a large port on the Mediterranean coast, with a major naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region, and ...

, France, on 8 September 2010; Ian was born with both legs deformed, and underwent repeated operations to correct this. Blairmore was built by Cameron's great-great-grandfather, Alexander Geddes, who had made a fortune in the
grain trade A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double albu ...

grain trade
Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago, Illinois
, before returning to Scotland in the 1880s. Blairmore was sold soon after Ian's birth. Cameron has said, "On my mother's side of the family, her mother was a Llewellyn, so
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
. I'm a real mixture of
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
, Welsh, and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
." He has also referenced the
German Jewish The history of the Jews in Germany goes back at least to the year 321, and continued through the Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (''circa'' 1000–1299 CE) when Jews, Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jews, ...
ancestry of one of his great-grandfathers, Arthur Levita, a descendant of the
Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic languages, Germanic family of languages (the others being the ...

Elia Levita Elia Levita (13 February 146928 January 1549) ( he, אליהו בן אשר הלוי אשכנזי), also known as Elijah Levita, Elias Levita, Élie Lévita, Elia Levita Ashkenazi, Eliahu Levita, Eliyahu haBahur ("Elijah the Bachelor"), Elye Bokh ...


From the age of seven, Cameron was educated at two
independent schools An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
: at
Heatherdown School Heatherdown School, formally called Heatherdown Preparatory School, was an independent preparatory school (United Kingdom), preparatory school for boys, near Ascot, Berkshire, Ascot, in the England, English county of Berkshire. Set in of grounds, i ...
Winkfield Winkfield is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or ...
(near Ascot) in Berkshire, which counts
Prince Andrew Prince Andrew, Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960), is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or ...
Prince Edward Prince Edward may refer to: People * Edward, the Black Prince (1330–1376), eldest son of King Edward III and father of King Richard II * Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales (1453–1471), son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret ...
among its old boys. Owing to good grades, he entered its top academic class almost two years early. At the age of 13 he went on to
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
in Berkshire, following his father and elder brother. His early interest was in art. Six weeks before taking his
O-Levels The O Level (Ordinary Level; official title: General Certificate of Education: Ordinary Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education. It was introduced in place of the School Certificate (UK) ...
, he was caught smoking
cannabis ''Cannabis'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including ...
. He admitted the offence and had not been involved in selling drugs, so he was not expelled; instead he was fined, prevented from leaving the school grounds, and given a "
Georgic Image:Meister des Vergilius Romanus 001.jpg, ''Georgics'' Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Roman Virgil. The ''Georgics'' (; ) is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BCE. As the name suggests (from the Greek language, Greek word ...
" (a punishment that involved copying 500 lines of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

text).Elliott and Hanning, p. 32. Cameron passed twelve O-Levels and then three
A-level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
History of art The history of art focuses on objects made by humans for any number of spiritual, narrative, philosophical, symbolic, conceptual, documentary, decorative, and even functional and other purposes, but with a primary emphasis on its aesthetic ...
; History, in which he was taught by Michael Kidson; and Economics with Politics. He obtained three 'A' grades and a '1' grade in the Scholarship Level exam in Economics and Politics.Elliott and Hanning, pp. 45–46. The following autumn, he passed the entrance exam for the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, and was offered an
exhibition An exhibition, in the most general sense, is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur within a cultural or educational setting such as a museum A museum ( ; plural museums o ...
Brasenose College Brasenose College (BNC), officially The Principal and Scholars of the King’s Hall and College of Brasenose in Oxford, is one of the Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...

Brasenose College
.Elliott and Hanning, p. 46. After leaving Eton in 1984, Cameron started a nine-month
gap year A gap year, also known as a sabbatical year, is typically a year-long break before or after college/university during which students engage in various educational and developmental activities, such as travel or some type of regular work. Students ...
. For three months he worked as a researcher for his godfather
Tim Rathbone John Rankin Rathbone (17 March 1933 – 12 July 2002), known as Tim Rathbone, was the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) for the seat of Lewes (UK Parliament constituency), Lewes ...
, then Conservative MP for
Lewes Lewes () is the county town of East Sussex, England. It is the police and judicial centre for all of Sussex and is home to Sussex Police, East Sussex Fire & Rescue Service, Lewes Crown Court and HMP Lewes. The civil parishes in England, civil p ...
, during which time he attended debates in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...

House of Commons
.Elliott and Hanning, pp. 46–47. Through his father, he was then employed for a further three months in Hong Kong by
Jardine Matheson Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited (also known as Jardines) is a Hong Kong-based Bermuda-domiciled British multinational conglomerate (company), conglomerate. It has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and secondary listings on the ...
as a 'ship jumper', an administrative post.Elliott and Hanning, pp. 47–48. Returning from Hong Kong, Cameron visited the then-
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, where he was approached by two
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...

men speaking fluent English. He was later told by one of his professors that it was "definitely an attempt" by the
KGB The KGB ( rus, links=no, Комитет государственной безопасности (КГБ), a=ru-KGB.ogg, p=kəmʲɪˈtʲet ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪn(ː)əj bʲɪzɐˈpasnəsʲtʲɪ, Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), translated ...
to recruit him. In October 1985, Cameron began his
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
course in
Philosophy, Politics and Economics#REDIRECT Philosophy, politics and economics Philosophy, politics and economics, or politics, philosophy and economics (PPE), is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more acade ...
(PPE) at Brasenose College, Oxford."Brasenose alumnus becomes Prime Minister"
. Brasenose College. No date. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
His tutor,
Vernon Bogdanor Vernon Bernard Bogdanor (; born 16 July 1943) is a British Research Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions ...
, has described him as "one of the ablest" students he has taught, with "moderate and sensible Conservative"
political views An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely epistemic, in which "practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones." Formerly applied prima ...
Guy Spier Guy Spier (born February 4, 1966) is a Zurich-based investor and author of a best-selling book on investing titled ''The Education of a Value Investor''. He is well known for bidding US$650,100 with Mohnish Pabrai for a charity lunch with Warren Bu ...
, who shared tutorials with him, remembers him as an outstanding student: "We were doing our best to grasp basic economic concepts. David—there was nobody else who came even close. He would be integrating them with the way the British political system is put together. He could have lectured me on it, and I would have sat there and taken notes." When commenting in 2006 on his former pupil's ideas about a "Bill of Rights" to replace the
Human Rights ActHuman Rights Act may refer to: Australia *Human Rights Act 2004 (Australian Capital Territory) *Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Victoria) Canada *Canadian Human Rights Act (Federal) *Human Rights Act 2003 (Nunavut) Ireland ...
, however, Bogdanor, himself a Liberal Democrat, said, "I think he is very confused. I've read his speech and it's filled with contradictions. There are one or two good things in it but one glimpses them, as it were, through a mist of misunderstanding". While at Oxford, Cameron was a member of the
Bullingdon Club The Bullingdon Club is a private all-male dining club A dining club (UK) or eating club (US) is a social group In the social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, socie ...
, an exclusive student dining society that has a reputation for an outlandish drinking culture associated with boisterous behaviour and damaging property. Cameron's period in the Bullingdon Club was examined in a
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
docu-drama, '' When Boris Met Dave'', the title referring to Boris Johnson, another future Conservative prime minister who was a member at the same time. Cameron graduated in 1988 with a first-class honours BA degree (later promoted to an Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), MA by seniority).

Early political career

Conservative Research Department

After graduation, Cameron worked for the
Conservative Research Department The Conservative Research Department (CRD) is part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's P ...
between September 1988 and 1993. His first brief was Trade and Industry, Energy and Privatisation; he befriended fellow young colleagues, including Edward Llewellyn (Conservative adviser), Edward Llewellyn, Ed Vaizey and Rachel Whetstone. They and others formed a group they called the "Smith Square set", which was dubbed the "Brat Pack" by the press, though it is better known as the "Notting Hill set", a name given to it pejoratively by Derek Conway. In 1991, Cameron was seconded to Downing Street to work on briefing
John Major Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party (UK), Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served in the Third Thatcher mi ...

John Major
for the then twice-weekly sessions of Prime Minister's Questions. One newspaper gave Cameron the credit for "sharper ... Despatch box performances" by Major,"Atticus", ''The Sunday Times'', 30 June 1991 which included highlighting for Major "a dreadful piece of doublespeak" by Tony Blair (then the Labour Party (UK), Labour Employment spokesman) over the effect of a national minimum wage."House of Commons 6th series, vol. 193, cols. 1133–34"
''Hansard''. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
He became head of the political section of the Conservative Research Department, and in August 1991 was tipped to follow Judith Chaplin as political secretary to the prime minister."Diary", ''The Times'', 14 August 1991. However, Cameron lost to Jonathan Hill, Baron Hill of Oareford, Jonathan Hill, who was appointed in March 1992. Instead, Cameron was given the responsibility for briefing Major for his press conferences during the 1992 United Kingdom general election, 1992 general election.Wood, Nicholas (13 March 1992). "New aide for Prime Minister". ''The Times'' (London). During the campaign, Cameron was one of the young "brat pack" of party strategists who worked between 12 and 20 hours a day, sleeping in the house of Alan Duncan in Smith Square, Gayfere Street, Westminster, which had been Major's campaign headquarters during his bid for the Conservative leadership."Sleep little babies". ''The Times'' (London). 20 March 1992. Cameron headed the economic section; it was while working on this campaign that Cameron first worked closely with and befriended Steve Hilton, who was later to become Director of Strategy during his party leadership.Wood, Nicholas (23 March 1992). "Strain starts to show on Major's round the clock 'brat pack. ''The Times'' (London). The strain of getting up at 04:45 every day was reported to have led Cameron to decide to leave politics in favour of journalism."Campaign fall-out". ''The Times''. 30 March 1992.

Special Adviser to the Chancellor

The Conservatives' unexpected success in the 1992 election led Cameron to hit back at older party members who had criticised him and his colleagues, saying "whatever people say about us, we got the campaign right", and that they had listened to their campaign workers on the ground rather than the newspapers. He revealed he had led other members of the team across Smith Square to jeer at Transport House, the former Labour headquarters.Pierce, Andrew (11 March 1992). "We got it right, say Patten's brat pack". ''The Sunday Times'' (London). Cameron was rewarded with a promotion to Special advisers (UK government), Special Adviser to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Norman Lamont."Brats on the move". ''The Times'' (London). 14 April 1992. Cameron was working for Lamont at the time of Black Wednesday, when pressure from currency speculators forced the pound sterling out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. At the 1992 Conservative Party conference, Cameron had difficulty trying to arrange to brief the speakers in the economic debate, having to resort to putting messages on the internal television system imploring the mover of the motion, Patricia Morris, Baroness Morris of Bolton, Patricia Morris, to contact him."Diary", ''The Times'', 8 October 1992. Later that month, Cameron joined a delegation of Special Advisers who visited Germany to build better relations with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Democratic Union; he was reported to be "still smarting" over the Deutsche Bundesbank, Bundesbank's contribution to the economic crisis."Peace-mongers". ''The Times'' (London). 20 October 1992. Lamont fell out with John Major after Black Wednesday and became highly unpopular with the public. Taxes needed to be raised in the 1993 Budget, and Cameron fed the options Lamont was considering through to Conservative Campaign Headquarters for their political acceptability to be assessed.Hencke, David (8 February 1993). "Treasury tax review eyes fuel and children's clothes". ''The Guardian'' (London). By May 1993, the Conservatives' average poll rating dropped below 30%, where they would remain until the 1997 United Kingdom general election, 1997 general election. Major and Lamont's personal ratings also declined dramatically. However, Lamont's unpopularity did not necessarily affect Cameron, who was considered as a potential "kamikaze" candidate for the 1993 Newbury by-election, Newbury by-election, which includes the area where he grew up.White, Michael; Wintour, Patrick (26 February 1993). "Points of Order". ''The Guardian'' (London). However, he decided not to stand. During the by-election, Lamont gave the response "Non, je ne regrette rien, Je ne regrette rien" to a question about whether he most regretted claiming to see "the green shoots of recovery" or admitting to "singing in his bath" with happiness at leaving the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. Cameron was identified by one journalist as having inspired this gaffe; it was speculated that the heavy Conservative defeat in Newbury may have cost Cameron his chance of becoming Chancellor himself, even though as he was not a Member of Parliament he could not have been."Careless talk". ''The Times'' (London). 10 May 1993. Lamont was sacked at the end of May 1993, and decided not to write the usual letter of resignation; Cameron was given the responsibility to issue to the press a statement of self-justification.Smith, David; Prescott, Michael (30 May 1993). "Norman Lamont: the final days" (Focus). ''The Sunday Times'' (London).

Special Adviser to the Home Secretary

After Lamont was sacked, Cameron remained at the HM Treasury, Treasury for less than a month before being specifically recruited by Home Secretary
Michael Howard Michael Howard, Baron Howard of Lympne, (born Michael Hecht; 7 July 1941) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the le ...

Michael Howard
. It was commented that he was still "very much in favour""No score flaw". ''The Times'' (London). 22 June 1993. and it was later reported that many at the Treasury would have preferred Cameron to carry on.Grigg, John (2 October 1993). "Primed Minister". ''The Times'' (London). At the beginning of September 1993, Cameron applied to go on Conservative Central Office's list of prospective parliamentary candidates (PPCs)."Newbury's finest". ''The Times'' (London). 6 September 1993. Cameron was much more socially liberal than Howard but enjoyed working for him. According to Derek Lewis (prison governor), Derek Lewis, then Director-General of Her Majesty's Prison Service, Cameron showed him a "his and her list" of proposals made by Howard and his wife, Sandra Howard, Sandra. Lewis said that Sandra Howard's list included reducing the quality of prison food, although she denied this claim. Lewis reported that Cameron was "uncomfortable" about the list.Leigh, David (23 February 1997). "Mrs Howard's own recipe for prison reform". ''The Observer'' (London). In defending Sandra Howard and insisting that she made no such proposal, the journalist Bruce Anderson (columnist), Bruce Anderson wrote that Cameron had proposed a much shorter definition on prison catering which revolved around the phrase "balanced diet", and that Lewis had written thanking Cameron for a valuable contribution.Anderson, Bruce (1 March 1997). "Derek Lewis: Big job, little man, inaccurate book". ''The Spectator'' (London). During his work for Howard, Cameron often briefed the media. In March 1994, someone leaked to the press that the Labour Party had called for a meeting with John Major to discuss a consensus on the Prevention of Terrorism Acts, Prevention of Terrorism Act. After an inquiry failed to find the source of the leak, Labour MP Peter Mandelson demanded assurance from Howard that Cameron had not been responsible, which Howard gave.Wintour, Patrick (10 March 1994). "Smith fumes at untraced leak". ''The Guardian'' (London). A senior Home Office civil servant noted the influence of Howard's Special Advisers, saying previous incumbents "would listen to the evidence before making a decision. Howard just talks to young public school gentlemen from the party headquarters."


In July 1994, Cameron left his role as Special Adviser to work as the Director of Corporate Affairs at
Carlton Communications Carlton was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common cul ...
."Smallweed". ''The Guardian'' (London). 16 July 1994. Carlton, which had won the ITV (TV network), ITV franchise for London weekdays in 1991, was a growing media company which also had film-distribution and video-producing arms. Cameron was suggested for the role to Carlton executive chairman Michael P. Green by his later mother-in-law Lady Astor. Cameron left Carlton to run for Parliament in 1997, returning to his job after his defeat. In 1997, Cameron played up the company's prospects for digital terrestrial television, for which it joined with ITV Granada and Sky (United Kingdom), Sky to form ITV Digital, British Digital Broadcasting. In a roundtable discussion on the future of broadcasting in 1998 he criticised the effect of overlapping different regulators on the industry."We can't wait any longer to map the digital mediascape". ''New Statesman'' (London). 3 April 1998. Carlton's consortium did win the digital terrestrial franchise but the resulting company suffered difficulties in attracting subscribers. Cameron resigned as Director of Corporate Affairs in February 2001 in order to run for Parliament for a second time, although he remained on the payroll as a consultant.

Parliamentary candidacies

Having been approved for the PPCs' list, Cameron began looking for a seat to contest for the 1997 general election. He was reported to have missed out on selection for Ashford (UK Parliament constituency), Ashford in December 1994, after failing to get to the selection meeting as a result of train delays."Pendennis". ''The Observer'' (London). 1 January 1995. In January 1996, when two shortlisted contenders dropped out, Cameron was interviewed and subsequently selected for Stafford, a constituency revised in boundary changes, which was projected to have a Conservative majority. The incumbent Conservative MP, Bill Cash, ran instead in the neighbouring constituency of Stone (UK Parliament constituency), Stone, where he was re-elected. At the 1996 Conservative Party Conference, Cameron called for tax cuts in the forthcoming Budget to be targeted at the low-paid and to "small businesses where people took money out of their own pockets to put into companies to keep them going".Sherman, Jill (11 October 1996). "Clarke challenged to show gains of economic recovery". ''The Times'' (London). He also said the Party "should be proud of the Tory tax record but that people needed reminding of its achievements ... It's time to return to our tax-cutting agenda. The socialist prime ministers of Europe have endorsed Tony Blair because they want a federal pussy cat and not a British lion." When writing his election address, Cameron made his own opposition to British membership of the Euro, single European currency clear, pledging not to support it. This was a break with official Conservative policy but about 200 other candidates were making similar declarations.Travis, Alan (17 April 1997). "Rebels' seven-year march". ''The Guardian'' (London). Otherwise, Cameron kept closely to the national Party line (politics), party line. He also campaigned using the claim that a Labour government would increase the cost of a pint of beer by 24p; however, the Labour candidate, David Kidney, portrayed Cameron as "a right-wing Tory". Initially Cameron thought he had a 50/50 chance, but as the campaign wore on and the scale of the impending Conservative defeat grew, Cameron prepared himself for defeat. On election day, Stafford had a swing (politics), swing of 10.7%, almost the same as the national swing, which made it one of the many seats to fall to Labour: Kidney defeated Cameron by 24,606 votes (47.5%) to 20,292 (39.2%), a majority of 4,314 (8.3%).Elliott and Hanning (2007), pp. 172–5. In the round of selection contests taking place in the run-up to the 2001 United Kingdom general election, 2001 general election, Cameron again attempted to be selected for a winnable seat. He tried for the 1999 Kensington and Chelsea by-election, Kensington and Chelsea seat after the death of Alan Clark, but did not make the shortlist. He was in the final two but narrowly lost at Wealden (UK Parliament constituency), Wealden in March 2000,White, Michael (14 March 2000). "Rightwingers and locals preferred for safe Tory seats". ''The Guardian'' (London). a loss ascribed by Samantha Cameron to his lack of spontaneity when speaking.Elliott and Hanning (2007), p. 193. On 4 April 2000, Cameron was selected as PPC for
Witney Witney is a historic market town on the River Windrush The River Windrush is a tributary of the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England includi ...
in Oxfordshire. This had been a safe Conservative seat, but its sitting MP Shaun Woodward (who had worked with Cameron on the 1992 election campaign) had "crossed the floor" to join the Labour Party and was selected instead for the safe Labour seat of St Helens South (UK Parliament constituency), St Helens South. Cameron's biographers Francis Elliott and James Hanning describe the two men as being "on fairly friendly terms".Elliott and Hanning (2007), p. 192. Cameron, advised in his strategy by friend Catherine Fall, Baroness Fall, Catherine Fall, put a great deal of effort into "nursing" his potential constituency, turning up at social functions, and attacking Woodward for changing his mind on fox hunting to support a ban."Why Shaun Woodward changed his mind" (Letter). ''The Daily Telegraph''. 21 December 2000. During the election campaign, Cameron accepted the offer of writing a regular column for ''The Guardian''s online section."The Cameron diaries"
(archive). ''The Guardian'' (London).
He won the seat with a 1.9% swing to the Conservatives, taking 22,153 votes (45%) to Labour candidate Michael Bartlet's 14,180 (28.8%), a majority of 7,973 (16.2%).''Dod's Guide to the General Election June 2001''. (Vacher Dod Publishing, 2001). p. 430.

In office

Member of Parliament, 2001–2005

Upon his election to Parliament, he served as a member of the Commons Home Affairs Select Committee, a prominent appointment for a newly elected MP. Cameron proposed that the Committee launch an inquiry into the law on drugs,Elliott, Francis; Hanning, James (2007). ''Cameron: The Rise of the New Conservative''. London: Fourth Estate. p. 200. and urged the consideration of "radical options"."Examination of Witnesses: question 123"
''Hansard'', 30 October 2001. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
The report recommended a downgrading of MDMA, ecstasy from Class A to Class B, as well as moves towards a policy of 'harm reduction', which Cameron defended."Let's inject reality into the drugs war", ''Edinburgh Evening News'', 22 May 2002 Cameron endorsed Iain Duncan Smith in the 2001 Conservative Party leadership election and organised an event in Witney for party supporters to hear John Bercow speaking for him. Two days before Duncan Smith won the leadership contest on 13 September 2001, the September 11 attacks, 9/11 attacks took place in New York City. Cameron described Tony Blair's response to the attacks as "masterful", saying "He moved fast, and set the agenda both at home and abroad. He correctly identified the problem of Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism, the inadequacy of our response both domestically and internationally, and supported – quite rightly in my view – the action to United States invasion of Afghanistan, remove the Taliban regime from Afghanistan." Cameron determinedly attempted to increase his public visibility, offering quotations on matters of public controversy. He opposed the payment of compensation to Gurbux Singh, who had resigned as head of the Commission for Racial Equality after a confrontation with the police;Johnston, Philip; Barrow, Becky (8 August 2002). "£129,000 for race chief in drunken fracas". ''The Daily Telegraph'' (London). and commented that the Home Affairs Select Committee had taken a long time to discuss whether the phrase "black market" should be used."They said what?". ''The Observer'' (London). 30 June 2002. However, he was passed over for a front-bench promotion in July 2002; Conservative leader Iain Duncan Smith did invite Cameron and his ally George Osborne to coach him on Prime Minister's Questions in November 2002. The next week, Cameron deliberately abstained in a vote on allowing same-sex and unmarried couples to adopt children jointly, against a whip to oppose; his abstention was noted."Rebels and non-voters". ''The Times'' (London). 6 November 2002. The wide scale of abstentions and rebellious votes destabilised the Duncan Smith leadership. In June 2003, Cameron was appointed a Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet (United Kingdom), shadow minister in the Privy Council Office (United Kingdom), Privy Council Office as a deputy to Eric Forth, then Shadow Leader of the House of Commons, Shadow Leader of the House. He also became a vice-chairman of the Conservative Party when Michael Howard took over the leadership in November of that year. He was appointed Opposition frontbench local government spokesman in 2004, before being promoted to the Shadow Cabinet that June as head of policy co-ordination. Later, he became Shadow Education Secretary in the post-election reshuffle. Daniel Finkelstein has said of the period leading up to Cameron's election as leader of the Conservative party that "a small group of us (myself, David Cameron, George Osborne, Michael Gove, Nick Boles, Nick Herbert I think, once or twice) used to meet up in the offices of Policy Exchange, eat pizza, and consider the future of the Conservative Party". Cameron's relationship with Osborne is regarded as particularly close; Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi suggested the closeness of Osborne's relationship with Cameron meant the two effectively shared power during Cameron's time as prime minister. From February 2002 to August 2005 he was a non-executive director of Urbium PLC, operator of the Tiger Tiger (nightclub), Tiger Tiger bar chain.Branigan, Tania; White, Michael (18 November 2005)
"Cameron defends drinks industry links – and tells Paxman where he's going wrong"
''The Guardian'' (London). Retrieved 20 December 2006.

Conservative Party leadership

2005 leadership election

Following the Labour victory in the 2005 United Kingdom general election, May 2005 general election, Michael Howard announced his resignation as leader of the Conservative Party and set a lengthy timetable for the 2005 Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, leadership election. Cameron announced on 29 September 2005 that he would be a candidate. Parliamentary colleagues supporting him included Boris Johnson, Shadow Chancellor George Osborne, Shadow Defence Secretary and deputy leader of the party Michael Ancram, Oliver Letwin and former party leader William Hague. His campaign did not gain wide support until his speech, delivered without notes, at the 2005 Conservative party conference. In the speech he vowed to make people "feel good about being Conservatives again" and said he wanted "to switch on a whole new generation." His speech was well-received; ''The Daily Telegraph'' said speaking without notes "showed a sureness and a confidence that is greatly to his credit". In the first ballot of Conservative MPs on 18 October 2005, Cameron came second, with 56 votes, slightly more than expected; David Davis (British politician), David Davis had fewer than predicted at 62 votes; Liam Fox came third with 42 votes; and Kenneth Clarke was eliminated with 38 votes. In the second ballot on 20 October 2005, Cameron came first with 90 votes; David Davis was second, with 57; and Liam Fox was eliminated with 51 votes. All 198 Conservative MPs voted in both ballots. The next stage of the election process, between Davis and Cameron, was a vote open to the entire party membership. Cameron was elected with more than twice as many votes as Davis and more than half of all ballots issued; Cameron won 134,446 votes on a 78% Voter turnout, turnout, to Davis's 64,398. Although Davis had initially been the favourite, it was widely acknowledged that his candidacy was marred by a disappointing conference speech. Cameron's election as the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom), Leader of the Opposition was announced on 6 December 2005. As is customary for an Opposition leader not already a member, upon election Cameron became a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Privy Council, being formally approved to join on 14 December 2005, and sworn of the council on 8 March 2006.

Reaction to Cameron as Leader

Cameron's relative youth and inexperience before becoming leader invited satirical comparison with Tony Blair. ''Private Eye'' soon published a picture of both leaders on its front cover, with the caption "World's first face transplant a success". On the Left-wing politics, left, the ''New Statesman'' unfavourably likened his "new style of politics" to Tony Blair's early leadership years. Cameron was accused of paying excessive attention to appearance: ITV News broadcast footage from the 2006 Conservative Party Conference in Bournemouth shows him wearing four different sets of clothes within a few hours. In his column for ''The Guardian'', comedy writer and broadcaster Charlie Brooker described the Conservative leader as "a hollow Easter egg with no bag of sweets inside" in April 2007. On the Right-wing politics, right of the party, Norman Tebbit, the former Conservative chairman, likened Cameron to Pol Pot, "intent on purging even the memory of Thatcherism before building a New Modern Compassionate Green Globally Aware Party".''The Economist'' (London). 4 February 2006, p. 32. Quentin Davies MP, who defected from the Conservatives to Labour on 26 June 2007, branded him "superficial, unreliable and [with] an apparent lack of any clear convictions" and stated that David Cameron had turned the Conservative Party's mission into a "PR agenda". Traditionalist conservatism, Traditionalist conservative columnist and author Peter Hitchens wrote, "Mr Cameron has abandoned the last significant difference between his party and the established left", by embracing social liberalism.Hitchens, Peter (14 December 2005)
"The Tories are doomed"
''The Guardian'' (London). p. 28. Retrieved 6 November 2006.
''The Daily Telegraph'' correspondent and blogger Gerald Warner was particularly scathing about Cameron's leadership, saying that it alienated traditionalist conservative elements from the Conservative Party. Before he became Conservative leader, Cameron was reportedly known to friends and family as "Dave", though his preference is "David" in public.Rumbelow, Helen (21 May 2005
"The gilded youth whose son steeled him in adversity"
''The Times'' (London). Retrieved 4 September 2007.
Daniel Finkelstein in October 2006 objected to those attempting to belittle Cameron by calling him "Dave". See Labour used the slogan Dave the Chameleon in their 2006 United Kingdom local elections, 2006 local elections party broadcast to portray Cameron as an ever-changing Populism, populist, which was criticised as negative campaigning by the Conservative press including ''The Daily Telegraph'', though Cameron asserted the broadcast had become his daughter's "favourite video".Hugo Rifkind, Rifkind, Hugo (17 May 2006)
"Well, that worked"
''The Times'' "People" blog. Retrieved 9 November 2006.

Allegations of recreational drug use

During the leadership election, allegations were made that Cameron had used cannabis and cocaine recreationally before becoming an MP. Pressed on this point during the BBC television programme ''Question Time (TV series), Question Time'', Cameron expressed the view that everybody was allowed to "err and stray" in their past. During his 2005 Conservative leadership campaign he addressed the question of drug consumption by remarking that "I did lots of things before I came into politics which I shouldn't have done. We all did."

Shadow Cabinet appointments

His Shadow Cabinet appointments included MPs associated with the various wings of the party. Former leader William Hague was appointed to the Foreign Affairs brief, while both George Osborne and David Davis were retained, as Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer and Shadow Home Secretary respectively. Hague, assisted by Davis, stood in for Cameron during his Parental leave, paternity leave in February 2006. In June 2008, Davis announced his intention to David Davis by-election campaign, 2008, resign as an MP, and was immediately replaced as Shadow Home Secretary by Dominic Grieve; Davis' surprise move was seen as a challenge to the changes introduced under Cameron's leadership. A Cabinet reshuffle, reshuffle of the Shadow Cabinet was undertaken in January 2009. The chief change was the appointment of former Chancellor of the Exchequer Kenneth Clarke as Shadow Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Secretary, David Cameron stating that "With Ken Clarke's arrival, we now have the best economic team." The reshuffle also saw eight other changes made.

European Conservatives and Reformists

During his successful 2005 campaign to be elected Leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron pledged that the Conservative Party's Member of the European Parliament, Members of the European Parliament would leave the European People's Party group, which had a "federalist" approach to the European Union.White, Michael; Branigan, Tania (18 October 2005)
"Clarke battles to avoid Tory wooden spoon".
''The Guardian'' (London). p. 1.
Once elected Cameron began discussions with right-wing and Euroscepticism, Eurosceptic parties in other European countries, mainly in eastern Europe, and in July 2006 he concluded an agreement to form the Movement for European Reform with the Czech Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic), Civic Democratic Party, leading to the formation of a new European Parliament group, the European Conservatives and Reformists, in 2009 after the 2009 European Parliament election in the United Kingdom, European Parliament elections.Watt, Nicholas (13 July 2006)
"Cameron to postpone creation of new EU group".
''The Guardian'' (London). p. 14.
Cameron attended a gathering at Warsaw's Palladium cinema celebrating the foundation of the alliance. In forming the caucus, which had 54 MEPs drawn from eight of the 27 Member state of the European Union, EU member states, Cameron reportedly broke with two decades of Conservative co-operation with the centre-right Christian Democrats, the European People's Party (EPP), on the grounds that they are dominated by European federalism, federalists and supporters of the Treaty of Lisbon, Lisbon treaty. EPP leader Wilfried Martens, former prime minister of Belgium, has stated "Cameron's campaign has been to take his party back to the centre in every policy area with one major exception: Europe. ... I can't understand his tactics. Angela Merkel, Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy, Sarkozy will never accept his Euroscepticism."

Shortlists for Parliamentary candidates

Similarly, Cameron's initial "A-List (Conservative), A-List" of prospective parliamentary candidates was attacked by members of his party, and the policy was discontinued in favour of sex-balanced final shortlists. Before being discontinued, the policy had been criticised by senior Conservative MP and former Prisons Spokeswoman Ann Widdecombe as an "insult to women", and she had accused Cameron of "storing up huge problems for the future."McSmith, Andy (22 August 2006). "Cameron push for more female MPs 'an insult to women. ''The Independent'' (London).

South Africa

In April 2009, ''The Independent'' reported that in 1989, while Nelson Mandela remained imprisoned under the apartheid regime, David Cameron had accepted a trip to South Africa paid for by an anti-sanctions lobby firm. A spokesperson for Cameron responded by saying that the Conservative Party was at that time opposed to economic sanctions, sanctions against South Africa and that his trip was a fact-finding mission. However, the newspaper reported that Cameron's then superior at Conservative Research Department called the trip "jolly", saying that "it was all terribly relaxed, just a little treat, a perk of the job. The P. W. Botha, Botha regime was attempting to make itself look less horrible, but I don't regard it as having been of the faintest political consequence." Cameron distanced himself from his party's history of opposing sanctions against the regime. He was criticised by Labour MP Peter Hain, himself an anti-apartheid campaigner.

Raising teaching standards

At the launch of the Conservative Party's education manifesto in January 2010, Cameron declared an admiration for the "brazenly elite" approach to education of countries such as Singapore and South Korea and expressed a desire to "elevate the status of teaching in our country". He suggested the adoption of more stringent criteria for entry to teaching and offered repayment of the loans of maths and science graduates obtaining first or 2.1 degrees from "good" universities. Wes Streeting, then president of the National Union of Students (United Kingdom), National Union of Students, said "The message that the Conservatives are sending to the majority of students is that if you didn't go to a university attended by members of the Shadow Cabinet, they don't believe you're worth as much."


During the United Kingdom parliamentary expenses scandal, MPs expenses scandal in 2009, Cameron said he would lead Conservatives in repaying "excessive" expenses and threatened to expel MPs that refused after the expense claims of several members of his shadow cabinet had been questioned:
We have to acknowledge just how bad this is, the public are really angry and we have to start by saying, "Look, this system that we have, that we used, that we operated, that we took part in—it was wrong and we are sorry about that".
One day later, ''The Daily Telegraph'' published figures showing over five years he had claimed £82,450 on his second home allowance. Cameron repaid £680 claimed for repairs to his constituency home. Although he was not accused of breaking any rules, Cameron was placed on the defensive over mortgage interest expense claims covering his constituency home, after a report in ''The Mail on Sunday'' suggested he could have reduced the mortgage interest bill by putting an additional £75,000 of his own money towards purchasing the home in Witney instead of paying off an earlier mortgage on his London home. Cameron said that doing things differently would not have saved the taxpayer any money, as he was paying more on mortgage interest than he was able to reclaim as expenses anyway He also spoke out in favour of laws giving voters the power to "recall" or "sack" MPs accused of wrongdoing. In April 2014, he was criticised for his handling of the expenses row surrounding Culture Secretary Maria Miller, when he rejected calls from fellow Conservative MPs to sack her from the front bench.

2010 general election

The Conservatives had last won a general election in 1992. The
2010 general election2010 general election may refer to: * 2010 Anguillan general election * 2010 Australian federal election * 2010 Bougainvillean general election * 2010 Brazilian general election * 2010 Burmese general election * 2010 Cook Islands general election * ...
resulted in the Conservatives, led by Cameron, winning the largest number of seats (306). This was, however, 20 seats short of an overall majority and resulted in the nation's first hung parliament since February 1974 United Kingdom general election, February 1974.

2010 government formation

Talks between Cameron and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg led to an agreed Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition. Cameron in late 2009 had urged the Liberal Democrats to join the Conservatives in a new "national movement" saying there was "barely a cigarette paper" between them on a large number of issues. The invitation was rejected at the time by the Liberal Democrat leader, Nick Clegg, who said that the Conservatives were totally different from his party and that the Lib Dems were the true "progressives" in UK politics.

Prime minister (2010–2016)

On 11 May 2010, following the resignation of Gordon Brown as prime minister and on his recommendation, Queen Elizabeth II invited Cameron to form a new administration. At age 43, Cameron became the youngest prime minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812, beating the record previously set by Tony Blair in May 1997. In his first address outside 10 Downing Street, he announced his intention to form a coalition government, the first since the World War II, Second World War, with the Liberal Democrats. Cameron outlined how he intended to "put aside party differences and work hard for the common good and for the national interest." As one of his first moves Cameron appointed Nick Clegg, the leader of the Liberal Democrats, as deputy prime minister on 11 May 2010. Between them, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats controlled 363 seats in the House of Commons, with a majority of 76 seats. In June 2010 Cameron described the economic situation as he came to power as "even worse than we thought" and warned of "difficult decisions" to be made over spending cuts. By the beginning of 2015 he was able to claim that United Kingdom government austerity programme, his government's austerity programme had succeeded in halving the budget deficit, although as a percentage of GDP rather than in cash terms. In December 2010, Cameron attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president Chung Mong-joon in which a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in England was discussed. Cameron agreed to holding the 2014 Scottish independence referendum and eliminated the "Full fiscal autonomy for Scotland, devomax" option from the ballot for a straight out yes or no vote. His support for the successful Better Together (campaign), Better Together campaign extended to making a successful request to the Queen to intervene. He had also backed a successful campaign to retain the status quo in a 2011 United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, referendum on changing the voting system held at the request of his coalition partners. He supported the introduction of gay marriage despite more of his own Conservative MPs voting against the move than for it, meaning the support of Lib Dem MPs in government and Labour MPs in opposition was required to allow it to pass. Earlier in his term he had managed to secure a huge majority for UK participation in UN-backed military action in Libya, but Cameron became the first prime minister American Revolutionary War#North Ministry collapses, since 1782 to lose a foreign policy vote in the House of Commons over proposed military action against Assad's regime in Syria. Subsequently, Barack Obama asked Authorization for the Use of Military Force Against the Government of Syria to Respond to Use of Chemical Weapons, congressional approval, which was not ultimately granted.


In response to the Great Recession, Cameron undertook the austerity programme. This was a deficit reduction programme consisting of sustained reductions in public spending, intended to reduce the government budget deficit and the welfare state in the United Kingdom. The National Health Service and education have been "Ringfencing, ringfenced" and protected from direct spending cuts. Together with Chancellor George Osborne, Cameron aimed to eliminate the structural deficit (i.e. deficit on current spending as opposed to investment) and to have government debt falling as a percentage of GDP. By 2015, the deficit as a percentage of GDP had been reduced to half what it was in 2010, and the sale of government assets (mostly the shares of banks nationalised in the 2000s) had resulted in government debt as a proportion of GDP falling.


Cameron said immigration from outside the EU should be subject to annual limits. He said in July 2013 that "in the last decade we have had an immigration policy that's completely lax. The pressure it puts on our public services and communities is too great." In 2015, ''The Independent'' reported, "The Conservatives have failed spectacularly to deliver their pledge to reduce net migration to less than 100,000 a year. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) announced a net flow of 298,000 migrants to the UK in the 12 months to September 2014—up from 210,000 in the previous year."

Defence and foreign affairs

Defence cuts

In 2014, Cameron dismissed warnings that his cuts to the UK defence budget had left it less than a "first class-player in terms of defence" and no longer a "full partner" to the United States. In the July 2015 budget Chancellor George Osborne announced that the UK defence spending would meet the NATO target of 2% of GDP.

NATO military intervention in Libya

Cameron condemned the violence used against anti-Gaddafi protesters at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Civil War After weeks of lobbying by the UK and its allies, on 17 March 2011 the United Nations Security Council approved a 2011 military intervention in Libya, no-fly zone to prevent government forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi from carrying out air attacks on anti-Gaddafi forces, anti-Gaddafi rebels. Two days later the UK and the United States fired more than 110 Tomahawk (missile), Tomahawk missiles at targets in Libya. Cameron said he was "proud" of the role United Kingdom played in the overthrow of Gaddafi's government. Cameron also stated that UK had played a "very important role", adding that "a lot of people said that Tripoli was completely different to Benghazi and that the two don't get on—they were wrong. ... People who said 'this is all going to be an enormous swamp of Islamists and extremists'—they were wrong". In 2015 through 2016 the Foreign Affairs Select Committee conducted an extensive and highly critical inquiry into the British involvement in the civil war. It concluded that the early threat to civilians had been overstated and that the significant Islamist element in the rebel forces had not been recognised, due to an intelligence failure. By mid-2011 the initial limited intervention to protect Libyan civilians had become a policy of regime change. However that new policy did not include proper support and for a new government, leading to a political and economic collapse in Libya and the growth of ISIL in North Africa. It concluded that Cameron was ultimately responsible for this British policy failure. US President Barack Obama also acknowledged there had been issues with following up the conflict planning, commenting in an interview with ''The Atlantic'' magazine that Cameron had allowed himself to be "distracted by a range of other things".


In 2013, in response to Argentina's calls for negotiations over the Falkland Islands' sovereignty, 2013 Falkland Islands sovereignty referendum, a referendum was called asking Falkland Islanders whether they supported the continuation of their status as an British Overseas Territories, Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. With a turnout of 91.94%, an overwhelming 99.8% voted to remain a British territory with only three votes against. In light of this, Cameron said: "We believe in the Falkland islanders' right to self-determination. They had a referendum. They couldn't have been more clear about wanting to remain with our country and we should protect and defend them".

Saudi Arabia

Cameron supported Britain's close relationship with Saudi Arabia. In January 2015, Cameron travelled to the Saudi capital Riyadh to pay his respects following the death of the nation's Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, King Abdullah. According to WikiLeaks, Cameron initiated a secret deal with Saudi Arabia ensuring both countries were elected onto the United Nations Human Rights Council, U.N. Human Rights Council. In 2015, Cameron's government announced "firm political support" for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Zaidiyyah, Shi'a Supreme Revolutionary Committee, Houthis, re-supplying the Saudi military with weapons and providing them with training.

Sri Lanka

Cameron reiterated calls for an independent investigation into the alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War. "There needs to be proper inquiries into what happened at the end of the war, there needs to be proper human rights, democracy for the Sri Lankan Tamils, Tamil minority in that country" Cameron stated. He stated that, if this investigation was not completed by March 2014, he would press for an independent international inquiry. This followed a visit to Jaffna, a war-ravaged town in the northern part of Sri Lanka; Cameron was the first foreign leader to visit Jaffna since the island once colonised by Britain became independent in 1948. Cameron was mobbed by demonstrators, mostly women, seeking his assistance in tracing missing person, missing relatives.


In a speech in Ankara in July 2010, Cameron stated unequivocally his support for Turkey's accession to the EU, citing economic, security and political considerations, and claimed that those who opposed Turkish membership were driven by "protectionism, narrow nationalism or prejudice". In that speech, he was also critical of Israeli action during the Gaza flotilla raid and its Gaza policy, and repeated his opinion that Israel had turned Gaza into a "prison camp", having previously referred to Gaza as "a giant open prison". These views were met with mixed reactions. The Cameron government declined to formally recognise the Ottoman Empire's massacres of Armenians as a "genocide". During the EU referendum campaign, Cameron stated that Turkey was unlikely to be ready to join the EU 'until the year 3000' at its current rate of progress.


At the end of May 2011, Cameron stepped down as patron of the Jewish National Fund, becoming the first British prime minister not to be patron of the charity in the 110 years of its existence. In a speech in 2011 Cameron said: "You have a prime minister whose commitment and determination to work for peace in Israel is deep and strong. Britain will continue to push for peace, but will always stand up for Israel against those who wish her harm". He said he wanted to reaffirm his "unshakable" belief in Israel within the same message. He also voiced his opposition to the Goldstone Report, claiming it had been biased against Israel and not enough blame had been placed on Hamas. In March 2014, during his first visit to Israel as prime minister, Cameron addressed Israel's Knesset in Jerusalem, where he offered his full support for peace efforts between Israelis and Palestinians, hoping a two-state solution might be achieved."Full text of British PM David Cameron's Knesset speech"
''The Times of Israel'' (Jerusalem). 12 March 2014.
He also made clear his rejection of trade or academic boycotts against Israel, acknowledged Israel's right to defend its citizens as "a right enshrined in international law," and made note of the Balfour Declaration of 1917, as "the moment when the State of Israel went from a dream to a plan, Britain has played a proud and vital role in helping to secure Israel as a homeland for the Jewish people." During his two-day visit, he met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. Senior Foreign Office minister Sayeeda Warsi, Baroness Warsi, Baroness Warsi resigned over the Cameron government's decision not to condemn Israel for the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, saying that the government's "approach and language during the current crisis in Gaza is morally indefensible."

Military intervention in Iraq and Syria

In August 2013, Cameron lost a motion in favour of bombing Syrian armed forces in response to the Ghouta chemical attack, becoming the first prime minister to suffer such a foreign-policy defeat since 1782. In September 2014, MPs passed a motion in favour of British planes joining, at the request of the Iraqi government, a bombing campaign against Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic State (IS) targets in Iraq; the motion explicitly expressed parliament's disapproval of UK military action in Syria. Cameron promised that, before expanding UK air strikes to include IS units in Syria, he would seek parliamentary approval. In July 2015, a Freedom of information in the United Kingdom, Freedom of Information (FOI) request by Reprieve (organisation), Reprieve revealed that, without the knowledge of UK parliamentarians, RAF pilots had, in fact, been bombing targets in Syria, and that Cameron knew of this. The prime minister, along with Defence Secretary Michael Fallon, faced strong criticism, including from Conservative MPs, for not informing the Commons about this deployment; the Ministry of Defence said that the pilots concerned were "embedded" with foreign military forces, and so were "effectively" operating as such, while Fallon denied that MPs had been, as he put it, "kept in the dark". The Reprieve FoI request also revealed that British drone pilots had been embedded, almost continuously, with American forces at Creech Air Force Base since 2008. These drone operators, who were "a gift of services", meaning the UK still paid their salaries and covered their expenses, had been carrying out operations that included reconnaissance in Syria to assist American strikes against IS. Fallon said that it was "illogical" for the UK not to bomb ISIL in Syria, for the organisation does not "differentiate between Syria and Iraq" and is "organised and directed and administered from Syria". Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, terrorist attacks on Paris in November 2015, for which Islamic State claimed responsibility, Cameron began pushing for a strategy for the Royal Air Force to bomb Syria in retaliation. Cameron set out his case for military intervention to Parliament on 26 November, telling MPs that it was the only way to guarantee Britain's safety and would be part of a "comprehensive" strategy to defeat IS. On 3 December 2015 MPs voted 397–223 in favour of launching air strikes against ISIL targets in Syria. The vote for military action was supported by all but seven members of the Parliamentary Conservative Party, as well as 66 Labour MPs who backed the government in defiance of their leader, Jeremy Corbyn, who had expressed his opposition to air strikes.

2015 general election

On 7 May 2015, Cameron was re-elected UK prime minister with a majority in the Commons. The Conservative Party's decisive victory in the general election was a surprise, as most polls and commentators had suggested the outcome was too close to call and that the result would be a second hung parliament. Cameron said of his first term when returned as prime minister for a second term that he was "proud to lead the first coalition government in 70 years" and offered particular thanks to Clegg for his role in it. Forming the first Second Cameron ministry, Conservative majority government since 1992, David Cameron became the first prime minister to be re-elected immediately after a full term with a larger popular vote share since Lord Salisbury at the 1900 United Kingdom general election, 1900 general election. In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks, Cameron secured the support of the House of Commons to extend air strikes against ISIS into Syria. Earlier that year, Cameron had outlined a five-year strategy to counter Islamist extremism and subversive teachings.

2016 referendum and resignation

As promised in the election manifesto, Cameron set a date for a 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, referendum on whether the UK should remain a member of the European Union, and announced that he would be campaigning for Britain to remain within a "reformed EU". The terms of the UK's membership of the EU were UK renegotiation of EU membership, 2016, re-negotiated, with agreement reached in February 2016. The referendum came to be known as Brexit (a portmanteau of "British" and "exit") and was held on 23 June 2016. The result was approximately 52% in favour of leaving the European Union and 48% against, with a turnout of 72%. On 24 June, a few hours after the results became known, Cameron announced that he would resign the office of prime minister by the start of the Conservative Party Conference in October 2016. In a speech the next day outside 10 Downing Street, he stated that, on account of his own advocacy on behalf of remaining in the EU, "I do not think it would be right for me to try to be the captain that steers our country to its next destination." There was some strong criticism made of Cameron and his government following the referendum. Matthew Norman, in an opinion piece in ''The Independent'', called the referendum an act of "indescribably selfish recklessness." In late July, Parliament's Foreign Affairs Select Committee was told that Cameron had refused to allow the Civil Service to make plans for Brexit, a decision the committee described as "an act of gross negligence." His farewell speech as he left No 10 accompanied by his family stressed the value of selfless public service. The 2016 Conservative Party leadership election, Conservative Party leadership election was scheduled for 9 September and the new leader was expected to be in place by the autumn conference, set to begin on 2 October. On 11 July, following the withdrawal of Andrea Leadsom from the Conservative Party leadership election and the confirmation of
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
as the new leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron announced he would hold a final cabinet meeting on 12 July and then following a final Prime Minister's Questions submit his resignation to the Queen on the afternoon of 13 July. After his final Prime Minister's Questions, Cameron received a standing ovation from MPs; his final comment was, "I was the future once" – a reference to his 2005 quip to Tony Blair, "he was the future once". Cameron then submitted his resignation to the Queen later that day. Although no longer serving as prime minister, Cameron originally stated that he would continue inside Parliament, on the Conservative Backbencher, backbenches. On 12 September, however, he announced that he was resigning his seat with immediate effect, and was appointed to the Manor of Northstead. He was succeeded as MP for Witney by fellow Conservative Robert Courts. ''The Washington Post'' described him as having "sped away without glancing back" once
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
had "vaulted herself out of the hurricane-strength political wreckage of Britain's vote to leave the European Union."

Political views and image

Self-description of views

Cameron described himself in December 2005 as a "modern Compassionate conservatism, compassionate conservative" and spoke of a need for a new style of politics, saying that he was "fed up with the Punch and Judy politics of Parliament of the United Kingdom, Westminster". He was "certainly a big Margaret Thatcher, Thatcher fan, but I don't know whether that makes me a Thatcherite", saying he was a "Liberal conservatism, liberal Conservative", though "not a deeply ideological person." As Leader of the Opposition, Cameron asserted that he did not intend to oppose the government as a matter of course, and would offer his support in areas of agreement. He has urged politicians to concentrate more on improving people's happiness and "general well-being", instead of focusing solely on "financial wealth". There were claims that he described himself to journalists at a dinner during the leadership contest as the "heir to Blair". In his first Conservative conference speech as party leader in Bournemouth in 2006, he described the National Health Service as "one of the 20th Century's greatest achievements". He went on to say, "Tony Blair explained his priorities in three words: education, education, education. I can do it in three letters: N.H.S." He also talked about his severely disabled son, Ivan, concluding "So, for me, it is not just a question of saying the NHS is safe in my hands—of course it will be. My family is so often in the hands of the NHS, so I want them to be safe there." Cameron said that he believed in "spreading freedom and democracy, and supporting humanitarian intervention" in cases such as the genocide in Darfur, Sudan. However, he rejected neoconservatism because, as a Conservatism, conservative, he recognises "the complexities of human nature, and will always be sceptical of grand schemes to remake the world." A supporter of multilateralism as "a country may act alone—but it cannot always succeed alone", he believes multilateralism can take the form of acting through "NATO, the UN, the G8, the EU and other institutions", or through international Military alliance, alliances. Cameron said that "If Western world, the West is to help other countries, we must do so from a position of genuine moral authority" and "we must strive above all for legitimacy (political), legitimacy in what we do." He believes that Islam in the United Kingdom, British Muslims have a duty to Cultural assimilation, integrate into British culture, but noted in an article published in 2007 that the Muslim community finds aspects such as high divorce rates and drug use uninspiring, and that "Not for the first time, I found myself thinking that it is mainstream Britain which needs to integrate more with the British Asian way of life, not the other way around." In his first speech as PM on radicalisation and the causes of terrorism in February 2011, Cameron said that 'state multiculturalism' had failed. In 2010, he appointed the first Muslim member of the British cabinet, Baroness Warsi, as a minister without portfolio, and in 2012 made her a special minister of state in foreign affairs. She resigned, however, in August 2014 over the government's handling of the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. Whilst urging members of his party to support the coalition's proposals for Same-sex marriage in England and Wales, same-sex marriage, Cameron said that he backed gay marriage not in spite of his conservatism but because he is a conservative, and claimed it was about equality. In 2012, Cameron publicly apologised for Thatcher-era policies on homosexuality, specifically the introduction of the controversial Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988, which he described as "a mistake".

Home affairs


In 2006 Cameron described poverty as a "moral disgrace" and promised to tackle poverty#Relative poverty, relative poverty.Eaton, George (24 June 2015)
"David Cameron has retreated from his promises on child poverty – but will it cost him?"
''New Statesman'' (London).
In 2007 Cameron promised, "We can make British poverty history, and we will make British poverty history". Also in 2007 he stated "Ending child poverty is central to improving child well-being". In 2015, Polly Toynbee questioned Cameron's commitment to tackling poverty, contrasting his earlier statements agreeing that "poverty is relative" with proposals to change the government's poverty measure, and saying that cuts in George Osborne#2015–present, child tax credits would increase child poverty among low-paid working families. Cameron denied that austerity had contributed to the 2011 England riots, instead blaming street gangs and opportunistic looters.

LGBT rights

In 2010 Cameron was given a score of 36% in favour of lesbian, gay and bisexual equality by Stonewall (charity), Stonewall. Prior to 2005, Cameron was opposed to gay rights, calling it a "fringe agenda" and attacking Prime Minister Tony Blair for "moving heaven and earth to allow the promotion of homosexuality in our schools" by repealing the anti-gay Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988. Cameron is recorded by Hansard as having voted against same-sex adoption rights in 2002, but he denies this, claiming he abstained from the three-line whip imposed on him by his party. In 2008, he wanted lesbians who receive IVF treatment to be required to name a father figure, which received condemnation from LGBT equality groups. However, Cameron supported commitment for gay couples in a 2005 speech, and in October 2011 urged Conservative MPs to support gay marriage. In November 2012, Cameron and Nick Clegg agreed to fast-track legislation for introducing same-sex marriage. Cameron stated that he wanted to give religious groups the ability to host gay marriage ceremonies, and that he did not want to exclude gay people from a "great institution". In 2013, the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 became law despite opposition from more than half of his fellow Conservative MPs, including Cabinet ministers Owen Paterson and David Jones (Clwyd West MP), David Jones. He also subsequently appointed two women who had voted against same-sex marriage as ministers in the Government Equalities Office, Nicky Morgan and Caroline Dinenage following the 2015 general election. In August 2013, he rejected calls by Stephen Fry and others to strip Russia from hosting the 2014 Winter Olympics due to its anti-gay laws. Cameron did not attend the games but denied it was a boycott in protest at Russia's laws, having previously raised the issue of gay rights in the country with Vladimir Putin.

Marriage and family values

In 2009 Cameron said "the restoration of family values and a new commitment to economic and social responsibility" were "key to repairing 'broken Britain'". In 2013 Cameron described himself as "a marriage man, I am a great supporter of marriage. I want to promote marriage, defend marriage, encourage marriage." As such he rejected calls from Conservative MP Christopher Chope to extend Civil partnership in the United Kingdom, civil partnership rights to heterosexual couples, saying "I think we should be promoting marriage rather than looking at any other way of weakening it." In 2018 the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Court ruled unanimously that this position was discriminatory.

Comments on other parties and politicians

Cameron criticised Gordon Brown (when Brown was Chancellor of the Exchequer) for being "an analogue politician in a digital age" and referred to him as "the roadblock to reform". As prime minister, he reacted to press reports that Brown could be the next head of the International Monetary Fund by hinting that he may block the appointment, citing the huge national debt that Brown left the country with as a reason for Brown not being suitable for the role. He said that John Prescott "clearly looks a fool" after Prescott's personal indiscretions were revealed in spring 2006, and wondered if the Deputy Prime Minister had broken the ministerial code. During a speech to the Ethnic Media Conference in November 2006, Cameron also described Ken Livingstone, the Mayor of London, as an "ageing Left-wing politics, far left politician" following Livingstone's criticism of Trevor Phillips, head of the Commission for Racial Equality. In January 2007, Cameron made a speech in which he described extremist Islamic organisations and the British National Party as "mirror images" to each other, both preaching "creeds of pure hatred". Cameron is listed as being a supporter of Unite Against Fascism. In April 2006, Cameron accused the UK Independence Party of being "fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly", leading UKIP MEP Nigel Farage (who became leader in September of that year) to demand an apology for the remarks. Right-wing Conservative MP Bob Spink, who later defected to UKIP, also criticised the remarks, as did ''The Daily Telegraph''. Cameron was seen encouraging Conservative MPs to join the standing ovation given to Tony Blair at the end of his last Prime Minister's Question Time; he had paid tribute to the "huge efforts" Blair had made and said Blair had "considerable achievements to his credit, whether it is peace in Northern Ireland or his work in the developing world, which will endure". In September 2015, after the election of Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader, Cameron called the party a "threat" to British national and economic security, on the basis of Corbyn's defence and fiscal policies.

Foreign affairs

Iraq War

In an interview on ''Friday Night with Jonathan Ross'' in 2006, Cameron said that he supported the decision of the then Labour Government to go to 2003 invasion of Iraq, war in Iraq, and said that he thought supporters should "see it through". He also supported a motion brought by the SNP and Plaid Cymru in 2006 calling for an inquiry into the government's conduct of the Iraq war. In 2011, he oversaw the withdrawal of British soldiers from Iraq. He repeatedly called for the Chilcot Inquiry into the Iraq war to conclude and publish its findings, saying "People want to know the truth".


Cameron was a strong advocate of increased ties between India and the United Kingdom, describing India–United Kingdom relations, Indian–British relations as the "New Special Relationship" in 2010. In October 2012, as Narendra Modi rose to prominence in India, the UK rescinded its boycott of the then-Gujarat state Chief Minister over 2002 Gujarat riots, religious riots in Gujarat in 2002 that left more than 2,000 dead, and in November 2013, Cameron commented that he was "open" to meeting Modi. Modi was later elected as prime minister in a landslide majority, leading to Cameron calling Modi and congratulating him on the "election success", one of the first Western leaders to do so.

Political image

Allegations of social elitism

While Leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron was accused of reliance on "old-boy networks", and conversely attacked by his party for the imposition of selective shortlists of women and ethnic minority prospective parliamentary candidates. Some of Cameron's senior appointments, such as George Osborne as Chancellor of the Exchequer, are former members of the Bullingdon Club. Michael Gove conceded it was "ridiculous" how many fellow Cabinet ministers were old Etonians, though he placed the blame on the failings of the state education system rather than Cameron. However, Michael Mosbacher, co-founder of ''Standpoint (magazine), Standpoint'' magazine, wrote that Cameron's Cabinet has the lowest number of Etonians of any past Conservative government: "David Cameron's government is the least patrician, least wealthy and least public-school-educated—indeed the least Etonian Conservative-led government this country has ever seen".

Plots against leadership

Following poor results in the 2012 United Kingdom local elections, May 2012 local elections after a difficult few months for the government, with Labour increasing its lead in the polls, there were concerns from Conservative MPs about Cameron's leadership and his electability. David Davies (Welsh politician), David Davies, the chairman of the Welsh Affairs Select Committee, accused the Conservative leadership of "incompetence" and hinted that it could risk Cameron's leadership. Nadine Dorries warned the Prime Minister that a leadership challenge could happen. Later that year, Conservative MP Brian Binley openly said that Cameron's leadership was like being a "maid" to the Liberal Democrats, and accused him of leading the party to defeat. In January 2013 it was revealed that Adam Afriyie was planning his own bid for the Conservative leadership with the support of fellow MPs Mark Field, Bill Wiggin, Chris Heaton-Harris, Patrick Mercer, Jonathan Djanogly and Dan Byles. ''The Times'' and ''ConservativeHome'' revealed that a 'rebel reserve' of 55 Conservative MPs gave firm pledges to a co-ordinating MP to support a motion of 'no confidence' and write to Brady simultaneously, more than the 46 MPs needed to trigger a vote of no confidence. Andrew Bridgen openly called for a vote of confidence in Cameron's leadership and claimed that the Prime Minister had a "credibility problem" but he dropped his bid for a contest a year later.

Cameron and Andy Coulson

In 2007 Cameron appointed Andy Coulson, former editor of the ''News of the World'', as his director of communications. Coulson had resigned as the paper's editor following the conviction of a reporter in relation to News International phone hacking scandal, illegal phone hacking, although stating that he knew nothing about it. In June 2010 Downing Street confirmed Coulson's annual salary as £140,000, the highest pay of any special adviser to UK Government. In January 2011 Coulson left his post, saying coverage of the phone-hacking scandal was making it difficult to give his best to the job. In July 2011 he was arrested and questioned by police in connection with further allegations of illegal activities at the News of the World, and released on bail. Despite a call to apologise for hiring Coulson by the leader of the opposition, Cameron defended the appointment, saying that he had taken a conscious choice to give someone who had screwed up a second chance. The same month, in a special parliamentary session at the House of Commons of England, House of Commons, arranged to discuss the News International phone hacking scandal, Cameron said that he "regretted the furore" that had resulted from his appointment of Coulson, and that "with hindsight" he would not have hired him. Coulson was detained and charged with perjury by Strathclyde Police in May 2012. Coulson was convicted of conspiracy to hack phones in June 2014. Prior to the jury handing down their verdict, Cameron issued a "full and frank" apology for hiring him, saying "I am extremely sorry that I employed him. It was the wrong decision and I am very clear about that." The judge hearing Coulson's trial was critical of the prime minister, pondering whether the intervention was out of ignorance or deliberate, and demanded an explanation.

Cameron and Lord Ashcroft

Although Lord Ashcroft played a significant role in the 2010 election, he was not offered a ministerial post. In June 2012, shortly before a major Conservative rebellion on House of Lords reform, journalist Peter Oborne credited Ashcroft with "stopping the Coalition working" by moving policy on Europe, welfare, education, taxation to the right. According to Oborne, Ashcroft, owner of both the ConservativeHome and PoliticsHome websites and a "brutal critic of the Coalition from the start", had established "megaphone presence" in the on-line media. He believes Cameron's philosophy of liberal conservatism has been destroyed by "coordinated attacks on the Coalition" and "the two parties are no longer trying to pretend that they are governing together." In ''The Observer'', Andrew Rawnsley commented that he believes that Ashcroft uses carefully timed opinion polls to "generate publicity", "stir trouble for the prime minister" and influence the direction of the party. In 2015 Ashcroft released ''Call Me Dave'', an unauthorised biography of Cameron written with journalist Isabel Oakeshott, which attracted significant media attention for various lurid allegations about Cameron's time at university. The book includes an anonymous anecdote about Cameron, now referred to as Piggate, in which he allegedly inserted his penis into a dead pig's head. No evidence for the anecdote has been produced. Many commentators have described the accusations as a "revenge job" by Ashcroft, who was not offered a senior role in government when Cameron came to power in 2010. Ashcroft initially claimed the book was "not about settling scores", while Oakeshott said that they had held back publication until after the 2015 general election to avoid damaging Cameron and the Conservatives' electoral chances. Ashcroft subsequently admitted that the initiation allegations "may have been case of mistaken identity" and has stated that he has a personal "beef" with Cameron. Cameron later went on to deny these allegations and stated that Ashcroft's reasons for writing the book were clear and the public could see clearly through it.

Standing in opinion polls

An ICM poll in September 2007 saw Cameron rated the least popular of the three main party leaders. A YouGov poll on party leaders conducted on 9–10 June 2011 found 44% of the electorate thought he was doing well and 50% thought he was doing badly, whilst 38% thought he would be the best PM and 35% did not know. In the run up to the 2015 election, Cameron achieved his first net positive approval rating in four years, with a YouGov poll finding 47% of voters thought he was doing well as prime minister compared with 46% who thought he was doing badly. In September 2015, an Opinium poll had similar results to the one shortly before the election, with voters split with 42% who approved of him and 41% who did not. Cameron had significantly better net approval ratings in polls conducting in December and January (getting −6 in both) than Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn (who got −38 and −39). However, following the Panama Papers leak in April 2016, his personal approval ratings fell below Corbyn's.

Evaluations of premiership

In the months immediately following his resignation from the post of prime minister, a number of commentators gave negative evaluations of Cameron's premiership. The University of Leeds' Historical rankings of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom#2016 University of Leeds survey, 2016 survey of post-War prime ministers, which collected the views of 82 academics specialising in the history and politics of post-war Britain, ranked Cameron as the third-worst prime minister since 1945, ranking above only Alec Douglas-Home and Anthony Eden. 90% of respondents cited his calling and losing of the Brexit referendum as his greatest failure.



In October 2016, Cameron became chairman of the National Citizen Service Patrons. In January 2017, he was appointed president of to address misconceptions surrounding dementia and campaign for medical research funding to tackle the condition. All appointments post-premiership have to be approved by the UK government advisory committee. In addition to the two posts above they also approved the following positions: * Consultant for Illumina (company), Illumina Inc. * Vice-chair, UK China Fund * Director, ONE Campaign, ONE * Consultant for First Data, First Data Corp. * Member of Council on Foreign Relations * Chairman, London School of Economics, LSE-Oxford Commission on Growth in Fragile States * Registered member of Washington Speakers Bureau * Chairman of advisory board, Afiniti


Cameron maintained a low profile following his resignation as prime minister and the subsequent Brexit negotiations. In January 2019, following Theresa May's defeat in the House of Commons over her draft withdrawal agreement, Cameron gave a rare interview to reporters outside his house in Notting Hill, saying he backed May's Brexit deal with the EU and did not regret calling the 2016 referendum. However, he later said that the outcome of the referendum had left him "hugely depressed" and told ''The Times'' he knew "some people will never forgive me". He confessed "Every single day I think about it, and the fact that we lost, and the consequences, and the things that could have been done differently, and I worry desperately". Months following Boris Johnson's election as prime minister, Cameron began criticising Johnson's Brexit strategy, including his decision to 2019 British prorogation controversy, prorogue parliament ahead of the Brexit deadline of 31 October and the removal of the whip from Conservative MPs who voted to block a no-deal Brexit. Additionally, he accused Johnson, as well as Michael Gove, of behaving "appallingly" during the referendum campaign of 2016. In September 2020, Cameron became the fifth former prime minister to criticise the UK Internal Market Bill, over which he said he had "misgivings".


On 19 September 2019, Cameron published a memoir, ''For the Record (book), For the Record'', through HarperCollins. He was reported to have signed an £800,000 contract for the book. According to the ''Guardian'', the book was initially scheduled for 2018, but was delayed so Cameron would not be perceived as a "backstreet driver" in the ongoing Brexit negotiations.

Greensill scandal

During Cameron's premiership, the financier Lex Greensill, was an unpaid advisor who had access to eleven government departments. In 2018, Cameron became an advisor to Greensill Capital and held share options in the company reportedly worth as much as $60 million as well as being paid over $1 million each year for 25 days work per year. A ''Panorama'' investigation concluded that overall, through a combination of his salary and share sales, Cameron earned around $10 million before tax for 30 months part-time work. In 2019, Cameron arranged for a private meeting with Lex Greensill and Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock; under Hancock, several NHS trusts went on to use Greensill Capital's Earnd app. In 2020, a few months before Greensill Capital collapsed, Cameron lobbied the government to bend the rules to allow it to receive Covid Corporate Financing Facility loans. He sent several text messages to Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak, who ultimately declined to help Greensill; Cameron also held ten virtual meetings with permanent secretaries Tom Scholar and Charles Roxburgh to try to obtain money for Greensill. The government-owned British Business Bank lent Greensill up to £400m through a different scheme, leading to a potential £335m loss to the taxpayer. After press revelations in 2021 regarding the extent of Greensill Capital's access, a formal investigation was launched by the UK lobbying registrar to be led by Nigel Boardman, a non-executive board member of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy.

In popular culture

Cameron made a cameo appearance in the BBC television programme Top Gear (2002 TV series), ''Top Gear'''s Top Gear: India Special, India Special, where he tells the trio of Jeremy Clarkson, James May, and Richard Hammond to "stay away from India" after initially denying the group's request to improve economic relations with India in a letter and suggested that they Top Gear controversies#Mexico, mend fences with Mexico. Cameron later stated through his aides that he did not like the special that he cameoed in, and that he had the "utmost respect" for the people of India. Cameron was portrayed by comedian Jon Culshaw in ITV's satirical sketch show ''Newzoids.'' Cameron was portrayed by Mark Dexter in the Channel 4 television films Coalition (film), ''Coalition'' and ''Brexit: The Uncivil War.'' Cameron was interviewed for a BBC mini-documentary series on his Premiership in 2019, ''The Cameron Years''.

Personal life


Cameron is married to Samantha Cameron (née Sheffield), the daughter of Sir Reginald Sheffield, 8th Baronet, and Annabel Lucy Veronica Jones (later Annabel Astor, Viscountess Astor, Viscountess Astor). A Marlborough College school friend of Cameron's sister Clare, Samantha accepted Clare's invitation to accompany the Cameron family on holiday in Tuscany, Italy, after graduating from Bristol School of Creative Arts. It was then David and Samantha's romance started. They were married in 1996. The Camerons have had four children. Their first, Ivan Reginald Ian, was born on 8 April 2002 in London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Hammersmith and Fulham, London, with a rare combination of cerebral palsy and a form of severe epilepsy called Ohtahara syndrome, requiring round-the-clock care. Recalling the receipt of this news, Cameron was quoted as saying: "The news hits you like a freight train ... You are depressed for a while because you are grieving for the difference between your hopes and the reality. But then you get over that, because he's wonderful."Can Boy Wonder save the Tories?". ''The Sunday Times'' (London). 9 October 2005. Ivan was cared for at the specialist NHS Cheyne Day Centre in West London, which closed shortly after he left it. Ivan died at St Mary's Hospital, London, St Mary's Hospital, Paddington, London, on 25 February 2009, aged six. The Camerons have two daughters, Nancy Gwen (born 2004) and Florence Rose Endellion (born 2010), and a son, Arthur Elwen (born 2006). Cameron took paternity leave when Arthur was born, and this decision received broad coverage. It was also stated that Cameron would be taking paternity leave after his second daughter was born. She was born at the Royal Cornwall Hospital on 24 August 2010, three weeks prematurely, while the family was on holiday in Cornwall. Her third given name, Endellion, is taken from the village of St Endellion near where the Camerons were holidaying. In early May 2008, the Camerons decided to enrol their daughter Nancy at a state school, state primary school. For three years before that they had been attending its associated church, St Mary Abbots, near the Cameron family home in North Kensington. Cameron's constituency home is in Dean, Oxfordshire, and the Camerons have been described as key members of the Chipping Norton set. On 8 September 2010, it was announced that Cameron would miss Prime Minister's Questions in order to fly to southern France to see his father, Ian Cameron, who had suffered a stroke with coronary complications. Later that day, with David and other family members at his bedside, Ian died. On 17 September 2010, Cameron attended a private ceremony for the funeral of his father in Berkshire, which prevented him from hearing the address of Pope Benedict XVI in Westminster Hall, an occasion he would otherwise have attended.

Inheritance and family wealth

In October 2010, David Cameron inherited £300,000 from his father's estate. Ian Cameron, who had worked as a stockbroker in City of London#Economy, the City of London, used multimillion-pound investment funds based in offshore tax havens, such as Jersey, Panama City, and Geneva, to increase the family wealth. In 1982, Ian Cameron created the Panamanian Blairmore Holdings, an offshore investment fund, valued at about $20 million in 1988, "not liable to taxation on its income or capital gains", which used bearer shares until 2006. In April 2016, following the Panama Papers financial documents leak, David Cameron faced calls to resign after it was revealed that he and his wife Samantha invested in Ian Cameron's offshore fund. He owned £31,500 of shares in the fund and sold them for a profit of £19,000 shortly before becoming prime minister in 2010, which he paid full UK tax on. David Cameron argued that the fund was set up in Panama so that people who wanted to invest in dollar-denominated shares and companies could do so, and because full UK tax was paid on all profits he made there was no impropriety. Thousands of protesters held two marches in London in April 2016 to demand Cameron's resignation. In 2009, the ''New Statesman'' estimated his wealth at , adding that Cameron is expected to inherit "million-pound legacies" from both sides of his family.


Before becoming prime minister, Cameron regularly used his bicycle to commute to work. In early 2006, he was photographed cycling to work, followed by his driver in a car carrying his belongings. His Conservative Party spokesperson subsequently said that this was a regular arrangement for Cameron at the time. Cameron is an occasional jogger and in 2009 raised funds for charities by taking part in the Oxford 5K and the Great Brook Run. Cameron supports Aston Villa. He is also a keen cricket fan and has appeared on ''Test Match Special''.


At a Q&A in August 2013, Cameron described himself as a practising Christians, Christian and an active member of the Church of England. On religious faith in general he said: "I do think that organised religion can get things wrong but the Church of England and the other churches do play a very important role in society." He said he considers the Bible "a sort of handy guide" on morality. He viewed Britain as a "Christian country" and aimed to put faith back into politics.

Honours and awards

* : ** 14 December 2005: appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, giving him the honorific "The Right Honourable" for life. * : ** 2012: Special Class of the Order of King Abdulaziz.


* * *

See also

* 2016 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours * Muscular liberalism


Further reading

Full biography


Books about Cameron as leader

* * * * * * * * * * * *

Published works by and about

David Cameron's articles
at ''The Guardian'' * David Cameron: ''My Legacy: What I Will Be Remembered For''. CreateSpace, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform 2017, (50 p.)

Political career


* * *

News coverage

* * *
David Cameron
collected news and commentary at ''The Daily Telegraph'' * Brian Wheeler
The David Cameron story
''BBC News'', 6 December 2005

External links

David Cameron
official government website
David Cameron
official Conservative Party profile *
The Office of David Cameron
personal website
A Day in the Life of David Cameron
''A Day in the Life of David Cameron]'' on YouTube , - , - , - , - , - , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Cameron, David David Cameron, 1966 births 21st-century prime ministers of the United Kingdom 20th-century Anglicans 21st-century Anglicans Alumni of Brasenose College, Oxford British monarchists Carlton Television Conservative Party (UK) MPs for English constituencies Conservative Party prime ministers of the United Kingdom English Anglicans English memoirists English people of German-Jewish descent English people of Scottish descent English people of Welsh descent HuffPost bloggers ITV people LGBT rights activists from England Leaders of the Conservative Party (UK) Leaders of the Opposition (United Kingdom) Living people Lobbying in the United Kingdom Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom People educated at Eton College People educated at Heatherdown School People from Marylebone People from West Berkshire District Political funding in the United Kingdom Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom UK MPs 2001–2005 UK MPs 2005–2010 UK MPs 2010–2015 UK MPs 2015–2017 Bullingdon Club members