HOME

TheInfoList




David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
as a king of the United Monarchy of Israel and Judah. In the
Books of Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible and two books (1 Samuel and 2 Samuel) in the Christian Old Testament. The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (Book of Joshu ...
, David is a young shepherd and
harpist The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers. Harps can be made and played in various ways, including standing or sitting an ...

harpist
who gains fame by slaying the giant
Goliath Goliath ( ) ''Goləyāṯ''; ar, جُليات ''Ǧulyāt'' (Christian term) or (Quranic term). is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistines, Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Sau ...

Goliath
, a champion of the
Philistines The Philistines were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of th ...
in southern
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
. David becomes a favorite of the first king of united Israel,
Saul Saul (; he, , translit=Šāʾūl; gr, Σαούλ; ), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, suppose ...

Saul
, and forges
a close friendship
a close friendship
with Jonathan, a son of Saul. Paranoid that David is seeking to usurp the throne, Saul attempts to kill David, forcing the latter to go into hiding and operate as a fugitive for several years. After Saul and Jonathan are both killed in battle against the Philistines, a 30-year-old David is anointed king over all of
Israel and Judah The Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were two related Israelites, Israelite kingdoms from the Archaeology of Israel#Iron Age/Israelite period, Iron Age period of the ancient Southern History of the ancient ...
, following which he conquers the city of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, establishes it as Israel's capital, and takes the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
into the city to be the centre-point of worship in the Israelite religion. According to the biblical narrative, David commits
adultery Adultery (from Latin ''adulterium'') is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds. Although the Human sexual activity, sexual activities that constitute adultery vary, as well as the social ...

adultery
with
Bathsheba Bathsheba, ''Baṯ-šeḇa‘'', "daughter of Sheba" or "daughter of the oath") was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible. She is most known for the biblical narrative in which she was summoned by King Da ...

Bathsheba
, leading him to arrange the death of her husband,
Uriah the Hittite Uriah the Hittite ( – ''ʾŪriyyāh haḥittī'') is a minor character in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. T ...
. David's son
Absalom Absalom ( he, אַבְשָׁלוֹם ''Aḇšālōm'', "father of peace upStatue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto. Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility ...

Absalom
later schemes to overthrow him and, during the ensuing rebellion, David flees Jerusalem, but returns after Absalom's death to continue his reign over Israel and Judah. He desires to construct a temple to
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
in which to house the Ark but, because he shed much blood, Yahweh denies David the opportunity to do so. David rules as king of the
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic peri ...

Israelites
until his death at age 70, prior to which he chooses
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
, a son born to him and Bathsheba, to be his successor instead of
Adonijah According to 2 Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the ...

Adonijah
, his eldest surviving son. He is honored in
prophetic literature A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a deity. Such messages typically involve inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of divine will concerning the prophet's social world and events to come (c ...
as an ideal king and the forefather of the future Hebrew Messiah, and many
psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

psalms
are ascribed to him. Historians of the
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a complex society A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and s ...
agree that David probably lived around 1000 BCE, but there is little else that is agreed on about him as a historical figure. The Tel Dan stele, a Canaanite-inscribed stone erected by a king of
Aram-Damascus Aram-Damascus ( or ) was an Aramean The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek language, Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac language, Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic languages, Semiti ...
in the late-9th/early-8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the Hebrew-language phrase ''Beit David'' (), which most scholars translate as " House of David". The
Mesha stele The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek , ''stēlē''. The Greek plural is written , ''stēlai'', but this is only rarely encountered in E ...
, erected by king
Mesha King Mesha (Moabite language, Moabite: 𐤌𐤔𐤏 *''Māša‘''; Hebrew: מֵישַׁע ''Mēša‘'') was a king of Moab in the 9th century BCE, known most famously for having the Mesha Stele inscribed and erected at Dhiban, Dibon. In this ...
of
Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and et ...
in the 9th century BCE, may also refer to the "House of David", but this is disputed. Apart from this, all that is known of David comes from biblical literature, the historicity of which is doubtful,Writing and Rewriting the Story of Solomon in Ancient Israel; by Isaac Kalimi; page 32; Cambridge University Press, 2018; and there is little detail about David that is concrete and undisputed. David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, and is discussed in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
. The
early Christians The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
interpreted the life of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
in light of references to the Hebrew Messiah and to David; Jesus is described as being
descended from David Descendant(s) or descendent(s) may refer to: * Lineal descendant, a consanguinous (i.e. biological) relative directly related to a person ** Collateral descendant, a relative descended from a brother or sister of an ancestor Books * The Descendant ...
in the gospels of Matthew and of Luke. The biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in art and literature over centuries. In the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
and
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

hadith
, David is mentioned as a prophet-king of
Allah Allah (; ar, الله, translit=Allāh, ) is the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East ...
.


Biblical account


Family

The
First Book of Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible and two books (1 Samuel and 2 Samuel) in the Christian Old Testament. The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (Book of Joshua ...
and the
First Book of Chronicles The Book of Chronicles ( he, דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים ) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is ...
both identify David as the son of
Jesse Jesse () or Yishai ( he, יִשַׁי – ''Yišay'', in pausa In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...

Jesse
, the
Bethlehem Bethlehem (; ar, بيت لحم , "House of Meat"; he, בֵּית לֶחֶם ', , "House of Bread"; ; la, Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a city in the central West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضف ...

Bethlehem
ite, the youngest of eight sons. He also had at least two sisters,
ZeruiahZeruiah ( sometimes transliterated Tzruya or Zeruya) is a figure mentioned in the book of Samuel 2. She was a sister of King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳ ...
, whose sons all went on to serve in David's army, and
Abigail Abigail () was an Israelite woman in the Hebrew Bible married to Nabal; she became married to the future David, King David after Nabal's death (Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel ). Abigail was David's second wife, after Saul and Ahinoam's daughter, Mich ...
, whose son
Amasa Amasa (עמשא) or Amessai is a person mentioned in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the ...
went on to serve in
Absalom's
Absalom's
army, Absalom being one of David's younger sons. While the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
does not name his mother, the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
identifies her as
Nitzevet Nitzevet bat Adael ( ''Nīṣṣeḇeṯ baṯ ʿAḏəʾēl'') is, according to the Hanan bar Rava Hanan (given name), Ḥanan bar Rava (חנן/חנא/חנין בר רב/א) or Ḥanan bar Abba (חנן בר א/בא) was a Talmud, Talmudic sage and ...
, a daughter of a man named Adael, and the
Book of Ruth The Book of Ruth (abbreviated Rth) ( he, מגילת רות, ''Megilath Ruth'', "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim Ketuvim (; hbo, כְּתוּבִים Kethūvīm "wri ...
claims him as the great-grandson of Ruth, the Moabite, by
Boaz Boaz (; Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Hebrew: בֹּעַז ''Bōʿaz''; ) is a biblical figure appearing in the Book of Ruth in the Hebrew Bible and in the Genealogy of Jesus, genealogies of Jesus in the New Testament and also the name of a Boaz ...
. David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...
. In 1 Samuel 17:25, it states that King Saul had said that he would make whoever killed Goliath a very wealthy man, give his daughter to him and declare his father's family exempt from taxes in Israel. Saul offered David his oldest daughter, Merab, a marriage which David respectfully declined. Saul then gave Merab in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. Having been told that his younger daughter
Michal Michal (; he, מיכל , gr, Μιχάλ) was, according to the first Book of Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew ...

Michal
was in love with David, Saul gave her in marriage to David upon David's payment in
Philistine The Philistines were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan from the 12th century BC until 604 BC, when their polity, after having already been subjugated for centuries by Assyria, was finally destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar I ...
foreskins (ancient Jewish historian
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century Roman Jews, Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for ''The Jewish War'', who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Judea (Roman province), Roman ...

Josephus
lists the dowry as 100 Philistine heads). Saul became jealous of David and tried to have him killed. David escaped. Then Saul sent Michal to Galim to marry
Palti, son of LaishImage:Maciejowski Bible Leaf 37 3.jpg, Illustration from the Morgan Bible of Michal being taken from Palti. Palti (or Paltiel), son of Laish (father of Palti), Laish, who was from Gallim, was the second husband of Michal, Saul's daughter. Where other ...
. David then took wives in
Hebron Hebron ( ar, الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن ; he, חֶבְרוֹן ) is a State of Palestine, Palestinian. city in the southern West Bank, south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies Above mean sea level, above ...

Hebron
, according to
2 Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the vers ...
3; they were
AhinoamAhinoam ( he, אֲחִינֹעַם, translit=ăħinoʕam) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the ...
the Yizre'elite;
Abigail Abigail () was an Israelite woman in the Hebrew Bible married to Nabal; she became married to the future David, King David after Nabal's death (Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel ). Abigail was David's second wife, after Saul and Ahinoam's daughter, Mich ...

Abigail
, the wife of Nabal the Carmelite;
Maacah Maacah (Codex Alexandrinus The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and is one of the largest libraries in the world. It is estimated to contain between 170–200&nbs ...
, the daughter of Talmay, king of
Geshur Geshur was a territory in the ancient Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost su ...
;
HaggithHaggith ( ''Ḥaggîṯ''; sometimes ''Hagith'', ''Aggith'') is a biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans ...
;
Abital Abital or Avital ( he, אֲבִיטַל ''’Ăḇîṭāl'') is a Hebrew given name of Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books ...
; and Eglah. Later, David wanted Michal back and
Abner In the Hebrew Bible, Abner ( he, אַבְנֵר ''’Avner'') was the cousin of Saul the King, King Saul and the commander-in-chief of his army. His name also appears as "Abiner son of List of minor biblical figures, L-Z#N, Ner", where the long ...

Abner
, Ish-bosheth's army commander, delivered her to David, causing her husband (Palti) great grief. The
Book of Chronicles The Book of Chronicles ( he, דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים ) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is ...
lists his sons with his various wives and
concubine Concubinage is an interpersonal The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclo ...
s. In
Hebron Hebron ( ar, الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن ; he, חֶבְרוֹן ) is a State of Palestine, Palestinian. city in the southern West Bank, south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies Above mean sea level, above ...

Hebron
, David had six sons:
Amnon Amnon ( he, אַמְנוֹן ''’Amnōn'', "faithful") was, in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, ...

Amnon
, by
AhinoamAhinoam ( he, אֲחִינֹעַם, translit=ăħinoʕam) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the ...
;
Daniel Daniel is a masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling ...
, by
Abigail Abigail () was an Israelite woman in the Hebrew Bible married to Nabal; she became married to the future David, King David after Nabal's death (Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel ). Abigail was David's second wife, after Saul and Ahinoam's daughter, Mich ...

Abigail
;
Absalom Absalom ( he, אַבְשָׁלוֹם ''Aḇšālōm'', "father of peace upStatue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto. Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility ...

Absalom
, by
MaachahMaacah (Codex Alexandrinus: Maacha, KJV: Maachah, sometimes spelled Maakah, Hebrew: מעכה ''ma`akhah'' "Crushed") is a non-gender-specific personal name used in the Bible to refer to a number of people. *A child of Abraham's brother Nahor, son of ...
;
Adonijah According to 2 Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the ...

Adonijah
, by
HaggithHaggith ( ''Ḥaggîṯ''; sometimes ''Hagith'', ''Aggith'') is a biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans ...
; Shephatiah, by
Abital Abital or Avital ( he, אֲבִיטַל ''’Ăḇîṭāl'') is a Hebrew given name of Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books ...
; and Ithream, by Eglah. By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua,
Eliphelet Elifelet ( he, אֱלִיפֶלֶט) is a moshav A moshav ( he, מוֹשָׁב, plural ', lit. ''settlement, village'') is a type of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the Sta ...
, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada.
Jerimoth Jerimoth ( he, ירִימוֹת, links=no, sometimes spelled Jeremoth) in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages ...
, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is raped by her half-brother Amnon. David fails to bring Amnon to justice for his violation of Tamar, because he is his firstborn and he loves him, and so, Absalom (her full brother) murders Amnon to avenge Tamar. Although Absalom did avenge his sister's defilement, ironically he showed himself not to be very much different from Amnon; as Amnon had sought the advice of Jonadab in order to rape Tamar, Absalom had sought the advice of
Ahitophel Ahitophel or Ahithophel was a counselor of King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''David ...
who advised Absalom to have incestuous relations with his father's concubines in order to show all Israel how odious he was to his father Samuel 16:20 Despite the great sins they had committed, David showed grief at the deaths of his sons, weeping twice for Amnon Samuel 13:31–26and weeping seven times for Absalom.


Narrative

God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
is angered when
Saul Saul (; he, , translit=Šāʾūl; gr, Σαούλ; ), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, suppose ...

Saul
, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and later disobeys a divine command both to kill all of the
Amalek Amalek (; he, עֲמָלֵק, ''‘Ámālēq'', ar, عماليق ''‘Amālīq'') is a nation described in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew ...
ites and to destroy their confiscated property. Consequently, God sends prophet
Samuel Samuel ''Šəmūʾēl''; ar, إِشْمَوِيل ' or '; el, Σαμουήλ ''Samouḗl''; la, Samūēl is a figure who, in the narratives of the , plays a key role in the transition from the period of the to the institution of a under ...

Samuel
to anoint a shepherd, David, the youngest son of
Jesse Jesse () or Yishai ( he, יִשַׁי – ''Yišay'', in pausa In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and mod ...

Jesse
of
Bethlehem Bethlehem (; ar, بيت لحم , "House of Meat"; he, בֵּית לֶחֶם ', , "House of Bread"; ; la, Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a city in the central West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضف ...

Bethlehem
, to be king instead. After God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul, his servants recommend that he send for a man skilled in playing the
lyre The lyre () is a string instrument that dates back to 1400 BC in ancient Greece. It is known for its use in Ancient Greece, Greek classical antiquity and later periods. The instrument was created and used earlier around 2600BCE in the middle ...

lyre
. A servant proposes David, whom the servant describes as "skillful in playing, a man of valor, a warrior, prudent in speech, and a man of good presence; and the Lord is with him." David enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers and plays the lyre to soothe the king. War comes between Israel and the
Philistines The Philistines were an ancient people who lived on the south coast of Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of th ...
, and the giant
Goliath Goliath ( ) ''Goləyāṯ''; ar, جُليات ''Ǧulyāt'' (Christian term) or (Quranic term). is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistines, Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Sau ...

Goliath
challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling. Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father. Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?"). Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who
loves David
loves David
, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to
NobNOB may refer to: *National Orchestra of Belgium The Belgian National Orchestra ( nl, Nationaal Orkest van België, french: Orchestre National de Belgique) is a Belgian orchestra, based in Brussels. Its principal concert venue is the Brussels Cent ...
, where he is fed by the priest
Ahimelech 250px, ''Ahimelech giving the sword of Goliath to David'', by Aert de Gelder. Ahimelech ( ''’Ăḥîmeleḵ'', "brother of a king"), the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (), but described as the son of Abiathar in and in four places in Book ...
and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King
Achish Achish (אָכִישׁ) is a name used in the Hebrew Bible for two Philistines, Philistine rulers of Gath (city), Gath. It is perhaps only a general title of royalty, applicable to the Philistine kings. The two kings of Gath, which is identified by ...
there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David sees that he is in danger there. He goes next to the cave of
Adullam Adullam () is an ancient ruin, formerly known by the Arabic appellation ''ʿAīd el Mâ'' (or ''`Eîd el Mieh''), built upon a hilltop overlooking the Elah Valley The Valley of Elah or Ella Valley ("the valley of the terebinth"; from the he, ע ...
, where his family joins him. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of
Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and et ...
, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth, and then to
Keilah Keilah (), meaning Citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesCh ...
, where he is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants. From there he takes refuge in the mountainous Wilderness of Ziph. Jonathan meets with David again and confirms his loyalty to David as the future king. After the people of Ziph notify Saul that David is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David is able to secure some respite at
Ein Gedi Ein Gedi ( he, עֵין גֶּדִי), literally "spring of the kid (young goat)" is an oasis and a nature reserve A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, nat ...

Ein Gedi
. Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David and enters the cave where, as it happens, David and his supporters are hiding, " to attend to his needs". David realises he has an
opportunity Opportunity may refer to: Places * Opportunity, Montana, an unincorporated community, United States * Opportunity, Nebraska, an unincorporated community, United States * Opportunity, Washington, a former census-designated place, United States * 393 ...
to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe, and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David as his successor. A similar passage occurs in 1 Samuel 26, when David is able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lie asleep. In this account, David is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David declines, saying he will not "stretch out
is
is
hand against the Lord's anointed". Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David and blesses him. In 1 Samuel 27:1–4, NKJV, Saul ceases to pursue David because David took refuge a second time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Achish permits David to reside in
Ziklag Ziklag ( he, צִקְלַג) is the biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné ...
, close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the
Geshur Geshur was a territory in the ancient Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost su ...
ites, the Girzites and the
Amalek Amalek (; he, עֲמָלֵק, ''‘Ámālēq'', ar, عماليق ''‘Amālīq'') is a nation described in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew ...
ites, but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the
Kenite According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kenites ( or ; he, ''Qēnī'') were a nomadic tribe in the ancient Levant. The Kenites were coppersmiths and metalworkers. They are descendants of Cain.Stephen L Harris, Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bi ...
s. Achish believes that David had become a loyal
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
, but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath, and at their request Achish instructs David to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul. David returns to Ziklag and saves his wives and the citizens from the Amalekites. Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle, and David is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son
Ish-Bosheth Ish-bosheth ( he, , translit=ʼĪšbōšeṯ), also called Eshbaal (, ; alternatively spelled Ishbaal) was, according to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew la ...
is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered. With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to
Hebron Hebron ( ar, الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن ; he, חֶבְרוֹן ) is a State of Palestine, Palestinian. city in the southern West Bank, south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies Above mean sea level, above ...

Hebron
and David is anointed king over all of Israel. He conquers
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, previously a
Jebusite The Jebusites (; ISO 259-3 ''Ybusi'') were, according to the books Book of Joshua, of Joshua and Books of Samuel, Samuel from the TORAH, a Canaanite tribe that inhabited Jerusalem, then called Jebus (Hebrew: ) prior to the conquest initiated by J ...
stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings the
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judea ...

Ark of the Covenant
to the city, intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of David's sons. Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David stating, "your throne shall be established forever". David wins additional victories over the Philistines, Moabites,
Edomites Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ''’Edām''; he, אֱדוֹם ''ʼÉḏōm'', lit.: "red"; akk, 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 ''Uduma'') was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Ar ...
, Amalekites,
Ammon Ammon (Ammonite language, Ammonite: 𐤏𐤌𐤍 ''ʻAmān''; he, עַמּוֹן ''ʻAmmōn''; ar, عمّون, ʻAmmūn) was an ancient Semitic languages, Semitic-speaking nation occupying the east of the Jordan River, between the torrent ...

Ammon
ites and king
Hadadezer Hadadezer (; "
he god He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the N ...
Hadad is help"); also known as Adad-Idri ( akk, 𒀭𒅎𒀉𒊑, Dingir, dIM-id-ri), and possibly the same as Bar-Hadad II (Aramaic language, Aram.) or Ben-Hadad II (Hebrew language, Heb.), was the king of Aram Damascus ...
of Aram-Zobah, after which they become tributaries. His fame increase as a result, earning the praise of figures like king Toi of
Hamath , timezone = Eastern European Time, EET , utc_offset = +2 , timezone_DST = Eastern European Summer Time, EEST , utc_offset_DST = +3 , postal_code_type ...
, Hadadezer's rival. During a siege of the Ammonite capital of
Rabbah Amman (; ar, عَمَّان, ' ) is the capital and largest city of Jordan and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. With a population of 4,007,526, Amman is the List of largest cities in the Levant region by population, large ...
, David remains in Jerusalem. He spies a woman,
Bathsheba Bathsheba, ''Baṯ-šeḇa‘'', "daughter of Sheba" or "daughter of the oath") was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible. She is most known for the biblical narrative in which she was summoned by King Da ...

Bathsheba
, bathing and summons her; she becomes pregnant. The text in the Bible does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba consented to sex. David calls her husband,
Uriah the Hittite Uriah the Hittite ( – ''ʾŪriyyāh haḥittī'') is a minor character in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. T ...
, back from the battle to rest, hoping that he will go home to his wife and the child will be presumed to be his. Uriah does not visit his wife, however, so David conspires to have him killed in the heat of battle. David then marries the widowed Bathsheba. In response, Nathan, after trapping the king in his guilt with a parable that actually described his sin in analogy, prophesies the punishment that will fall upon him, stating "the sword shall never depart from your house." When David acknowledges that he has
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
ned, Nathan advises him that his sin is forgiven and he will not die, but the child will. In fulfillment of Nathan's words, the child born of the union between David and Bathsheba dies, and another of David's sons,
Absalom Absalom ( he, אַבְשָׁלוֹם ''Aḇšālōm'', "father of peace upStatue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto. Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility ...

Absalom
, fueled by vengeance and lust for power, rebels. Thanks to
Hushai Hushai (hus'-sha-i) or Chusai was a friend of David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ'' ...
, a friend of David who was ordered to infiltrate Absalom's court to successfully sabotage his plans, Absalom's forces are routed at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, and he is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree where, contrary to David's order, he is killed by
Joab Joab (Hebrew language, Hebrew Modern Israeli Hebrew, Modern ''Yōʼav'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yōʼāḇ'') the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. Name The name ...
, the commander of David's army. David laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!" until Joab persuades him to recover from "the extravagance of his grief" and to fulfill his duty to his people. David returns to
Gilgal Gilgal ( he, גִּלְגָּל ''Gilgāl''; grc-koi, Γαλγαλατοκαι Δωδεκαλίθων "Galgalatokai of the Twelve Stones") is the name of one or more places in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the ...
and is escorted across the
River Jordan ) , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, ''“descender”''), from ירד (yarad, ''“descended”'') , image = 20100923 mer morte13.JPG , image_size = , ima ...

River Jordan
and back to Jerusalem by the tribes of
Judah Judah may refer to: Historical ethnic, political and geographic terms The name was passed on, successively, from the biblical figure of Judah, to the Israelite tribe; its territorial allotment and the Israelite kingdom emerging from it, with the ...

Judah
and
Benjamin Benjamin () was the last-born of Jacob's thirteen children (12 sons and one daughter), and the second and last son of Rachel in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. He was the progenitor of the Israelites, Israelite Tribe of Benjamin. In the ...

Benjamin
. When David is old and bedridden,
Adonijah According to 2 Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the ...

Adonijah
, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king. Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down. David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years, and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies.


Psalms

The
Book of Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible and two books (1 Samuel and 2 Samuel) in the Christian Old Testament. The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (Book of Joshu ...
calls David a skillful harp (lyre) player and "the sweet psalmist of Israel." Yet, while almost half of the
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

Psalms
are headed "A Psalm of David" (also translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David's life (e.g., Psalms 3,
7
7
,
18
18
, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142), the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty. Psalm 34 is attributed to David on the occasion of his escape from
Abimelech Abimelech (also spelled Abimelek or Avimelech; ) was the name of multiple mentioned in the . Etymology The name or title ''Abimelech'' is formed from Hebrew words for "father" and "king," and may be interpreted in a variety of ways, including ...

Abimelech
(or King
Achish Achish (אָכִישׁ) is a name used in the Hebrew Bible for two Philistines, Philistine rulers of Gath (city), Gath. It is perhaps only a general title of royalty, applicable to the Philistine kings. The two kings of Gath, which is identified by ...
) by pretending to be insane. According to the parallel narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David to leave, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"


Historicity


Tel Dan Stele

The Tel Dan Stele, discovered in 1993, is an inscribed stone erected by
Hazael Hazael (; ; : חזאל, from the ''h-z-y'', "to see"; his full name meaning, "/God has seen"; akk, 𒄩𒍝𒀪𒀭, Ḫa-za-’-) was an who is mentioned in the . Under his reign, became an empire that ruled over large parts of and the Lan ...
, a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE. It commemorates the king's victory over two enemy kings, and contains the phrase he, ביתדוד, ''bytdwd'', which most scholars translate as "House of David". Other scholars have challenged this reading, but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda'' 'ia-ú-da-a-a'' arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt David, Dāwīḏ'') was an Israelites, Israelite kingdom of the Southern Le ...
which traced its ancestry to a founder named David.


Mesha Stele

Two
epigrapher Epigraphy ( grc, ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are ...
s, André Lemaire and Émile Puech, hypothesised in 1994 that the
Mesha Stele The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele A stele ( ),Anglicized plural steles ( ); Greek plural stelai ( ), from Greek , ''stēlē''. The Greek plural is written , ''stēlai'', but this is only rarely encountered in E ...
from
Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and et ...
, dating from the 9th century, also contain the words "House of David" at the end of Line 31, although this was considered as less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan inscription. In May 2019,
Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein ( he, ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل) ...

Israel Finkelstein
, Nadav Na'aman, and Thomas Römer concluded from the new images that the ruler's name contained three consonants and started with a ''bet'', which excludes the reading "House of David" and, in conjunction with the monarch's city of residence "Horonaim" in Moab, makes it likely that the one mentioned is King
Balak Balak ( ''Bālāq'') was a king of Moab Moab ''Mōáb''; Akkadian language, Assyrian: 𒈬𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Mu'aba'', 𒈠𒀪𒁀𒀀𒀀 ''Ma'ba'', 𒈠𒀪𒀊 ''Ma'ab''; Egyptian language, Egyptian: 𓈗𓇋𓃀𓅱𓈉 ''Mū'ībū' ...

Balak
, a name also known from the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
. Later that year, Michael Langlois used high-resolution photographs of both the inscription itself, and the 19th-century original squeeze of the then still intact stele to reaffirm Lemaire's view that line 31 contains the phrase "House of David". Replying to Langlois, Na'aman argued that the "House of David" reading is unacceptable because the resulting sentence structure is extremely rare in West Semitic royal inscriptions.


Bubastite Portal at Karnak

Besides the two steles, Bible scholar and Egyptologist
Kenneth Kitchen Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is a British biblical scholar, Ancient Near Eastern historian, and Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology Archaeology or archeo ...
suggests that David's name also appears in a relief of Pharaoh Shoshenq, who is usually identified with
Shishak Shishak, Shishaq or Susac (, Tiberian: , ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, ...
in the Bible. The relief claims that Shoshenq raided places in
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
in 925 BCE, and Kitchen interprets one place as "Heights of David", which was in Southern Judah and the
Negev The Negev or Negeb (; he, הַנֶּגֶב; ar, ٱلنَّقَب ') is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in th ...

Negev
where the Bible says David took refuge from Saul. The relief is damaged and interpretation is uncertain.


History of interpretation in the Abrahamic religions


Rabbinic Judaism

David is an important figure in
Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism ( he, יהדות רבנית, Yahadut Rabanit), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century Common era, CE, after the codification of ...
, with many legends around him. According to one tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. David's adultery with Bathsheba is interpreted as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to
Talmudic The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...
sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King. However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God ultimately forgave David and Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture. In
Jewish legend Josh Reichmann is a Canadian indie rock singer-songwriter and filmmaker. Biography Formerly associated with the band Tangiers Tangier, ( ar, طنجة, ṭanja; ber, ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ, ṭanja) is a city in northwestern Morocco ) , image_m ...
, David's sin with Bathsheba is the punishment for David's excessive self-consciousness who had besought God to lead him into temptation so that he might give proof of his constancy as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (who successfully passed the test) whose names later were united with God's, while David eventually failed through the temptation of a woman. According to
midrashim ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
he, מִדְרָשׁ; ...
,
Adam Adam (; Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long his ...

Adam
gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David. Also, according to the
Talmud Yerushalmi The Jerusalem Talmud ( he, תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, ''Talmud Yerushalmi'', often ''Yerushalmi'' for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or ''Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael'' (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection o ...
, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of
Shavuot (''Ḥag HaShavuot'' or ''Shavuos'') , nickname = English: "Feast of Weeks" , observedby = Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international sta ...

Shavuot
(Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.


Christianity

The Messiah concept is fundamental in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title
Messiah In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias (; , ; , ; ) is a salvation, saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of ''Messiah in Judaism, mashiach'', Messianism#Judaism, messianism, and of a Messianic Age#Judaism, Messianic Ag ...
had it), the "son of David" became in the last two centuries BCE the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man". The early Church believed that "the life of David foreshadowed the life of Christ;
Bethlehem Bethlehem (; ar, بيت لحم , "House of Meat"; he, בֵּית לֶחֶם ', , "House of Bread"; ; la, Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a city in the central West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضف ...

Bethlehem
is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the
five wounds In Christian tradition, the Five Holy Wounds, also known as the Five Sacred Wounds or the Five Precious Wounds, are the five piercing wounds Jesus Christ suffered during the Crucifixion of Jesus, crucifixion. The wounds have been the focus of part ...
; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor,
Ahitophel Ahitophel or Ahithophel was a counselor of King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''David ...
, and the passage over the remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future
Messiah In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias (; , ; , ; ) is a salvation, saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of ''Messiah in Judaism, mashiach'', Messianism#Judaism, messianism, and of a Messianic Age#Judaism, Messianic Ag ...
."John Corbett (1911
King David
''
The Catholic Encyclopedia The ''Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church'' (also referred to as the ''Old Catholic Encyclopedia'' and the ''Original Catholic Encyclopedia'') i ...
'' (New York: Robert Appleton Company)
In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, "
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. his wasnot in itself a new idea, but ne whosecontent and significance were greatly enlarged by him".
Western Rite Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
churches (
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Jesus Christ and was founded by Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and Protestant Reformers, reformer whose efforts to reform the theology ...
,
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
) celebrate his feast day on 29 December or on 6 October, Eastern-rite on 19 December. The
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
and
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christi ...
celebrate the
feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional method of organizing a by associating each day with one or more s and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typicall ...
of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the
Great Feast In the Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised member ...
of the ), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with
Joseph Joseph is a common masculine given name, derived from the Hebrew Yosef (יוֹסֵף). The form "Joseph" is used mostly in English, French and partially German-speaking (alongside "Josef") countries. This spelling is also found as a variant in th ...

Joseph
and James, the Brother of the Lord.


Middle Ages

In European
Christian culture Christian culture generally includes all the cultural practiceCultural practice is the manifestation of a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societ ...
of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, David was made a member of the
Nine Worthies The Nine Worthies are nine historical, scriptural, and legendary personages who personify the ideals of chivalry Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220. It was associated wi ...
, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of
chivalry Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal and varying code of conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised ...
. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors. David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
and
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...

Eastern
Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the ...
. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers. The
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
Bagratids and the
Solomonic dynasty The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, was a dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire formed in the thirteenth century. Its members claim lineal descent from the biblical Solomon, King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Tradition assert ...
of
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...
claimed a direct biological descent from him. Likewise, kings of the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
frequently connected themselves to David;
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym.


Islam

David (Arabic: داوود ''Dā'ūd'' or ''Dāwūd'') is an important figure in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
as one of the major
prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...
s sent by
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...

God
to guide the
Israelites The Israelites (; ) were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the history of ancient Israel and Judah, tribal and monarchic peri ...

Israelites
. David is mentioned several times in the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
with the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
name داود, ''Dāwūd'' or ''Dā'ūd'', often with his son
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...
. In the Quran David killed
Goliath Goliath ( ) ''Goləyāṯ''; ar, جُليات ''Ǧulyāt'' (Christian term) or (Quranic term). is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistines, Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Sau ...
( Q2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it ( Q38:20). David was made God's "
vicegerent Vicegerent is the official administrative deputy of a ruler or head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an ...
on earth" ( Q38:26) and God further gave David sound judgment ( Q21:78; Q37:21–24,
Q26 Ash-Shu‘ara’ ( ar, الشعراء, ; The Poets) is the 26th chapter (sūrah A ''surah'' (; ar, سورة, Sūratun or sūrah; , ) is the equivalent of "chapter" in the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼ ...
) as well as the
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

Psalms
, regarded as books of divine wisdom ( Q4:163; Q17:55). The birds and mountains united with David in uttering praise to God ( Q21:79; Q34:10; Q38:18), while God made iron soft for David ( Q34:10), God also instructed David in the art of fashioning
chain mail Chain mail (often just mail or sometimes chainmail) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh. It was generally in common military use between the 3rd century BC and the 16th century AD in Eu ...
out of iron ( Q21:80); this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his
bronze Bronze is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appear ...

bronze
and
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impuritie ...
-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields ( Q21:78) and David judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber ( Q38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Quran of the wrong David did to Uriah nor any reference to
Bathsheba Bathsheba, ''Baṯ-šeḇa‘'', "daughter of Sheba" or "daughter of the oath") was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible. She is most known for the biblical narrative in which she was summoned by King Da ...

Bathsheba
,
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s reject this narrative. Muslim
tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious ...

tradition
and the ''
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

hadith
'' stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in
fasting Fasting is the willful refrainment from eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ...

fasting
. Quran commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous '' Stories of the Prophets'' elaborate upon David's concise quranic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his beautiful recitation and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.


Historical criticism


Literary criticism

upright=0.8, Statue of King David (1609–1612) by
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore The Basilica of Saint Mary Major ( it, Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, ; la, Basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris), or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Major papal basilica as well as one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome and the large ...
in Rome, Italy Biblical literature and archaeological finds are the only sources that attest to David's life. Some scholars have concluded that this was likely compiled from contemporary records of the 11th and 10th centuries BCE, but that there is no clear historical basis for determining the exact date of compilation. Other scholars believe that the
Books of Samuel The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible and two books (1 Samuel and 2 Samuel) in the Christian Old Testament. The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (Book of Joshu ...
were substantially composed during the time of King
Josiah Josiah ( or ) or Yoshiyahu; la, Iosias was the 16th king of Judah The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 '' ...

Josiah
at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the
Babylonian exile The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
(6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE. Old Testament scholar
Graeme Auld Alan Graeme Auld (born 14 August 1941) is a British Old Testament scholar. He is Professor of Hebrew Bible at the University of Edinburgh. Auld was born in Aberdeen and studied at Robert Gordon's College, the University of Aberdeen, and the Univer ...
contends that further editing was done even after then—the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel in 1 Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period" because a quarter-shekel was known to exist in Hasmonean times. The authors and editors of Samuel drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" and the "succession narrative". The
Book of Chronicles The Book of Chronicles ( he, דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים ) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is ...
, which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel and Kings as its source. Biblical evidence indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him ''negid'', meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than ''melek'', meaning "king"; the biblical David sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around
Hebron Hebron ( ar, الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن ; he, חֶבְרוֹן ) is a State of Palestine, Palestinian. city in the southern West Bank, south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies Above mean sea level, above ...

Hebron
. Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. A number of scholars consider the David story to be a heroic tale similar to
King Arthur King Arthur ( cy, Brenin Arthur, kw, Arthur Gernow, br, Roue Arzhur) was a Legend, legendary Celtic Britons, British leader who, according to Historians in England during the Middle Ages, medieval histories and Romance (heroic literature), ...

King Arthur
's legend or
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
's epics, whereas others think that such comparisons are questionable. Others hold that the David story is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide. The authors and editors of Samuel and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David that is concrete and undisputed. Some other studies of David have been written:
Baruch HalpernBaruch Halpern is the Covenant Foundation Professor of Jewish Studies at the University of Georgia. He was a leader of the archaeological digs at Tel Megiddo 1992–2007, as well as of an archaeological survey in southeastern Cilicia (Turkey).
has pictured David as a brutal tyrant, a murderer and a lifelong vassal of
Achish Achish (אָכִישׁ) is a name used in the Hebrew Bible for two Philistines, Philistine rulers of Gath (city), Gath. It is perhaps only a general title of royalty, applicable to the Philistine kings. The two kings of Gath, which is identified by ...
, the Philistine king of Gath; Steven McKenzie argues that David came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons. Joel S. Baden has described him as "an ambitious, ruthless, flesh-and-blood man who achieved power by any means necessary, including murder, theft, bribery, sex, deceit, and treason. William G. Dever described him as "a serial killer". Jacob L. Wright has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods. Isaac Kalimi wrote about the tenth century BCE that: "Almost all that one can say about King Solomon and his time is unavoidably based on the biblical texts. Nevertheless, here also one cannot always offer conclusive proof that a certain biblical passage reflects the actual historical situation in the tenth century BCE, beyond arguing that it is plausible to this or that degree."


Archaeologic criticism

Isaac Kalimi wrote in 2018 that: ''"No contemporaneous extra-biblical source offers any account of the political situation in Israel and Judah during the tenth century BCE, and as we have seen, the archaeological remains themselves cannot provide any unambiguous evidence of events."'' Lester L. Grabbe wrote in 2017 that: ''"The main question is what kind of settlement Jerusalem was in Iron IIA: was it a minor settlement, perhaps a large village or possibly a citadel but not a city, or was it the capital of a flourishing – or at least an emerging – state? Assessments differ considerably …"'' John Haralson Hayes and James Maxwell Miller wrote in 2006: ''"On the other hand, if one is not convinced in advance by the biblical profile, then there is nothing in the archaeological evidence itself to suggest that much of consequence was going on in Palestine during the tenth century BCE, and certainly nothing to suggest that Jerusalem was a great political and cultural center."''
Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein ( he, ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل) ...

Israel Finkelstein
and
Neil Asher Silberman Neil Asher Silberman (born June 19, 1950 in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massa ...
have stated that the archaeological evidence shows that Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem no more than a small village. The evidence suggested that David ruled only as a chieftain over an area which cannot be described as a state or as a kingdom, but more as a chiefdom, much smaller and always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north. They posited that Israel and Judah were not
monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousn ...
at the time, and that later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs. They noted a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel during the 9th century BCE.
Amihai Mazar Amihai "Ami" Mazar ( he, עמיחי מזר; born November 19, 1942) is an Israeli archaeology, archaeologist. Born in Haifa, Israel (then the Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate of Palestine), he has been since 1994 a professor at the Institute o ...
has written that the
United Monarchy The United Monarchy () is the name given to the united Israelite The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near Ea ...
of the 10th century BCE can be described as a "state in development". He has also compared David to
Labaya Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Lib'ayu) was a 14th-century BCE ruler or warlord in the central hill country of southern . He lived contemporaneously with Pharaoh . Labaya is mentioned in several of the (abbreviated "EA", for 'el '). He ...
, a Caananite warlord living during the time of Pharaoh
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, wikt:ꜣḫ-n-jtn, ꜣḫ-n-jtn, meaning "Effective for the Aten"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the Ei ...

Akhenaten
. While Mazar believes that David reigned over Israel during the 11th century BCE, he argues that much of the Biblical text is “literary-legendary nature”. According to William G. Dever, the reigns of
Saul Saul (; he, , translit=Šāʾūl; gr, Σαούλ; ), according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first monarch of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, suppose ...

Saul
, David and
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
are reasonably well attested, but "most archeologists today would argue that the United Monarchy was not much more than a kind of hill-country chiefdom". Amélie Kuhrt acknowledges that "there are no royal inscriptions from the time of the united monarchy (indeed very little written material altogether), and not a single contemporary reference to either David or Solomon," but she concludes, "Against this must be set the evidence for substantial development and growth at several sites, which is plausibly related to the tenth century."
Kenneth Kitchen Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is a British biblical scholar, Ancient Near Eastern historian, and Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology Archaeology or archeo ...
reaches a similar conclusion, arguing that "the physical archaeology of tenth-century
Canaan A 1692 map of Canaan, by Philip Lea Canaan (; Northwest Semitic Northwest Semitic, known as Syro-Palestinian in dialect geography, is a division of the Semitic languages comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant. It would have ...

Canaan
is consistent with the former existence of a unified state on its terrain." The view of Davidic Jerusalem as a village has been challenged by
Eilat Mazar Eilat Mazar ( he, אילת מזר; 10 September 195625 May 2021) was an Israeli archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a ...
's excavation of the
Large Stone Structure The Large Stone Structure ( ''Mivne haEven haGadol'') is the name given to a set of remains interpreted by the excavator, Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar, as being part of a single large public building in the City of David (historic), City of ...
and the Stepped Stone Structure in 2005. Eilat Mazar proposed that these two structures may have been architecturally linked as one unit, and that they date back to the time of King David. Mazar supports this dating with a number of artifacts; including pottery, two Phoenician-style ivory inlays, a black-and-red jug, and a radiocarbon dated bone; dated to or around the 10th century.
Amihai Mazar Amihai "Ami" Mazar ( he, עמיחי מזר; born November 19, 1942) is an Israeli archaeology, archaeologist. Born in Haifa, Israel (then the Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate of Palestine), he has been since 1994 a professor at the Institute o ...
, Avraham Faust, Nadav Na'aman and William G. Dever have also argued in favour of the 10th century BCE dating and have responded to challenges against it. In 2010, archaeologist
Eilat Mazar Eilat Mazar ( he, אילת מזר; 10 September 195625 May 2021) was an Israeli archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a ...
announced the discovery of part of the ancient city walls around the City of David which she believes date to the tenth century BCE. According to Mazar, this would prove that an organized state did exist in the 10th century. Scholars such as
Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein ( he, ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل) ...

Israel Finkelstein
, Lily Singer-Avitz,
Ze'ev Herzog Ze’ev Herzog ( he, זאב הרצוג; born 1941) is an Israeli archeologist, professor of archaeology at The Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures at Tel Aviv University specializing in social archaeology, ancient archite ...
and
David UssishkinDavid Ussishkin (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ...
do not accept these conclusions. Finkelstein does not accept the dating of these structures to the 10th century BCE, based in part on the fact that later structures on the site penetrated deep into underlying layers, that the entire area had been excavated in the early 20th century and then backfilled, that pottery from later periods was found below earlier strata, and that consequently the finds collected by E. Mazar cannot necessarily be considered as retrieved in situ.
Aren Maeir Aren Maeir (born 1958) is an American-born Israeli Israeli may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( ...
said in 2010 that he has seen no evidence that these structures are from the 10th century BCE, and that proof of the existence of a strong, centralized kingdom at that time remains "tenuous."'Jerusalem city wall dates back to King Solomon'; by Abe Selig; Jerusalem Post, 23 February 2010; a

/ref> Excavations at
Khirbet Qeiyafa Khirbet Qeiyafa ( ar, خربة قيافة), also known as Elah Fortress and in Hebrew as Hirbet Kaifeh ( he, חורבת קייאפה), is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Valley of Elah, Elah Valley and dated to the first hal ...
by archaeologists
Yosef Garfinkel Image:yosef Garfinkel.jpg, upProf. Yosef Garfinkel Yosef Garfinkel (hebrew: יוסף גרפינקל; born 1956) is a professor of Prehistory, Prehistoric Archaeology and of Archaeology of the Biblical Period at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ...

Yosef Garfinkel
and
Saar GanorSaar Ganor is an Israeli archaeologist. He was the director, along with Yosef Garfinkel, of excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa Khirbet Qeiyafa ( he, חורבת קייאפה; ar, خربة قيافة) (also known as Elah Fortress; Hirbet Kaifeh) is t ...
found an urbanized settlement
radiocarbon dated Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of ...
dating to the 10th century, which supports the existence of an urbanised kingdom. Following such discovery, the
Israel Antiquities Authority The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA, he, רשות העתיקות ; ar, داﺌرة الآثار, before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Antiquit ...
stated, "The excavations at Khirbat Qeiyafa clearly reveal an urban society that existed in Judah already in the late eleventh century BCE. It can no longer be argued that the Kingdom of Judah developed only in the late eighth century BCE or at some other later date." However, the techniques and interpretations to reach some conclusions related to Khirbet Qeiyafa have been criticized by other scholars, such as Israel Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin of
Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv University (TAU) ( he, אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל אָבִיב, ''Universitat Tel Aviv'') is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educatio ...
, who have, instead, proposed that the city is to be identified as Philistine. In 2018, Avraham Faust and Yair Sapir stated that a Canaanite site at Tel Eton, about 30 miles from Jerusalem, was taken over by a Judahite community by peaceful assimilation, and transformed from a village into a central town at some point in the late 11th or early 10th century BCE. This transformation used some ashlar blocks in construction, which they argued supports the United Monarchy theory.


Art and literature


Literature

Literary works about David include: *1517 '' The Davidiad'' is a neo-Latin
epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem Narrative poetry is a form of poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of l ...
by the
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
national poet File:Adam Mickiewicz według dagerotypu paryskiego z 1842 roku.jpg, upAdam Mickiewicz A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a ...
,
Roman Catholic priest The priesthood is one of the three holy orders of the Catholic Church, comprising the ordained priests or presbyters. The other two orders are the Bishop in the Catholic Church, bishops and the Deacon in the Catholic Church, deacons. Church doctrin ...
, and
Renaissance humanist Renaissance humanism was a revival in the study of classical antiquity, at first Italian Renaissance, in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. During the period, the term ''humanist'' ( it, umanista ...
Marko Marulić Marko Marulić Splićanin (), in Latin Marcus Marulus Spalatensis (18 August 1450 – 5 January 1524), was a Croatian poet, lawyer, judge, and Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanist who coined the term "psychology". He is the national poet of ...
(whose name is sometimes
Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
as "Marcus Marulus"). In addition to the small portions that attempt to recall the epics of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
, ''The Davidiad'' is heavily modeled upon
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
's ''
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
''. This is so much the case that Marulić's contemporaries called him the "Christian Virgil from
Split Split(s) or The Split may refer to: Places * Split, Croatia, the largest coastal city in Croatia * Split Island, Canada, an island in the Hudson Bay * Split Island, Falkland Islands * Split Island, Fiji, better known as Hạfliua Arts, entertainm ...
." The
philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and writing, written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics (with especially strong ties to etymology). Philology is more commonly d ...
Miroslav Marcovich also detects, "the influence of
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil and Horace, with whom ...

Ovid
,
Lucan Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (3 November 39 AD – 30 April 65 AD), better known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...

Lucan
, and
Statius Publius Papinius Statius (; ) was a Roman poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience. ...
" in the work. *1681–82
Dryden '' John Dryden (; – ) was an English poet, literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which i ...

Dryden
's long poem ''
Absalom and Achitophel 200px, Sir Godfrey Kneller ">Godfrey_Kneller.html" ;"title="John Dryden by Godfrey Kneller">Sir Godfrey Kneller ''Absalom and Achitophel'' is a celebrated satirical poem (1679–1681). The poem also references the Popish Plot (1678) and the M ...
'' is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of
Absalom Absalom ( he, אַבְשָׁלוֹם ''Aḇšālōm'', "father of peace upStatue of Eirene, goddess of peace in ancient Greek religion, with her son Pluto. Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility ...

Absalom
against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the
Monmouth Rebellion The Monmouth Rebellion, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, the Revolt of the West or the West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. He had become king of England, List of Scottish monarchs, Scotland, and Monarchy of Irela ...
(1685), the
Popish Plot The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy invented by Titus Oates that between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland in anti-Catholicism in the United Kingdom, anti-Catholic hysteria ...
(1678) and the
Exclusion Crisis The Exclusion Crisis ran from 1679 until 1681 in the reign of King Charles II of England, Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland. Three Exclusion bills sought to exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, James II of England, James, Duk ...
. *1893
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes in 1887 for '' A Study in Scarlet'', the first of four novels and fifty-six short stories about Hol ...
may have used the story of David and Bathsheba as a foundation for the
Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes () is a fictional detective created by British author Arthur Conan Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Referring to himself as a "consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, deduction, ...

Sherlock Holmes
story '' The Adventure of the Crooked Man''. Holmes mentions "the small affair of Uriah and Bathsheba" at the end of the story. *1928
Elmer Davis Elmer Holmes Davis (January 13, 1890 – May 18, 1958) was a news reporter, author, the Director of the United States Office of War Information during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or W ...

Elmer Davis
's novel ''Giant Killer'' retells and embellishes the biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and
Joab Joab (Hebrew language, Hebrew Modern Israeli Hebrew, Modern ''Yōʼav'' Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yōʼāḇ'') the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. Name The name ...
, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead. *1936
William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County Yoknapatawpha County () is a List of fictional counties, fictional M ...

William Faulkner
's ''
Absalom, Absalom! ''Absalom, Absalom!'' is a novel by the American author William Faulkner William Cuthbert Faulkner (; September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American literature, American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulk ...
'' refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother,
Amnon Amnon ( he, אַמְנוֹן ''’Amnōn'', "faithful") was, in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, ...

Amnon
. *1946 's novel ''David the King'' was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly
homoerotic Homoeroticism is sexual attraction between members of the same sex, either male–male or female–female. The concept differs from the concept of homosexuality: it refers specifically to the desire itself, which can be temporary, whereas "homosex ...
, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character. *1966 Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote ''David: Biography of a King'', as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career. *1970
Dan Jacobson Dan Jacobson (7 March 1929 – 12 June 2014) was a South African novelist, short story writer, critic and essayist of Lithuanian Jewish descent. Early life and career Dan Jacobson was born 7 March 1929, in Johannesburg, South Africa, where his p ...
's ''The Rape of Tamar'' is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon. *1972
Stefan Heym Helmut Flieg or Hellmuth Fliegel (10 April 1913 – 16 December 2001) was a German writer, known by his pseudonym Stefan Heym (). He lived in the United States and trained at Camp Ritchie, making him one of the Ritchie Boys The Ritchie Boys ...

Stefan Heym
wrote ''The King David Report'' in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time. *1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann's biblical fantasy novel ''How are the Mighty Fallen'', David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly
nephilim The Nephilim (; ''Nəfīlīm'') are mysterious beings or people in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, A ...
), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it. *1980 's factional novel ''King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David'' relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon. *1984
Joseph Heller Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays. His best-known work is the 1961 novel ''Catch-22'', a satire on war and bureaucracy, whose title has become a synonym for ...

Joseph Heller
wrote a novel based on David called '' God Knows'', published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible. *1993
Madeleine L'Engle Madeleine L'Engle Camp (; November 29, 1918 – September 6, 2007) was an American writer of fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and young adult fiction, including ''A Wrinkle in Time'' and its sequels: ''A Wind in the Door'', ''A Swiftly Tilting Plane ...
's novel ''Certain Women'' explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga. *1995
Allan Massie Allan Johnstone Massie (born 16 October 1938) is a Scottish journalist, columnist, sports writer and novelist. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. He has lived in the Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco, the Mairc ...
wrote ''King David'', a novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan as sexual. *2015 Geraldine Brooks wrote a novel about King David, '' The Secret Chord'', told from the point of view of the prophet Nathan.


Paintings

*1599
Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (, , ; 29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an et ...
''
David and Goliath Goliath ( ) ''Golyāṯ''; ar, جُليات ''Ǧulyāt'' (Christian term) or (Quranic term). is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistines, Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Saul' ...
'' *c. 1610 Caravaggio David with the Head of Goliath *1616
Peter Paul Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; ; 28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Geneti ...

Peter Paul Rubens
'' David Slaying Goliath'' *''c.'' 1619
Caravaggio Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (, , ; 29 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an et ...
, ''
David and Goliath Goliath ( ) ''Golyāṯ''; ar, جُليات ''Ǧulyāt'' (Christian term) or (Quranic term). is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistines, Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Saul' ...
''


Sculptures

*1440?
Donatello Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi ( – 13 December 1466), better known as Donatello ( ), was a Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also re ...

Donatello
, ''
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
'' *1473–1475
Verrocchio Andrea del Verrocchio (, , ; – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an List of Italian painters, Italian painter, sculpture, sculptor, and goldsmith who was a master of an important workshop in Florence. He apparently becam ...

Verrocchio
, ''
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
'' *1501–1504
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
, ''
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...

David
'' *1623–1624
Gian Lorenzo Bernini Gian Lorenzo (or Gianlorenzo) Bernini (, , ; Italian Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 159828 November 1680) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simp ...
, ''
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
''


Film

David has been depicted several times in films; these are some of the best-known: *1951 In '' David and Bathsheba,'' directed by
Henry KingHenry King may refer to: People In order of birth * Henry King (poet) (1592–1669), English poet, Bishop of Chichester * Sir Henry King, 3rd Baronet (1681–1740), Anglo-Irish politician * Henry King (pirate), Henry King (fl. 1699), English pirate c ...
,
Gregory Peck Eldred Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an American actor and one of the most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Peck among AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars, 25 Greatest Male ...

Gregory Peck
played David. *1959 In ''
Solomon and Sheba ''Solomon and Sheba'' is a 1959 American epic historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Invent ...
,'' directed by
King Vidor King Wallis Vidor (; February 8, 1894 – November 1, 1982) was an American film director, film producer, and screenwriter whose 67-year film-making career successfully spanned the silent and sound eras. His works are distinguished by a vivid, ...
,
Finlay Currie William Finlay Jefferson Currie (20 January 1878 – 9 May 1968) was a Scottish actor of stage, screen, and television. He received great acclaim for his roles as Abel Magwitch in the British film '' Great Expectations'' (1946) and as Balthaz ...

Finlay Currie
played an aged King David. *1961 In ''
A Story of David ''A Story of David'' is a 1961 British-Israeli drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this ...
,'' directed by Bob McNaught,
Jeff Chandler Jeff Chandler (born Ira Grossel; December 15, 1918 – June 17, 1961) was an American actor, film producer, and singer best remembered for playing Cochise in '' Broken Arrow'' (1950), for which he was nominated for an Oscar An amateur ...
played David. *1985 In ''
King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
'', directed by
Bruce Beresford Bruce Beresford (; born 16 August 1940) is an Australian film director who has made more than 30 feature films over a 50-year career. Notable films he has directed include ' (1980), ' (1983), ' (1986) and ' (1989). Biography Early life Beresfo ...
,
Richard Gere Richard Tiffany Gere ( ; born August 31, 1949) is an American actor. He began in films in the 1970s, playing a supporting role in ''Looking for Mr. Goodbar Looking for Mr. Goodbar may refer to: * ''Looking for Mr. Goodbar'' (novel), a 1975 n ...

Richard Gere
played King David. *1996 In ''
Dave and the Giant Pickle This is a list of '' VeggieTales'' original videos. Videos Original videos (1993–2015) Theatrical films Compilation videos Collections # ''Lessons From The Sock Drawer'' (2008): Includes various "Veggie Vault" Silly Songs, shorts, an ...
''


Television

*1976 ''
The Story of David ''The Story of David'' (1976) was a two-part, 3.2 hour American television film dramatizing the biblical story of King David. It starred Timothy Bottoms as the young David, Keith Michell as the older David, Anthony Quayle as King Saul, and Jane ...
'', a made-for-TV film with
Timothy Bottoms Timothy James Bottoms (born August 30, 1951) is an American actor and film producer A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working Independent film, independently, producers plan and ...
and
Keith Michell Keith Joseph Michell (1 December 1926 – 20 November 2015) was an Australian actor who worked primarily in the United Kingdom, and was best known for his television and film portrayals of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January ...

Keith Michell
as King David at different ages. *1997 ''
David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...
'', a TV-film with
Nathaniel Parker Nathaniel Parker (born 18 May 1962) is an English stage and screen actor best known for playing the lead in the BBC crime drama series '' The Inspector Lynley Mysteries'', and Agravaine de Bois in the fourth series of '' Merlin''. Early life N ...
as King David and
Leonard Nimoy Leonard Simon Nimoy (; March 26, 1931 – February 27, 2015) was an American actor, author, film director, singer, and photographer who achieved international fame for playing Spock in the ''Star Trek'' franchise for almost 50 years; from two p ...

Leonard Nimoy
as the Prophet Samuel. *1997
Max von Sydow Max von Sydow (; ; born Carl Adolf von Sydow; 10 April 1929 – 8 March 2020) was a Swedish-French actor. He had a 70-year career in European and American cinema, television, and theatre, appearing in more than 150 films and several television s ...

Max von Sydow
portrayed an older King David in the TV-film ''
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...
'', a sequel to ''David.'' *2009
Christopher Egan Christopher Andrew Egan (born 29 June 1984) is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the isl ...
played David on '' Kings'', a re-imagining loosely based on the biblical story. *King David is the focus of the second episode of
History Channel History (formerly The History Channel from 1995 to 2008; stylized as HISTORY) is a pay television Pay television also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to ...
's ''
Battles BC ''Battles BC'' is a 2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astron ...
'' documentary, which detailed all of his military exploits in the bible. *2012 '' Rei Davi'', a Brazilian miniseries with Leonardo Brício as David. *2013
Langley Kirkwood Langley Kirkwood (born 14 April 1973) is an South African actor An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance (also actress; #The term actress, see below). The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the t ...
portrayed King David in the miniseries ''
The Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilati ...
''. *2016 '''' in which David is played by Olly Rix


Music

*The traditional birthday song mentions King David as the original singer in its lyrics. *1738 George Frideric Handel's oratorio ''Saul (Handel), Saul'' features David as one of its main characters. *1921 Arthur Honegger's oratorio ''Le roi David (Honegger), Le Roi David'' with a libretto by René Morax, instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire. *1964 Bob Dylan alludes to David in the last line of his song "When The Ship Comes In" ("And like Goliath, they'll be conquered"). *1983 Bob Dylan refers to David in his song "Jokerman (song), Jokerman" ("Michelangelo indeed could've carved out your features"). *1984 Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah (Leonard Cohen song), Hallelujah" has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and
Bathsheba Bathsheba, ''Baṯ-šeḇa‘'', "daughter of Sheba" or "daughter of the oath") was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible. She is most known for the biblical narrative in which she was summoned by King Da ...

Bathsheba
("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses. *1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the album ''Jordan: The Comeback'', has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs"). *1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting (musician), Sting's album ''The Soul Cages'', explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective. *2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat album ''Chinese Work Songs'' chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge.


Musical theater

*1997 ''King David (musical), King David'', sometimes described as a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Alan Menken.


Playing cards

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of spades was often known as "David". Illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards


Image gallery


See also

*David and Jonathan *David's Mighty Warriors *David's Tomb *Kings of Israel and Judah *
Large Stone Structure The Large Stone Structure ( ''Mivne haEven haGadol'') is the name given to a set of remains interpreted by the excavator, Israeli archaeologist Eilat Mazar, as being part of a single large public building in the City of David (historic), City of ...
*Midrash Shmuel (aggadah) *Sons of David


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Complete Bible Genealogy
David's family tree
David engravings from the De Verda collection
at th
Christian Iconography web site
by William Caxton
David
by Kent Harold Richards a
Bible Odyssey
{{Authority control David, 11th-century BC Kings of Israel (united monarchy) 10th-century BC Kings of Israel (united monarchy) Ancient history of Jerusalem Angelic visionaries Bathsheba Biblical murderers Books of Samuel people Harpists Jewish poets People from Bethlehem Shepherds Warlords Jewish royalty Catholic saints Eastern Orthodox saints Anglican saints Tribe of Judah