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Danish cuisine ( da, det danske køkken) originated from the peasant population's own local produce and was enhanced by cooking techniques developed in the late 19th century and the wider availability of goods during and after the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Open sandwiches, known as ''
smørrebrød (; originally , "butter and bread") is a traditional Danish open-faced sandwich that usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread (), a dense, dark brown bread Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts ...
'', which in their basic form are the usual fare for lunch, can be considered a national speciality when prepared and decorated with a variety of fine ingredients. Hot meals are typically prepared with meat or fish. Substantial meat and fish dishes includes ''
flæskesteg
flæskesteg
'' (roast pork with crackling) and ''kogt torsk'' (poached cod) with mustard sauce and trimmings.
Ground meat Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside North America, is meat finely chopped by a meat grinder A meat grinder (also called a "meat mincer" in the UK) is a kitchen appliance A typical Hoosier cabinet of the 1920s A kitchen is ...
s (pork, veal or beef) became widespread during the industrial revolution and traditional dishes that are still popular include ''
frikadeller Frikadelle are flat, pan-fried meatballs of minced meat, often likened to the Danish version of meatballs. The origin of the dish is unknown. The term "frikadelle" is German but the dish is associated with Danish, Scandinavian and Polish cuis ...

frikadeller
'' (meat balls), ''karbonader'' (breaded pork patties) and ''
medisterpølse
medisterpølse
'' (fried sausage). Denmark is known for its
CarlsbergCarlsberg may refer to: Places * Carlsberg (district), a district in Copenhagen, Denmark ** Carlsberg station, its train station * Carlsberg, Germany, a municipality in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany * Carlsberg Fjord, Greenland Other uses * Carlsber ...

Carlsberg
and
Tuborg Tuborg is a Danish brewing company founded in 1873 on a harbour A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) (synonym: haven) is a shelter ...

Tuborg
beers and for its
akvavit ''Akvavit'' or ''aquavit'' (; also ''akevitt'' in Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *D ...
and
bitters Stomach Essence", a bitters from Posen, Germany (now Poznań in Poland) A bitters (plural also ''bitters'') is traditionally an alcoholic preparation flavored with botanical matter so that the end result is characterized by a Bitterness (tast ...

bitters
, but amongst the Danes themselves imported wine has gained steadily in popularity since the 1960s. Cooking in Denmark has always been inspired by foreign and continental practises and the use of imported tropical spices like cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg and black pepper can be traced to the Danish cuisine of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
and some even to the
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...
. Since the early 2000s, some Danish chefs have developed the
new Danish cuisine New Nordic Cuisine ( da, Det nye nordiske køkken, sv, Det nya nordiska köket, no, Det nye nordiske kjøkken, fi, Uusi pohjoismainen keittiö) is a culinary movement which has been developed in the Nordic countries and Scandinavia in particular ...
, an innovative way of cooking based on high-quality local produce. This new philosophy and cuisine has attracted the attention of, and been celebrated by, the international gourmet community. It has contributed with a considerable number of highly acclaimed restaurants in Copenhagen and the province, with some of them awarded
Michelin stars The Michelin Guides ( ) are a series of guide books that have been published by the French tyre company Michelin since 1904. The Guide awards up to three Michelin star (classification), stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acq ...
.


History

Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...

Danish
cooking is rooted in the peasant dishes served across the country before the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Industrial Revolution
in 1860. It was based on the need to make use of natural products available on or near the family farm. As a result, a variety of ''
brassica ''Brassica'' () is a genus of plants in the cabbage and mustard Mustard may refer to: Food and plants * Mustard (condiment) Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds A seed is an Plant embryogenesis, embryonic plant enclosed in a te ...
s'', bread, fish, pork and later potatoes, were eaten everywhere. Families had their own storage of long-lasting dry products, rye for making bread, barley for beer, dried peas for soup and smoked or salted pork."La cuisine danoise"
, ''Ambassade du Danemark Luxembourg''. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
The industrialization brought an increase in the consumption of fresh meat and vegetables, but rye bread and potatoes continued to be staples."Histoire de la gastronomie danoise"
Le Danemark, ses produits et sa gastronomie, Sirha , 22-26 janvier 2011, Eurexpo Lyon". Retrieved 6 December 2011.
With the arrival of dairy
cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российск ...
s in the second half of the 19th century, milk also gained favor, although all kinds of dairy products have been consumed in lesser quantities for millennia. The introduction of
wood-burning stove A wood-burning stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating or cooking appliance capable of burning wood fuel Pile of wood pellets Wood fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel such as firewood, charcoal, Woodchips, chips, sheets, wood pe ...
s and
meat grinder A meat grinder (also called a "meat mincer" in the UK) is a kitchen appliance A typical Hoosier cabinet of the 1920s A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat ...

meat grinder
s contributed to a range of new dishes including ''
frikadeller Frikadelle are flat, pan-fried meatballs of minced meat, often likened to the Danish version of meatballs. The origin of the dish is unknown. The term "frikadelle" is German but the dish is associated with Danish, Scandinavian and Polish cuis ...

frikadeller
'' (meat balls), ''
medisterpølse
medisterpølse
'' (fried ground meat sausage), ''hakkebøf'' (meat patties of beef), ''karbonader'' (breaded pork meat patties), meat loafs, roast pork, poached cod and ''stegt rødspætte'' (breaded flatfish). Desserts of stewed fruits or berries such as '' rødgrød'' date from the same period, as do a large variety of cakes and cookies. Over the centuries, sausage, which was not only economical but could be kept for long periods, was together with rye bread behind the development of ''smørrebrød''. By the end of the 18th century, there were several different kinds of sausage but the preparation of cold meat products developed rapidly in the 1840s when the French butcher Francois Louis Beauvais opened a business in Copenhagen. In the 1880s, Oskar Davidsen opened a restaurant specializing in ''smørrebrød'' with a long list of open sandwiches. ''Leverpostej'' (liver pâté) became available in grocery shops at the end of the 19th century but it was some time before its price was comparable with that of cold cuts. Around the same time, the one-hour lunch break which had allowed people to enjoy a hot midday meal was shortened to 30 minutes, encouraging them to take a few pieces of ''smørrebrød'' to work in a lunch box. In the 1920s and 1930s, tomatoes and cucumbers were added as a topping to the cold cuts. In the 1940s, Henry Stryhn popularized ''leverpostej'' by making deliveries around Copenhagen on his bicycle. In the 1960s and 1970s, with the availability of deep frozen goods, the concept of
fast food Fast food is a type of mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing ...

fast food
arrived together with an interest in as Danes travelled more widely. By the 1990s, ingredients were being imported from the south while new products were farmed at home, providing a basis for a developing interest in
gourmet Gourmet (, ) is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterized by refined, even elaborate preparations and presentations of aesthetically balanced meals of several contrasting, of ...

gourmet
dishes. Much of the inspiration came from France, as Danish chefs went on television explaining how to prepare dishes such as ''canard à l'orange'' or authentic ''sauce Béarnaise''. A younger generation of chefs soon started to travel abroad themselves, learning how to adapt the expertise of French and Spanish chefs to the use of local ingredients as a basis for creating beautifully presented, finely flavoured Nordic dishes. As a result, in recent years Danish chefs have helped to put Denmark on the world gastronomic map, with several Michelin-starred restaurants in Copenhagen and the provinces.


New Danish cuisine

Danish cuisine has also taken advantage of the possibilities inherent in traditional recipes, building on the use of local products and techniques that have not been fully exploited. Local products such as rapeseed, oats, cheeses and older varieties of fruits are being rediscovered and prepared in new ways both by restaurants and at home, as interest in locally sourced
organic food Organic food is food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biolog ...

organic food
s continues to grow. The
Nordic Council The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary Nordic cooperation among the Nordic countries. Formed in 1952, it has 87 representatives from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as well as from the autonomous are ...

Nordic Council
's agricultural and food ministers have supported these developments in the form of a manifesto designed to encourage the use of natural produce from the Nordic countries in the food production industry, while promoting the "purity, freshness, simplicity and ethics" associated with the region's cuisine."Denmark Special"
, ''Food & design, #9 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
In 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2014 the Copenhagen restaurant
Noma Noma, NoMa, or NOMA may refer to: Places * NoMa, the area North of Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C., US ** NoMa–Gallaudet U station, on Washington Metro * Noma, Florida, US * NOMA, Manchester, a redevelopment in England * Noma District, ...
(short for ''nordisk mad'' – Nordic food) was named the world's best restaurant by the magazine ''
Restaurant A restaurant is a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." ...
''. In 2012, Danish chef and food activist
Claus Meyer Claus Meyer (born December 27, 1963, in Nykøbing Falster, Denmark) is a culinary entrepreneur, food activist, cookbook author, professor, and television host. He is often accredited as the founder of the New Nordic Cuisine philosophy. Projects ...
had his own show about Nordic cuisine on
BBC Lifestyle BBC Lifestyle is an international television channel wholly owned by BBC Studios. The channel provides six programming strands: Food, Home & Design, Fashion & Style, Health, Parenting, and Personal Development. On 1 August 2019, BBC Lifestyle alo ...

BBC Lifestyle
. His recent book ''Almanak'' contains 365 new cuisine recipes, one for each day of the year.


Main meals

Most Danes have three regular meals a day, usually consisting of a cold breakfast with coffee or tea, a cold lunch at work and a hot dinner at home with the family. Some also have a snack in the middle of the afternoon or in the late evening. Meat, especially pork, is by far the most common ingredient of hot meals. It is usually accompanied by potatoes and sometimes by another vegetable such as carrots or lettuce. Most hot meals consist of only one course: starters are fairly rare but desserts such as ice cream or fruit are a little more frequent. Beer and wine are fairly common drinks at mealtimes but so are soft drinks, plain water and, to a lesser extent, milk and coffee. Many families follow the old traditions. Mothers and fathers cook together and teach their children how to cook. Meals form an important part of family life, allowing for socializing and contributing to the sense of the well-being and coziness known as ''
hygge ''Hygge'' (; ; ) is a Danish and Norwegian word for a mood of coziness and comfortable conviviality with feelings of wellness and contentment. As a cultural category with its sets of associated practices ''hygge'' has more or less the same meani ...
''.


Breakfast

The basic Danish breakfast consists of coffee, or tea, and
rye bread Rye bread is a type of bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made food ...
, white bread, or rolls with cheese or jam. Bread at breakfast time most often comes in the form of a white loaf known as ''franskbrød'' (French bread), a
baguette A baguette (; ) is a long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law). It is distinguishable by its length and crisp Bread#Crust, crust. A baguette has a d ...

baguette
, or a variety of white or brown rolls (''boller'', ''birkes'', ''rundstykker'', ''håndværkere'') or
croissant A croissant (; , ; ) is a butter Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and ot ...

croissant
s. The bread is usually buttered and topped with soft or creamy cheese, sausage, pâté, cured cold meat or jam. On festive gatherings or when time permits, as on Sundays, for example, a variety of bread rolls can be included as well as ''wienerbrød'', as
Danish pastry A Danish pastry, sometimes shortened to just Danish (especially in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of ...
is known in Denmark. Fruit juice, mostly orange or apple, and sometimes a bitter such as Gammel Dansk, may also be served, especially when breakfast is served to guests or on special occasions and celebrations like birthdays and anniversaries. In Danish hotels, soft-boiled eggs and cold meats are usually served for breakfast, too. On weekdays, various cereals, such as
corn flakes Corn flakes, or cornflakes, are a breakfast cereal Cereal, often called breakfast cereal (and further categorized as cold cereal or warm cereal), is a traditional breakfast Breakfast is the first meal of the day eaten after waking up, usuall ...
,
muesli Muesli ( ) is a cold oatmeal dish based on rolled oats Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), geometric plane alo ...

muesli
or
rolled oats Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), geometric plane along which the rotation occurs is called the ''rotation plane' ...

rolled oats
, are often served for breakfast with just cold milk and sugar. Soured milk products are popular, too, and are served either plain or with cereals or fruit. The typical local soured milk product of '' ymer'' is topped with ''ymerdrys'', a mixture of dried grated rye bread and brown sugar. Porridges such as
oatmeal Oatmeal refers to a Rolled oats, preparation of oats that have been dehusked, Steaming, steamed and flattened, or else a coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (Groat (grain), groats) that have either been mill (grinding), milled (ground) or stee ...

oatmeal
and a traditional local porridge called '''' are also popular on work days. Øllebrød, a thin porridge cooked with bits of rye bread, hvidtøl, water, and sugar, and served with milk or sometimes whipped cream, is gaining in popularity as reflected on the breakfast menus of many cafés.


Lunch

Rather than eating at home, most Danes have a quick lunch at work or school either in the
cafeteria A cafeteria, sometimes called a canteen outside the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a ...

cafeteria
, if there is one, or more often in the form of a
packed lunch A packed lunch (also called pack lunch, sack lunch or bag lunch in ) is a carried, to be eaten at a destination, such as school, a workplace, or on an , which is prepared before arrival: at home; at a hotel (for guests) or sold in a vending m ...
or ''madpakke'' prepared before they leave home. Lunch is usually a cold meal consisting of a few simply prepared pieces of ''
smørrebrød (; originally , "butter and bread") is a traditional Danish open-faced sandwich that usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread (), a dense, dark brown bread Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts ...
'' (often referred to as ''håndmad'', i.e. hand-food) with slices of cold meat, sliced sausage or hard boiled egg. '' Leverpostej'', a liver pâté prepared from pig's liver and lard, is also frequently used as a spread.


Dinner

For the average family,
dinner Dinner usually refers to what is in many Western cultures the largest and most formal meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In bi ...

dinner
is the one meal of the day where everyone can be gathered, due to the pressures of the modern life where both parents are likely to work, and the children are in school or pre-school institutions. This a great time to talk about the day-to-day life of each family member. Dinner usually consists of just one main course, often a meat dish with potatoes and a vegetable or salad. Starters are seldom served at home. If there is a dessert, it is likely to be ice cream or a fruit dish. Much more substantial, and delicious dinners are served on weekends, special occasions or when guests have been invited. Confusingly, the evening meal is sometimes called ''middag'' (midday) because hot meals were formerly served in the middle of the day. The variety of evening meals has developed as a result of the increasing availability of foods from supermarkets as well as the development and growth of the local food industry. As a result of American influence, there is now considerable interest in barbecues, salad buffets and ready-to-serve dishes. Italian-inspired preparations, including pizza and pasta, have also become common options. Meat is very popular, pork ranking as the most frequently served. Cuts are often prepared in the frying pan and accompanied by gravy and potatoes.Else-Marie Boyhus and Claus Meyer, "Dinner"
, ''Denmark.dk''. Retrieved 6 December 2011.


Open sandwiches

''Smørrebrød'' (originally ''smør og brød'', meaning "butter and bread") usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread ('' rugbrød''), a dense, dark brown bread. ''Pålæg'' (meaning put-on, actually "that which is laid on he bread), the topping, then among others can refer to commercial or homemade cold cuts, pieces of meat or fish, cheese or spreads. More elaborate, finely decorated varieties have contributed to the international reputation of the Danish open sandwich or ''
smørrebrød (; originally , "butter and bread") is a traditional Danish open-faced sandwich that usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread (), a dense, dark brown bread Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts ...
''. A slice or two of ''pålæg'' is placed on the buttered bread and decorated with the right accompaniments to create a tasty and visually appealing food item. Some traditional compositions include:"Danish Food Culture"
''Copenhagen Portal''. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
*'' Dyrlægens natmad'' (Veterinarian's late night snack). On a piece of dark rye bread, a layer of liver pâté ('' leverpostej''), topped with a slice of '''' (salted beef) and a slice of ''sky'' ( meat jelly). This is all decorated with raw
onion The onion (''Allium cepa'' L., from Latin ''cepa'' "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still co ...

onion
rings and
garden cress Cress (''Lepidium sativum''), sometimes referred to as garden cress (or curly cress) to distinguish it from similar plants also referred to as cress (from old Germanic ''cresso'' which means sharp, spicy), is a rather fast-growing, edible herb ...
. *''Røget ål med røræg'', smoked
eel Eels are ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic gro ...
on dark rye bread, topped with scrambled eggs, chives and a slice of lemon. *'' Leverpostej'', warm rough-chopped liver pâté served on dark rye bread, often topped with
bacon Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork Pork is the culinary name for the meat of the Pig, domestic pig (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig animal husbandry, husbandry dating ba ...

bacon
and/or sauteed
mushrooms A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar ''(Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the ...

mushrooms
. Additions can include lettuce, and sliced pickled/fresh cucumber. *
Roast beef Roast beef is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Networ ...

Roast beef
, thinly sliced and served on dark rye bread, topped with a portion of
remoulade Rémoulade (; ) is a European cold sauce In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appea ...
, and decorated with a sprinkling of shredded
horseradish Horseradish (''Armoracia rusticana'', syn. ''Cochlearia armoracia'') is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes Mustard plant, mustard, wasabi, broccoli, cabbage, and radish). It is a root vegetable, cultivated and us ...

horseradish
and crispy fried onions. *''Ribbensteg'', thin slices of roast pork with crackling, served on dark rye bread with ''rødkål'' (pickled red cabbage), and decorated with a slice of orange. *'' Rullepølse'', spiced meat roll with a slice of meat jelly, onions, tomatoes and parsley. Usually pork meat, but sometimes lamb. *, with salt and pepper, served on dark rye bread, topped with raw onion rings, grated horseradish and a raw egg yolk. *''''. Slices of cold-smoked salmon on white bread, topped with
shrimp Shrimp are Decapoda, decapod crustaceans with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. More narrow definitions may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group ...

shrimp
and decorated with a slice of
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
and fresh
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlem ...

dill
. *''Stjerneskud'' (Shooting star). On a base of buttered toast, two pieces of
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
: a piece of steamed white fish (mostly
plaice Plaice is a common name for a group of flatfish that comprises four species: the European plaice, European, American plaice, American, Alaska plaice, Alaskan and scale-eye plaice. Commercially, the most important plaice is the European plaice, E ...
) on one half, a piece of fried, breaded plaice or ''rødspætte'' on the other half. On top is piled a mound of shrimp, which is then decorated with a dollop of
mayonnaise Mayonnaise, informally mayo, is a thick, creamy sauce In , a sauce is a , , or semi- food, served on or used in preparing other s. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to a dish ...
, sliced
cucumber Cucumber (''Cucumis sativus'') is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the Cucurbitaceae The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits or the gourd family, are a plant family (biology), family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 ...

cucumber
,
caviar Caviar (also known as caviare; from fa, خاویار, khâvyâr, egg-bearing) is a food consisting of salt-cured roe of the family Acipenseridae. Caviar is considered a delicacy and is eaten as a garnish or a spread. Traditionally, the term ...

caviar
or blackened lumpfish roe, and a
lemon The lemon, ''Citrus limon'', is a species of small evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise ...

lemon
slice.


Cold buffet

''Det Kolde Bord'' is a cold buffet served with bread on special occasions. The food is usually brought to the dining table and passed around family-style and the idea is similar to the Swedish counterpart, the ''
smörgåsbord Smörgåsbord () is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table. Smörgåsbord became internationally known at the 1939 New York World's Fair when it wa ...

smörgåsbord
'', but with slightly different ingredients. ''Det Kolde Bord'' is usually served at lunch time, but may well carry on into the evening."Koldt bord"
''Den Store Danske''. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
The meal begins with seafood, usually
pickled herring Pickled herring is a traditional way of preserving herring as food by pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an ...
, or another
herring Herring are forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish fee ...

herring
dish. The cured and pickled herring fillets are typically made and served in a white and a red variety, but a multitude of pickled herring dishes exists. White herring has marinated in a clear, sweet and mildly spiced
vinegar Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–8% acetic acid by volume. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation; converting simple sugars to eth ...

vinegar
marinade while the sharper tasting red herring has marinated in a red, seasoned vinegar marinade, owing their red colour to sandal wood. Other common variations includes a variety of
sour cream Sour cream (in North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultu ...

sour cream
-based sauces, of which a
curry Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent. It uses a combination of spices or herbs, usually including ground turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also or ) is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known a ...

curry
flavoured type is very popular. ''Spegesild'' is usually served on buttered, black rye bread, topped with onion rings, pickled
capers ''Capparis spinosa'', the caper bush, also called Flinders rose, is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historic ...
and a glob of curry salad - a sour-cream based sauce, flavored with curry and chopped pickles - and chopped hard boiled eggs on the side. Alternative, but common, herring dishes served at the cold buffet includes (fried herring in vinegar) consisting of rye-battered, fried fillets of herring in a spiced vinegar marinade or the more elaborate (herring dish) where the herring is arranged in a large serving dish with various sides such as warm, boiled potatoes, raw onion, pickled capers and a
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlem ...

dill
-flavoured sour-cream or mayonnaise sauce, or diced apple, shredded horseradish and curry salad, as two common options. Other seafood dishes may include: *''Rejer'' (shrimps), usually served on white bread with mayonnaise and lemon *''Røget ål'' (smoked eel) with scrambled egg *'''' (salt-cured salmon) with a dill and mustard sauce *''Rødspættefilet'' (breaded filets of plaice), served hot with lemon and remoulade *''Røget laks'' (smoked salmon) *''Røget hellefisk'' (smoked halibut) The cold table also consists of a wide variety of meat dishes and, despite its name, nearly always includes a few items which are served hot. Some of the more common components are:"Udvalgte Traditionelle Danske Retter"
, ''København Spiseder''. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
*''
Frikadeller Frikadelle are flat, pan-fried meatballs Meatballs being cooked A meatball is ground meat Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside of North America (i.e. in U.K. and Commonwealth countries), and ''keema'' or ''qeema'' ( Hindusta ...

Frikadeller
'' (meat balls), sometimes hot *'' Leverpostej'' (liver paste), sometimes hot, with pickled beetroot, mushrooms or fried bacon *''Mørbradbøf'' (pork tenderloin), hot, with fried onions *''
Flæskesteg ''Flæskesteg'', flɛːskə.stɐ̯jthe Danish version of roast pork, is considered to be one of Denmark's principal national dishes. Always prepared with Pork rind, crackling, it is also a favourite for the Danish Christmas dinner served as the ...

Flæskesteg
'' (roast pork) with crackling, usually with red cabbage *''
Medisterpølse Image:Medisterpølse.jpg, Pieces of fried ''medister'', of approx. 5 cm. Medisterpølse, medisterkorv or simply medister, is a Scandinavian specialty food consisting of a thick, spiced sausage made of minced pork and suet (or lard), stuffed into a ...

Medisterpølse
'' (a coarsely ground pork sausage, fried) *''Pariserbøf'' (ground beef steak), usually served hot on toast with pickles There might also be cold cuts from hams, roast beef, salami, brisket of beef and spiced roulade. ''Det Kolde Bord'' usually include accompaniments such as potato salad, scrambled egg and a variety of salads. Desserts like fruit salad and fruit pies, as well as various cheeses may also be served. Around Christmas, the buffet will sometimes include ''sylte'' (meat jelly from pork) and other Christmas-related specialties. Danish Herring Cold Dish.jpg, "''Spegesild''", cold pickled herring Flickr - cyclonebill - Rejemad.jpg, Shrimps on white bread Røget ål og ørred (5303224938).jpg, Smoked eel and trout with scrambled eggs Bornholm lunch.jpg, Fishcake, smoked herring and prawns with dark rye bread. Smørrebrød-02a.jpg, "''Leverpostej''" (hot) served with bacon and pickles Pariserbøf (5988859688).jpg, "''Pariserbøf''" with accompaniments Frikadeller og kartoffelsalat.jpg, "''Frikadeller''" and potato salad


Options for dinner

The everyday evening meal for most Danes consists of a main course and perhaps a dessert. At weekends and on special occasions, a more elaborate meal is served. Good restaurants usually serve a three course dinner. While an ever-wider range of foreign foods are available in Denmark, traditional dishes are still popular. A selection of the more common options is given below.


Appetizer

The first course is typically
fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
or soup, although a wide variety of other
appetizer An hors d'oeuvre ( ; french: hors-d'œuvre ), appetizer or starter is a small dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverw ...

appetizer
s are becoming more common. Common traditional appetisers include: *
Shellfish Shellfish is a colloquial and fisheries Fishery is the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish and other aquatic life. Commercial fisheries include wild fisheries and Fish farming, fish farms, both in fresh water (about 10% of all catch) and ...

Shellfish
, including mussels, shrimp, oyster, crab and lobster. Usually served poached with white bread and various toppings for an appetiser or small meal. **
Shrimp Shrimp are Decapoda, decapod crustaceans with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. More narrow definitions may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group ...

Shrimp
(''rejer'') are mostly from the Greenland or the North Atlantic. Fjord shrimp from Denmark are a seasonal and less common delicacy: very small and flavorful, about the size of the smallest fingernail. Special shrimp appetisers are (''rejecocktail''), shrimp salad (with mayonnaise) and shrimp terrine. Apart from appetisers, shrimps also features as toppings for some fish servings. **
Mussel Mussel () is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is som ...

Mussel
s (''muslinger''), is fished and farmed on a large scale in Danish waters and is served poached.
Blue mussel The blue mussel (''Mytilus edulis''), also known as the common mussel, is a medium-sized edible marine (ocean), marine bivalve mollusc in the family (biology), family Mytilidae, the mussels. Blue mussels are subject to commercial use and intensive ...
s is by far the most common, but razor clams, green lipped mussel and common cockle is sometimes served as well. As with shrimps, mussels may feature in some fish dishes. **
Oyster Oyster is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is someti ...

Oyster
is usually served raw, and sometimes smoked, as an appetiser for more lavish dinners. *Fish served for appetiser or entrée, includes
pickled Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains ess ...
herring and '''' served cold with bread; rye bread for the herring and white bread for the salmon. There are many kinds of pickled herring, with a large variety of vinegar marinades and smoked or fried pickled herring is also served. Fish
pâté ''Pâté'' ( , , ) is a paste, pie or loaf filled with a forcemeat. Common forcemeats include ground meat from pork, poultry, fish or beef, fat, vegetables, herbs, spices and either wine or brandy (often cognac (brandy), cognac or armagnac (bran ...

pâté
of various kinds with bread might also be had.


Soups

Soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material de ...

Soup
is often a meal on its own and mostly served with bread. It can also be served as an
entrée An entrée (, ; ) in modern French table service and that of much of the English-speaking world (apart from the United States and parts of Canada) is a dish (food), dish served before the main course of a meal. Outside North America, it is genera ...

entrée
before the main course. In addition to soups also common outside of Denmark, specialities include: *''Gule ærter'' (
pea soup Pea soup or split pea soup is soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a flui ...

pea soup
), a meal in itself served together with salted pork, carrots and other vegetables *''Hønsekødssuppe'' (chicken soup) served with ''melboller'' (small flour dumplings), meatballs and cubed vegetables.


Main dishes

Fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the ...
,
seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. ...

seafood
and
meat Meat is animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular respiratio ...

meat
are prominent parts of any traditional
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...

Danish
dish. With a very long coastline and large number of smaller islands, Denmark has a long tradition of fishing and seafood takes a natural part of the Danish food tradition. The most commonly eaten fish and seafood are: *
Cod Cod is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometim ...
(''torsk''), a common white fish in general food preparation (baked, steamed, poached). It is also dried (''klipfisk''). Danes are particularly fond of cod’s roe. The
roe Roe () or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as ...

roe
are in season in January–February, but is sold and consumed year round canned. Prices on cod have risen in recent years, making this once-favorite fish drop down the list. It has mainly been replaced by other white fish, such as
haddock The haddock (''Melanogrammus aeglefinus'') is a saltwater ray-finned fish from the Family (biology), family Gadidae, the true cods. It is the only species in the Monotypy, monotypic genus ''Melanogrammus''. It is found in the North Atlantic Ocea ...
and ling. *
Norway lobster ''Nephrops norvegicus'', known variously as the Norway lobster, Dublin Bay prawn, ' (compare langostino) or ''scampi'', is a slim, orange-pink lobster which grows up to long, and is "the most important commercial crustacean in Europe". It is now ...
(''jomfruhummer'') *
Herring Herring are forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish fee ...

Herring
(''sild''), features prominently in the traditional Danish cuisine and is served in a large variety of ways either smoked, fried, pickled, breaded, or charred. *
Plaice Plaice is a common name for a group of flatfish that comprises four species: the European plaice, European, American plaice, American, Alaska plaice, Alaskan and scale-eye plaice. Commercially, the most important plaice is the European plaice, E ...
(''rødspætte''), in the form of fried, battered fish filets or as a white fish in general food preparation (baked, steamed, poached). It is often replaced with the more common
European flounder The European flounder (''Platichthys flesus'') is a flatfish A flatfish is a member of the ray-finned demersal fish order Pleuronectiformes, also called the Heterosomata, sometimes classified as a suborder of Perciformes. In many species, ...

European flounder
, known as ''skrubbe'' in Danish. *
Eel Eels are ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic gro ...
(''ål''), is smoked or pan-fried. Smoked eel is almost exalted in some homes. *
Salmon Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish Actinopterygii ( New Latin ('having rays') + Greek ( 'wing, fins')), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', ...

Salmon
(''laks''), poached or broiled and served in a variety of ways. Smoked and gravad
lox Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the and . Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. consists of ...

lox
salmon with bread is reserved for appetisers or ''smørrebrød''. *
Roe Roe () or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as ...

Roe
(''rogn''), fish
roe Roe () or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as ...

roe
from cod is by far the most common, but (''stenbider'') is also served on occasion. Poached or pan-fried is most typical. Salmon roe is used for toppings of some seafood dishes. Fish from
Bornholm Bornholm (; non, Burgundaholmr) is a Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people ...

Bornholm
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
and
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an autonomous territory An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administra ...

Greenland
also has a special place in the Danish cuisine. The island of Bornholm, a part of Denmark located in the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, to the east of
Zealand Zealand or Sealand ( da, Sjælland , in English also occasionally), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habita ...
and south of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
, is noted for its smoked fish items. Iceland and Greenland have long shared histories with Denmark, and the fish from these North Atlantic lands is a sign of quality. Pork is the favourite meat in Denmark and pork meat has been a major export sector for more than 100 years. As regards home cooking and meat, the Danes primarily eat
pork Pork is the for the of the (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved; extends the of pork products. , , , ...

pork
(42%), followed by poultry (28%) and beef (26%). These are 2016 numbers and does not include processed meat and eating out. Processed meats comprise a lot of pork in Danish cuisine, including
ham Ham is pork Pork is the culinary name for the meat of the Pig, domestic pig (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig animal husbandry, husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is ...

ham
s, smoked pork, many kinds of cold cuts, sausages and salamis, so the pork consumption percentage would be even larger if processed meat were included. Ground pork meat is used in many traditional recipes requiring ground meat. Danish bacon is generally of good quality (exported Danish bacon is of exceptional quality), and available in both the striped and back varieties. Beef is also very popular in the modern Danish kitchen. Danish cattle are primarily used for dairy and Denmark has a centuries-old tradition of dairy products. Hence, cattle bred for their meat were formerly rare and expensive. Dairy cattle rarely make good meat cattle - especially after several years as dairy cows- and for that reason, beef has traditionally been ground and cooked as patties or prepared as boiled roast or soup. Today meat-cattle is more common and
steak A steak is a meat generally sliced across the muscle fibers, potentially including a bone. It is normally grilling, grilled, though can also be Pan frying, pan-fried. Steak can also be cooked in sauce, such as in steak and kidney pie, or mi ...

steak
s are popular, especially top sirloin steak of beef (''culottesteg'') is a classic dish to serve for guests. Poultry consumption is dominated by
chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus'') is a domestication, domesticated subspecies of the red junglefowl originally from Southeastern Asia. Rooster or cock is a term for an adult male bird, and a younger male may be called a cockerel. A m ...
, with chicken filet and as the most popular choice."Travel Denmark"
Retrieved 30 December 2011.
The Danes meat consumption remains high, but meat has overall lost a little bit of ground to vegetables and vegetarian food in the 2010s. Also there is a tendency to replace popular meats with chicken.


Traditional main course dishes

Many traditional dishes have been abandoned in Denmark in the last 4-5 decades, especially dishes requiring long preparations but also
organ meat Offal (), also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, is the organs of a butchered animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few ...
dishes. Fast preparations, pre-cooked meals and foreign inspired cooking from around the world, has increasingly found its way into the kitchens of the common Danish family. Traditional Danish main course dishes includes: *''Boller i karry'' (Dumplings in curry). Meat balls of pork in curry sauce, served with rice. *''Gammeldags kylling'' (Old-fashioned chicken). Pot-roast whole chicken stuffed with parsley and served with boiled potatoes, thick brown sauce, cucumber pickle and rhubarb compote. *''
Frikadeller Frikadelle are flat, pan-fried meatballs Meatballs being cooked A meatball is ground meat Ground meat, called mince or minced meat outside of North America (i.e. in U.K. and Commonwealth countries), and ''keema'' or ''qeema'' ( Hindusta ...

Frikadeller
'', pan-fried meat balls of pork, or a mix of veal and pork, with spices. There are many variations on the recipe and ''frikadeller'' can be served with a variety of accompaniments and vegetable side dishes, hot and cold. ''Stuvet hvidkål'' comprising stewed in
white sauce White is the lightest color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''categories'', with names such as red, orange (colour), orange, yellow, gre ...
is a classic. *'' Hakkebøf'', ground beef steak. Traditionally served with soft caramelized onions (on top), brown sauce, boiled potatoes and pickled beets or cucumbers. *''Hjerter i Flødesovs'' (Hearts in cream sauce) Calf's hearts are cleaned and stuffed with parsley and smoked bacon or lard from pork. They are seasoned and fried in a pot with butter and onions. Bouillon and cream is added and they are left to simmer for 1½ hour. The hearts are sliced and served with the sauce, mashed potatoes and ''surt'' (a general term for pickled vegetables). * ''Stegt lever'' (Fried liver), fried slices of calf's
liver The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's t ...
served like ''hakkebøf'', but without the pickles. Sometimes accompanied with fried mushrooms and often substituted with pig's liver. *''Stegte sild'' (Fried herrings).
Herring Herring are forage fish Forage fish, also called prey fish or bait fish, are small pelagic fish which are preyed on by larger predators for food. Predators include other larger fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish fee ...

Herring
has traditionally been a popular fish and there are numerous recipes for fried, pickled or smoked herring served as a main course. *'' Æbleflæsk'' (Apple-pork), fried pork slices served with a compote of apple, onion and bacon. *'''', slices of fried belly pork served with ''persillesovs'' (
white sauce White is the lightest color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''categories'', with names such as red, orange (colour), orange, yellow, gre ...
with chopped parsley) and potatoes. In 2014, voted as the national dish in a vote organised by the Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark. *''
Medisterpølse Image:Medisterpølse.jpg, Pieces of fried ''medister'', of approx. 5 cm. Medisterpølse, medisterkorv or simply medister, is a Scandinavian specialty food consisting of a thick, spiced sausage made of minced pork and suet (or lard), stuffed into a ...

Medisterpølse
'', thick, spiced, minced pork sausage, fried and served in a variety of ways. ''Rødkål'' (see below), rye bread and mustard are classic accompaniments. *'''' (Yellow peas), a thick and hearty soup of yellow split peas, cooked and served with pork. Served with ryebread and mustard and sometimes ''medisterpølse'' and potatoes. In some families and in some regions ''Gule Ærter'' is enjoyed at specific events, traditions or at larger gatherings. *'''' (Hens-meat-soup). A strong soup boiled on a large
hen Hen commonly refers to a female animal: a female chicken, other galliformes, gallinaceous bird, any type of bird in general, or a lobster. It is also a slang term for a woman. Hen or Hens may also refer to: Places Norway *Hen, Buskerud, a villa ...

hen
with herbs and vegetables like carrots,
celeriac Celeriac (''Apium graveolens'' var. ''rapaceum''), also called celery root, knob celery, and turnip-rooted celery (although it is not a close relative of the turnip The turnip or white turnip (''Brassica rapa ''Brassica rapa'' is a pla ...
, onions and
leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

leek
s. The meat is usually reserved for other dishes like ''Høns i Asparges'', ''Høns i peberrod'' or chicken salad for ''smørrebrød'', and the soup is then served on its own with meatballs of pork (''kødboller''), small white dumplings of flour and milk (''melboller''), and a few of the vegetables.Homemade ''Hønsekødssuppe'' and ''tartelatter'' with ''Høns i asparges''.
. A private blog.
*''Høns i Asparges'' (Hens in Asparagus) Boiled hens meat (traditionally from ''Hønsekødssuppe'') is cooked with a little chicken soup, a bit of flour and some chopped . Sometimes chopped
champignon ''Agaricus bisporus'' is an edible A Number of the Best Edible Fungi, illustration from ''The Encyclopedia of Food'' by Artemas Ward, 1923 An edible item is any item that is safe for humans to eat. "Edible" is differentiated from "eatable" b ...

champignon
s are added. The dish is thickened and flavoured with cream and egg yolks and served with boiled potatoes and a drizzle of parsley. *''Tarteletter'' (Tartlets). Small bowls of crusty pastry. They can be filled with a variety of ingredients, but tradition calls for ''Høns i Asparges''. *''Æggekage'' (Egg-cake) -- similar to an
omelette In cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, wo ...

omelette
. Traditionally served in the pan with fried bacon, sliced tomatoes, copious amounts of chopped
chives Chives, scientific name ''Allium schoenoprasum'', is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaryllidaceae that produces edible leaves and flowers. Their close relatives include the common onions, garlic Garlic (''Allium sativum'') ...

chives
and buttered rye bread. Smoked herring is sometimes offered on the side. * ''Påskelam'' (Easter-lamb) grilled lamb with dry herbs and garlic. *''Culottesteg'',
top sirloin Top sirloin is a cut of beef Beef is the culinary nameCulinary names, menu names, or kitchen names are names of foods used in the preparation or selling of food, as opposed to their names in agriculture Agriculture is the science, ...
roast beef with dry herbs served with potatoes and green salad or gravy. *''Stegt gås'', roast
goose A goose (plural geese) is a bird of any of several waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and An ...

goose
is sometimes served for Christmas. *''Stegt and'', roast
duck Duck is the common name for numerous species of waterfowl Anseriformes is an order (biology), order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the 3 screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anati ...
prepared like roast goose, stuffed with apples,
prune A prune is a dried plum, most commonly from the European plum (''Prunus domestica''). Not all plum species or varieties can be dried into prunes. A prune is the firm-fleshed fruit (plum) of ''Prunus domestica'' varieties that have a high solu ...
s and
thyme Thyme () is the herb (dried aerial parts) of some members of the genus ''Thymus The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism ...

thyme
. Most popular Christmas dish in Denmark, often accompanied with ''flæskesteg'' and almost always with ''rødkål''. Also served on '' Morten's aften'' ( St. Martin's Day, November 11), where it has replaced an older tradition of roast goose. *''
Flæskesteg ''Flæskesteg'', flɛːskə.stɐ̯jthe Danish version of roast pork, is considered to be one of Denmark's principal national dishes. Always prepared with Pork rind, crackling, it is also a favourite for the Danish Christmas dinner served as the ...

Flæskesteg
'', roast pork with crackling, often served at Christmas. *''Rødkål'', sliced and stewed
red cabbage The red cabbage (purple-leaved varieties of '' Brassica oleracea'' Capitata Group) is a kind of cabbage Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of ''Brassica oleracea'') is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grow ...

red cabbage
. Recipes has a large variety, but almost always include vinegar, sugar and some spice, with
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first do ...

cinnamon
,
bay leaves The bay leaf is an aromatic leaf commonly used in cooking. It can be used whole or in a dried or ground form. Sources Bay leaves come from several plants, such as: *Bay laurel ''Laurus nobilis'' is an aromatic tree or large with gr ...

bay leaves
and
clove Cloves are the aromatic flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genu ...

clove
s as common choices, while other recipes adds
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
or
cardamom Cardamom (), sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Reco ...

cardamom
as well. Apples, onions, and sometimes oranges or red wine might be added, and for more luxurious versions, the cabbage is stewed with duck grease. Served for Christmas, but not exclusively. ''Rødkål'' is a traditional accompaniment to ''flæskesteg'', ''medister'', ''frikadeller'', ''stegt and'', and ''stegt gås''. * ''Brunede kartofler'' (Browned potatoes), boiled potatoes caramelized with sugar and butter. Mostly served for Christmas, accompanying the roast duck, goose or pork. * '''' (Beer-bread), a porridge made of rye bread, sugar and beer. Formerly served unsweetened accompanying main courses like fried herring, but now almost exclusively served for breakfast with cold milk or whipped cream. Lemon or orange zest is sometimes added for spice. * '' Millionbøf'', (Million-steak), fried ground beef (a million tiny steaks) with gravy. Usually served over pasta or mashed potatoes. * '''' (Burning love), mashed potatoes made with butter and milk or cream. A well is made in the top of the mashed potatoes and filled with a mix of fried diced bacon and onions. * '''', (Rice-porridge), a dish that has a special relationship to Christmas. It is traditionally the favorite dish of the
Nisse Nisse may refer to: * Nisse, Netherlands, a town in the municipality of Borsele * Nisse (folklore), a mythical creature in Scandinavian mythology also known as ''Tomte'' * Niels, a Scandinavian given name, as a pet form * Nils, a Scandinavian given ...

Nisse
. Usually served with butter, cinnamon sugar and nisseøl. It is also the basis of the Danish Christmas dessert ''''.


Desserts

Desserts from the traditional Danish cuisine that are still popular, includes: *''Æblekage'', (apple charlotte). Stewed sweetened apples layered with butter-roasted bread crumbs and crushed ''makroner'' (an almond-flavoured
meringue Meringue (, ; ) is a type of dessert Dessert () is a course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a compe ...
), topped with whipped cream and sometimes
redcurrant The redcurrant, or red currant (''Ribes rubrum'') is a member of the genus '' Ribes'' in the gooseberry family. It is native across Europe. The species is widely cultivated and has escaped into the wild in many regions. ''Ribes rubrum'' is a d ...

redcurrant
jelly. Served cold. *''Citronfromage'' (lemon custard). A very thick lemon flavoured
custard Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on sweetened milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animal ...

custard
made with both
gelatin Gelatin or gelatine (from la, gelatus meaning "stiff" or "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient, commonly derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. It is brittle when dry and rubbery when moist. It may also ...
and beaten egg whites with sugar (see
Meringue Meringue (, ; ) is a type of dessert Dessert () is a course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a compe ...
). Served cold with whipped cream. Flavouring with
rum Rum is a liquor Liquor or spirit (also hard liquor, or distilled alcohol) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruits, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process conce ...
instead of lemon, is a traditional variation known as ''Romfromage''. *''Karamelrand'' (lit.: Caramel-ridge). A cream and egg based custard flavoured with
caramel Caramel ( or ) is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream, and custard. The process of car ...
and shaped like a ring. Served cold with a caramel sauce. A traditional variation is ''Fløderand'', which is flavoured with vanilla and served with pickled fruit, instead of the caramel. *''Frugtsalat''.
Fruit salad Fruit salad is a dish consisting of various kinds of fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist w ...

Fruit salad
topped with vanilla cream or whipped cream and grated chocolate. This is a more recent addition to the Danish cuisine and tropical or foreign fruits like banana, grapes, orange or pineapple are standard ingredients. Also known as ''abemad'' (monkey food). *'' Rødgrød med fløde'', stewed, thickened red berry compote (usually a mix of strawberries, rhubarb, raspberry) served with cream or as topping on ice cream. *''Pandekager'', a thin, crepe-like
pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to: * Batter (cooking), thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan * Batter (baseb ...

pancake
, often sprinkled with confectioner's sugar, rolled up, and served with strawberry jam or vanilla ice cream. Since 2006,
Shrove Tuesday Shrove Tuesday is the day before Ash Wednesday Ash Wednesday is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Je ...
has been celebrated as Pancake Day in Denmark. *'' Koldskål''. A sweet cold buttermilk dish with vanilla and lemon, often served in the summer. *Danish strawberries with cream and sugar, served in the summer when in season. *'''' (or ''ris à l'amande''), a cold
rice pudding Rice pudding is a dish made from rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. T ...

rice pudding
mixed with whipped cream, sugar, vanilla beans and chopped almonds, served cold with hot or cold cherry-sauce. Almost exclusively served on festive events related to Christmas and commonly eaten on Christmas Eve in particular.


Cakes

Cakes are usually not served for dessert in Denmark, but as an occasional sweet treat in between meals or at celebrations and particular festive events. Coffee or tea is usually offered with cakes.


Traditional feasts

Danish culture has a number of annual recurring traditional feasts. Most of them are rooted in both the
Norse pagan Old Norse Religion, also known as Norse Paganism, is the most common name for a branch of Germanic religion (aboriginal), Germanic religion which developed during the Proto-Norse language, Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic peoples sep ...
tradition and the
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
culture, including the most widely celebrated feast of
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
, known as Jul in Denmark. Christmas and Easter are the most prominent feasts in Danish culture, both in terms of religious and traditional importance but also food wise. A number of smaller feasts such as ''
Fastelavn ''Fastelavn'' is a Carnival Carnival is a Western Christian 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the largest church building in the world today. Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is ...
'' (Carnival), ''Pinse'' (
Pentecost The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated on the 50th day (the seventh Sunday) from Easter Sunday Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer A book is a medium for rec ...
) and ''Mortensaften'' ( St. Martin's Day), are also of some importance regarding food while other traditional celebrations such as '' Grundlovsdag'', May Day and ''Sankthans'' (St. John's Eve) are not coupled to the Danish food culture in any special way. The celebration of New Year's Eve is perhaps on par with both Christmas and Easter in modern times and is also coupled with some strong food traditions. Poached cod served with mustard sauce, boiled potatoes and horseradish is traditionally enjoyed as the main course on this evening, known as ''nytårstorsk'' (New Year's Cod), with champagne and ''kransekage'' served later in the night. Slices of boiled ham served with stewed kale is another traditional dish for this particular evening. In recent decades, the traditional menus has given way to contemporary gourmet servings in many places, even though the champagne and the ''kransekage'' remains very popular.


Christmas

There are some regional variations of the traditional Christmas cuisine within Denmark, but it is generally the same across the country. It includes a lot of spices, in particular
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first do ...

cinnamon
, cloves and
cardamom Cardamom (), sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Reco ...

cardamom
.


Christmas lunch

''Julebord, Julefrokost'', or Christmas lunch, is a variation on ''Det Kolde Bord'' buffet, celebrated on various occasions throughout the whole Christmas month of December. Most communities, workplaces, organisations and associations set aside time for an annual gathering and ''julefrokost'' on a non-specific Friday or Saturday. This includes coworkers, club members and all kinds of organizations and the festivities often include music and dancing, and usually continues into the early hours of the morning with plentiful drinking. In addition to these public gatherings, there is also tradition for a special family event ''julefrokost'', but this is celebrated in the home on Christmas Day or shortly after. Apart from the standard food items for a Danish cold buffet, Christmas lunch ''julefrokost'' traditionally also includes some specialities, such as ''sylte'' (pork meat jelly), fried ''blodpølse'', and ''''. ''Blodpølse'' is a sweetened and spiced blood sausage with raisins, but it has decreased a lot in popularity since the 19th century. ''Risalamande'' is a rice pudding served with hot or cold cherry sauce and it is very popular. The pudding consists mainly of sweetened and cooled rice porridge mixed with whipped cream, vanilla and chopped almonds. A popular and traditional game is to put a whole, peeled almond in the common bowl of pudding. The lucky person to find it in his or her serving wins a prize, which in popular traditions would be a pig shaped of marzipan. ''Juleøl'' Christmas beer brews and herb infused ''
akvavit ''Akvavit'' or ''aquavit'' (; also ''akevitt'' in Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *D ...
'' spirit is commonly paired with the ''julefrokost''. All over Denmark, trains and buses run all night during the ''julefrokost'' season and the police are on a special lookout for drunk drivers to avoid alcohol related accidents."Christmas in Denmark"
''Welcome to my Copenhagen''. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
A special part of not only the ''julefrokost'' lunch but of many festive, celebratory meals is the ''selskabssang'' (party song). It is a tradition unique to Denmark, and includes event-specific sing-along songs to traditional tunes, but with lyrics specifically written for the occasion.


Christmas dinner at home

In Denmark, the Christmas dinner is served on the evening of 24 December (Christmas Eve). It takes the form of a main dish (usually pork, goose or duck) and the ''Risalamande'' dessert. The traditional recipes from Frk. Jensen's 1901 cook book (see below) still form the basis of Christmas cooking today. ''
Flæskesteg ''Flæskesteg'', flɛːskə.stɐ̯jthe Danish version of roast pork, is considered to be one of Denmark's principal national dishes. Always prepared with Pork rind, crackling, it is also a favourite for the Danish Christmas dinner served as the ...

Flæskesteg
'', a pork roast cut from the breast or neck and with the skin left on, is prepared by cutting the skin through to the meat layer sideways and rubbing it thoroughly with coarse salt flakes and sometimes spices to guarantee crispy tasty cracklings. Slices of roasted ''flæskesteg'' is served with brown gravy and accompanied by both boiled potatoes and caramelized potatoes (''brunede kartofler'') specially prepared in a frying pan with melted sugar and a lump of butter. Sour-sweet spiced red cabbage is always included too and is widely available in jars and cans."Danish Christmas dinner"
''Wonderful Denmark''. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
Goose and duck are filled with a stuffing of apple boats and prunes before they are roasted in a hot oven. The bird is served with a brown sauce based on the broth obtained by boiling the heart, neck, liver and gizzard, thickened with a little fat from the bird, flour and sour cream. Gravy browning may be added. Just like the pork, the bird is served with two kinds of potatoes and red cabbage.


Easter


Holy Saturday lunch

Holy Saturday the traditional dish served for lunch is ''Skidne æg'' (Dirty eggs), the name referres to fact that the homes were usually dirty on Holy Saturday, as no work and no cleaning or laundry would be done on the two holidays: Maundy Thursday and Good Friday. Skidne æg is medium boiled eggs, served with mustard sauce, cress and ryebread.


Easter Sunday lunch

Families gather for lunch on Easter Sunday. The lunch will typically consist three courses, starting with "det kolde bord" with pickled herring, prawns, hard-boiled eggs, tuna, liverpaté and various cold cuts. Strong Easter Brew beer and snaps is usually served. The second dish is a warm dish, that according to tradition should contain either lamb, eggs or chicken. The third dish is cheeses with grapes, red peppers and crackers.


Eating out

Eating out in restaurants can be a costly affair, with the average price running higher than that of the European average. As a result of the New Nordic Cuisine trend, Danish restaurants are now firmly on the international gourmet map. In the big cities, and in shopping districts, there are many more reasonably priced eating places, including such Fast-food restaurant, chain fast food possibilities as McDonald's Corporation, McDonald's and Burger King. The most common quick food restaurant is the "burger bar" or "grill bar", offering hamburgers, hot dogs and a wide variety of other fast food staples. Pizzerias are equally popular and can be found in every town in the country, large or small. Other commonly found fast foods include Turkish and Middle East food specialties such as falafel, shish-kabob, shish-kebab and spit-roasted meat (most often shawarma) with salad in pita bread, or wrapped in durum wheat based flatbread.


Restaurants

Denmark has many fine dining restaurants, not only in the larger cities, but also in the countryside. The ''kro'' (roughly equivalent to an inn, but held in higher social regard) provides lodging as well as meals and drinks. Especially the royally privileged lodges have a long and interesting history. Danish cuisine continues to evolve and keep up with the times. It has become more health-conscious, and has drawn inspiration not only from the traditional French and Italian kitchens, but also from many other more exotic gastronomical sources. Increasingly, restaurants are turning to trends based on a combination of continental cooking and the growing interest in products from the local environment served in accordance with seasonal availability.


Cafés

Another reasonable place to eat is at a café. These are plentiful, especially in the bigger cities, and usually offer soups, sandwiches, salads, cakes, pastry, pastries, and other light foods, in addition to the expected coffee, tea, beer and other drink, beverages. Quite a few cafés serve breakfast and brunch, and some double as evening restaurants. Most cafés in Denmark are unique, but chains are increasingly popular. The Danish coffee-bar chain of Baresso Coffee, founded in 1999, mainly serves coffee and tea related products and is present with many cafés in most larger towns across Denmark, but also in the Faroe Islands as well as Copenhagen Airport and MS Crown of Scandinavia. International café chains has gained ground in the capital of Copenhagen, currently including two Starbucks and several Caffè Ritazza (UK), at the Copenhagen Airport, Magasin Torv by the Magasin Du Nord department store, and at Copenhagen Central Station.


Street food

Street food has made an enormous impact on the way Danes eat in the 2010s, but street food has been part of Danish dining culture for many years.


Hot dog vans

The pølsevogn (lit. sausage wagon) food truck is a well-established common fast food option and the "original" street food outlet in Denmark. They serve a variety of pork sausages, including Denmark's renowned red sausages, pølser, ''røde pølser''. These hot dog-like sausages of the Vienna sausage, Vienna type are about 20 cm long, about the diameter of an index finger and stuffed in brightly coloured red skin. ''Røde pølser'' are traditionally served on a small, rectangular paper plate with a bread (similar to a hot dog bun, but without a slice in it) on the side, and a squirt of both ketchup, Danish
remoulade Rémoulade (; ) is a European cold sauce In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appea ...
sauce and mustard (condiment), mustard. Danish remoulade is somewhat similar to American relish and the mustard served with sausages is hot and unsweetened. The bread and sausage is eaten alternately, dipped into the condiments.Mylius Thomsen, Allan (2006). Café Fodkold - Eventyret om den danske pølsevogn. Copenhagen: Lindhardt & Ringhof. . Typical and classic sausages served from a pølsevogn also includes, thick and juicy ''knækpølser'' (both red and uncoloured), long thick and grilled ''frankfurtere'', hearty grilled '''', large grilled ''kryddersvend'' sausages spiced with curry, and ''pølse i svøb'' (sausage in a wrap) which are a sausage wrapped in and grilled with bacon. When the sausage is served in a traditional hot dog bun, it is called a "hot dog". It is commonly served with Danish remoulade, ketchup, mustard, onion (both raw and toasted, i.e. ''ristede'') and thinly sliced pickles on top. The ''ristede løg'' fried onions are similar in taste to French-fried onion rings. The pickled condiment varies from region to region, and includes ''rødkål'' red cabbage in some places, but cucumber relish is the most widespread. Another variety is the French hot dog (''Fransk hotdog'') which is a sausage stuffed into a special long
baguette A baguette (; ) is a long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law). It is distinguishable by its length and crisp Bread#Crust, crust. A baguette has a d ...

baguette
-like bread roll. The roll has a hole in one end, and after the requested condiment has been squirted in (ketchup, mustard, different kinds of dressing), a sausage is slipped through. The simplest sausage wagons are portable and very temporary. They are typically a metal wagon with an open window to the street, and a counter where customers can stand and eat their sausages. More advanced wagons includes limited seating, usually both inside and outside. Through the years the number of sausage wagons has dropped as competition from convenience stores, gas stations, kebab and pizza-places has increased.


Social dining

Food courts emerged on the Copenhagen dining scene in 2011 and quickly became very popular, inspiring similar initiatives in Aarhus from 2015. Parallel with the stationary and sheltered food courts, mobile food trucks appeared, selling a wide variety of meals at events and random popular spots. This new development is part of a broader popular movement of social dining across the country, with a multitude of local food club, food, dining club, dining and cooking clubs, purchasing society, purchasing societies and urban farming projects sprouting among citizens in larger cities.


Other popular foods


Potatoes

Potato recipes are ubiquitous in Danish cooking. The potato was first introduced into Denmark by French immigrant Huguenots in Fredericia in 1720. The potato is considered an essential side dish to every hot meal. Especially prized are the season's early potatoes, such as those from Samsø. Some favorites: * Au gratin potatoes * Baked potatoes with crème fraiche * Boiled new potatoes with herbs * Potato wedges au natural or baked with beetroots and carrots marinated in olive oil, garlic and dry herbs. * Boiled potatoes smothered in butter with fresh dill or chives * Caramelized browned potatoes (''brunede kartofler''). Usually an accessory to the Christmas meal, roast goose, duck or pork. * Cold sliced potatoes arranged on buttered rye bread and decorated with mayonnaise and chives * Mashed potatoes covered with a meat stew * ''Pommes frites'' (French fries) *Potato salad (''kartoffelsalat'') * Potato and Parsley Broth


Vegetables and salads

Although the potato is the central vegetable in traditional Danish cooking, it is by no means the only vegetable associated with Danish cuisine. Those other vegetables that play an important role often had to be preserved for long periods of time in cold rooms, or were pickled or marinated for storage. Cauliflower, carrots and a variety of cabbages were often a part of the daily meal, especially when in season, in the days prior to widespread refrigeration. *Beans (''bønner'') *Peas (''ærter'') Especially popular when freshly picked. *Brussels sprouts (''rosenkål'') *Cabbage (''kål'') *Carrots (''gulerødder'') *Creamed kale (''grønlangkål''), spinach or white cabbage *Cauliflower (''blomkål'') *Pickled cucumber#Swedish and Danish, Cucumber salad (''agurkesalat'') *Italian salad (''italiensk salat''), a mixture of vegetables in a mayonnaise dressing, served on
ham Ham is pork Pork is the culinary name for the meat of the Pig, domestic pig (''Sus scrofa domesticus''). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig animal husbandry, husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is ...

ham
and other cold cuts. The name comes from the red-white-green coloring, the colors of the Italian flag. The salad's colouring originates from carrots, mayonnaise and asparagus, and green peas. *Onion (''løg'') *Pickled red Beet#Uses, beet slices (''rødbeder'') *Pickling, Pickles, a mixture of pickled vegetables in a yellow gelatinous sauce, served with corned beef * Russian salad (''russisk salat''), a red beet salad (not to be confused with Olivier salad, which is also known as Russian salad). *Sweet and sour Red Cabbage, red cabbage (''rødkål''). Sautéed red cabbage, boiled with red currant juice, apples and vinegar. Additional sugar may be added, and sometimes
cinnamon Cinnamon is a spice A spice is a seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first do ...

cinnamon
or cloves.


Sauces and condiments

Sauces and condiments are an important part of the Danish meal: *Béarnaise sauce, served with beef steaks *Brown sauce (meat stock based), Brown sauce (''brun sovs''). Variations include mushroom sauce, onion sauce and herbed brown sauce. *Horseradish sauce (''peberrodssovs''), a cream sauce served with roast beef or prime rib. Sometimes frozen into individual servings for placement on hot roast beef. *Ketchup, a must with red sausages, along with Mustard (condiment), mustard. *Mayonnaise, used in food preparation, and as a condiment with ''pommes frites'' (French fries). A generous dollop of mayonnaise is generally placed on top of shrimp. *Mustard (condiment), Mustard (''sennep''). A wide variety of mustards are available. Traditional mustard is a sharp flavored, dark golden brown, but many other types are used, including dijon, honey-mustard and other specialty flavored variants. Prepared salad mustard (yellow mustard) is generally eaten with red sausage or hot dogs. A special sweet mustard with dill is eaten with smoked salmon (laks). *Parsley sauce (''persillesovs''), a white sauce with generously amounts of chopped fresh parsley. *Pepper sauce, served with beef steaks and roasts. *Remoulade, a very commonly used condiment. A popular dipping sauce for ''pommes frites'' (French fries). *Whiskey sauce, served with beef steaks and roasts *White sauce. Various kinds of blanched vegetables are often added such as peas, peas and carrots, cauliflower, spinach, parsley or shredded cabbage. White sauce is typically flavoured with black pepper and nutmeg.


Cheese

Denmark is known for quality dairy products, and that includes cheese. In Denmark, cheese might be served as part of breakfast, lunch or in salads and also as an after-dinner snack, referred to as a so-called (lit.: cheese-table) or (lit: cheese-plate) along with grapes, crackers and wine. While the most commonly eaten cheese in Denmark is mild, there are also stronger Danish cheeses available, some of which are very pungent. Danish Blue cheese can be quite strong, and Danish cheese manufacturers produce molded cheeses that span the range from the mildest and creamiest to the intense blue-veined cheese internationally associated with Denmark. Another strong cheese is ''Gamle Ole'' (lit: Old Ole - Ole is a man's name), a brand of pungent aged cheese that has matured for a longer period of time. It can be bitingly strong. It is often served in combination with sliced onion and aspic (''sky'') on Danish '' rugbrød'' spread with lard. Rum may be dripped on this pungent cheese prior to serving. Strong cheeses are an acquired taste for Danes too. Elderly Danes who find the smell offensive might joke about ''Gamle Ole's'' smelling up a whole house, just by being in a sealed plastic container in the refrigerator. One might also refer to Gamle Ole's pungency when talking about things that are not quite right, i.e. "they stink". Here one might say that something stinks or smells of ''Gamle Ole''. Danish cheese is almost exclusively produced from cow's milk. Some well-known Danish cheeses include: * ''Danablu'', a strong blue creamy cow's milk cheese. * Blue Castello, a blue cheese * ''Esrom (cheese), Esrom'', a semi-soft and aged cow's milk cheese. Both young and more matured versions are produced. * ''Danbo'', a semi-soft and aged cow's milk cheese. Mostly mild in flavor, but extensively aged and more pungent versions are also produced. * ''Mycella'', a traditional cow's milk creamy cheese. This cheese is often described as a Danish version of Gorgonzola. * ''Vesterhavsost'', a hard cheese from cow's milk, and aged in caves. Has a slightly nutty flavor. * ''Havarti'', a semi-soft cow's milk cheese, named after the experimental farm from which it originated in the mid-19th century. * ''Apetina'', a blanched cow's milk cheese. This cheese is often sold sliced up in small cubes, sometimes submerged in herb flavoured oil and used in salads much like Greek feta. * ''Rygeost'' or ''røgeost''. A smoked fresh soft cream cheese, made of cow's milk and buttermilk and an original speciality from the island of Funen. This cheese is spiced with caraway seeds and traditionally served with radish, chives and rye bread. In relation to ''Apetina'', Denmark lost a long legal battle with Greece, to use the term "feta" for Danish cheese produced using artificially blanched cow's milk. Since July 2002, feta has been a protected designation of origin (PDO), which limits the term within the European Union to feta made exclusively of sheep's/goat's milk in Greece. Because of the decision by the European Union, Danish dairy company Arla Foods (who also manufacture Danbo) changed the name of their Feta product to ''Apetina''.


Seasonings and herbs

Fresh herbs are very popular, and a wide variety are readily available at supermarkets or local produce stands. Many people grow fresh herbs either in the kitchen window, in window boxes or outside, weather permitting. Most commonly used herbs and other seasonings in Danish cooking: *Bay leaves *Black pepper *Chives *Garden cress, Cress *Curry powder *Dill *Garlic *Parsley *Rosemary *Thyme *Oregano Other spices used in the traditional Danish cuisine includes nutmeg, carraway, juniper,
allspice Allspice, also known as Jamaica pepper, myrtle pepper, pimenta, or pimento, is the dried unripe berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known ...
and ginger (powder and candied). In modern times, the use and variety of spices has increased and now spices like Chili pepper, chilli, paprika, basil and star anise is used widely.


Fruit

Similarly to vegetables, fruit had to withstand long storage during the winter to become a part of the traditional cuisine. Fruit is generally eaten in smaller portions, often as an accompaniment to cheese, or as decoration with desserts. Fruit that is traditionally associated with Danish cuisine: *Apples (''Æbler'') Popular in traditional dishes as 'winter apples' store well. Can be fried and served with ''Flæsk'' (thick bacon) *Blackcurrant (''Solbær''), literally 'sun berries' *Cherry, Cherries (''Kirsebær'') When in season eaten fresh. But famously cooked into cherry sauce, traditionally served over rice pudding (''risalamande'') at Christmas. Also used in making Heering, a famous cherry liqueur, produced in Denmark. *Gooseberry (''Stikkelsbær'') literally 'thorny berries'. Used for stewed gooseberries (''stikkelsbærgrød''). *Pears (''Pærer'') *Plums (''Blommer'') *Raspberry, Raspberries (''Hindbær'') *Redcurrants (''Ribs'') Made to jelly or simply mixed raw with sugar as (''Rysteribs''), served to roast. *Strawberry, Strawberries (''Jordbær''), literally 'earth berries' A combination of strawberries, red currants, black currants, blueberries and mulberries is known as "forest fruits" (''skovbær'') and is a common component in tarts and marmalades. A popular dessert is ''rødgrød med fløde, rødgrød'', made from one or more kinds of berries or rhubarbs, boiled down to a red porridge. It is served with cream, sometimes milk. "''Rødgrød med fløde''" is often jokingly used by Danes as a shibboleth, as it contains the soft "d" several times, which most foreigners find difficult to pronounce.


Baked goods

Bread is a very important part of the Danish table. It is enjoyed at home, in the workplace or in restaurants and is usually based primarily on '' rugbrød'', which is sour-dough rye bread. It is a dark, heavy bread which is sometimes bought pre-sliced, in varieties from light-colored rye, to very dark, and refined to whole grain. Rugbrød forms the basis of ''
smørrebrød (; originally , "butter and bread") is a traditional Danish open-faced sandwich that usually consists of a piece of buttered rye bread (), a dense, dark brown bread Brown bread is a designation often given to breads made with significant amounts ...
'' (see above). Many people still bake at home, particularly ''boller'', which are small bread rolls, and often the traditional ''kringle'', which is a pastry filled with Zante currants and remonce paste. The Danish ''franskbrød'' (lit: French-bread) are leavened wheat breads, roughly equivalent to white bread. Franskbrød are available in many varieties, ranging from whole wheat to pumpkin, chestnut, or poppy-seed sprinkled loaves and loaves containing maize, müsli or honey. Some loaves are made with alternative wheat sorts like emmer or spelt and some contains small amounts of low-gluten grains such rye. Leavened brown loaves are also referred to as ''franskbrød''. People often eat Fruit preserves#Jam, jam with cheese on crusty white bread for breakfast, and also very thin slices of chocolate, called ''pålægschokolade''. Because of the popular rye bread, Danes eat less wheat bread than most other western countries, even though bread is part of most daily meals.


Cakes

Denmark has a large variety of cakes and in 1997, the bakers guild launched the now countrywide celebration of ''Kagens Dag'' (Day of the Cake) as an annual recurring event in April–May. The region of Sønderjylland has become known for its concept of ''Sønderjydsk kaffebord'', serving copious amounts of coffee and regional cakes on gatherings and festive afternoons. Typical Danish cakes include: *Danish pastry, ''Wienerbrød'' (Danish pastry) – Denmark has a large variety of Danish pastries; most of the recipes are based on the same kind of dough. **''Kringle'' – a pretzel-shaped Danish pastry. It has symbolized bakers in Denmark since the early Middle Ages, and in the United States "kringle" is associated with the country of Denmark. **''Kagemand'' ("cake-man") – a Danish pastry in the shape of a man. Decorated with icing and candy. Traditionally served at children's birthday parties. *''Småkager'' ("small-cakes") – Cookies, usually baked hard and crusty in an oven, but both pan and deep fried versions exist. There is a large variety of ''småkager'' in Denmark. Most of the recipes came about when stoves became common property in the last part of the 1800s, but some recipes like ''Klejner'' and ''Pebernødder'' have been around since the Middle Ages. Quite a few recipes are associated with Christmas. Denmark has a significant export of quality butter cookies. **''Pebernødder'' – ("pepper nuts") – A small, spicy cookie associated with Christmas. Traditionally used in a number of games. **''Vaniljekranse'' – Vanilla-flavoured butter cookies in a ring-shape. *''Flødekager'' ("cream-cakes") – These cakes earn their name from the generous amounts of whipped cream used to make them and are served cold. The many varieties do not always include baked ingredients. They were largely introduced in the 1800s and 1900s when ''Konditorier'' became popular in larger towns. A ''Konditori'' is the Danish version of the French patisserie, and they were booming in the 1940s and 1950s. **''Lagkage'' (layer cake) – This cake has thin sponge cake layers, often with mashed berries and whipped cream or custard between the layers and decorated with fruit on top. Layer cakes are usually considered a ''flødekage'' in Denmark. They are often used to celebrate birthdays, on which occasion they will traditionally be decorated with as many lit candles as the age of the celebrated individual. He is then supposed to blow them all out in one try or he will be in bad luck. Some Danish layer cakes follow strict recipes like the ''Rugbrødslagkage'' made with crumbled and toasted rye bread or the ''Othellolagkage'', made with marzipan and chocolate cream. **''Gåsebryst'' ("Goose breast") consists of a crisp puff pastry bottom with a generous spread of
prune A prune is a dried plum, most commonly from the European plum (''Prunus domestica''). Not all plum species or varieties can be dried into prunes. A prune is the firm-fleshed fruit (plum) of ''Prunus domestica'' varieties that have a high solu ...
jam and a thick layer of whipped cream on top. The cake is wrapped in a thinly rolled layer of marzipan. Several slight variations exists and this particular cream cake is also popular in Norway. *''Tørkager'' ("dry-cakes") – As the name implies this kind of cake comprise dry cakes, as compared to the moist cream cakes and layer cakes, and they are often made with sweet shortcrust dough and served cold. **''Kransekage'' ("ringcake") is a marzipan-based cake, usually served at special celebrations and on New Year's Eve. It comes in various shapes and sizes. A popular arrangement consists of a stack of ring shaped cakes of increasingly smaller size, creating an upside down cone form. The cake rings are decorated with white icing, and the arrangement is decorated with small red-and-white Danish paper flags. On special occasions they will hide a bottle of champagne. ''Kransekage'' is typically served with champagne on New Year's Eve or to celebrate weddings, "round" birthdays and anniversaries. **''Studenterbrød'' ("graduates-bread") is a popular cold confectionery cake consisting of scratch-made thick cookie butter on a thin crispy crust of shortcrust dough with a spread of raspberry jam in-between. The cookie butter is flavoured with cocoa powder and rum, although the more inexpensive rum essence is normally used. Topped with chocolate icing and sprinkles. **''Hindbærsnitte'' ("raspberry-slice") consists of two thin and crusty baked pieces of shortcrust with a spread of raspberry jam in between, covered in white icing and sprinkles. Similar to Alexandertorte *Pies and tarts **Strawberry pie – very popular in the summer. Normally sold in bakeries with a chocolate covered crust and filled with marzipan. **Apple pie – oven baked. Served either hot or cold, usually with a dollop of crème fraîche or whipped cream, occasionally vanilla ice cream. *Other cakes **''Æbleskiver'' ("apple slices") – Fried spherical cakes made in special pans. Contrary to the name, ''æbleskiver'' is not made with apples, but of a puffy pancake dough with buttermilk and cardamom. Danes eat them hot throughout December as a Christmas tradition, served with both confectioner's sugar and jam (strawberry or black currant). **''Pandekager'' (
pancake A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter Batter or batters may refer to: * Batter (cooking), thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan * Batter (baseb ...

pancake
s) – These are thin pancakes usually served with jam, granulated sugar and sometimes vanilla ice cream and rolled up before eaten. Napoleonshat.jpg, "''Napoleons Hat''", a marzipan-filled cake dipped in dark chocolate Flickr - cyclonebill - Tebirkes.jpg, "''Tebirkes''", a Danish pasty with poppy seeds IMGLiivikaÆbleskiver2010.JPG, "''Æbleskiver''" Kransekage (wreath cake).jpg, "''Kransekage''" File:Fastelavnsboller 2 (ubt).jpeg, "''Fastelavnsboller''", carnival cakes Kagemand.jpg, "''Kagemand''" Flødekager 1.JPG, "''Othellolagkage''" Kermit for sale (5904371622).jpg, "''Kaj kage''", cream cakes resembling a frog Flickr - cyclonebill - Gåsebryst.jpg, "''Gåsebryst''", a cream cake with marzipan


Sweets

Denmark is not a noted exporter of candies, but Danes eat more candy per capita than other countries. *Chocolate – Denmark has a long tradition of producing delicious chocolate known worldwide, most famous brand is Anthon Berg. *Liquorice – A very popular herb extraction in Denmark used for a number of widely available sweets, but also ice cream, desserts and in some dishes as well. ''Salmiaklakrids'', flavoured with Salmiakki, salmiak, and salty ''Salt lakrids'' are typical Culture of Denmark, Danish candy. Denmark produces some of the strongest liquorice in the world and many Danes have a tendency to put liquorice (“lakrids” in Danish) on everything, which foreigners sometimes really cannot understand. *Marzipan – A typical treat for Christmas, but enjoyed year round and also exported. Marzipan in Denmark is typically less sweet and with a higher content of almonds (or other nuts) than what you normally find elsewhere. The largest and best known exporter is perhaps Anthon Berg. However, in Denmark, only ''Ægte Marcipan'' (True Marzipan) is required to contain almonds; for ordinary marzipan, apricot kernels are widely used as substitutes for the more expensive almonds. Marzipan made with pistachios or walnuts is also sold but is not as common. *Wine gums – While similar looking and often similar branded as in other European countries, Danish wine gums are much less sweet and have more texture. There also exists a vast number of other types of sweets and candy, ranging from gumdrops and dragée to mints and
caramel Caramel ( or ) is a medium to dark-orange confectionery product made by heating a variety of sugars. It can be used as a flavoring in puddings and desserts, as a filling in bonbons, or as a topping for ice cream, and custard. The process of car ...
sweets. A concept known as ''Bland selv slik'' (literally "mix-yourself candy") is common in Danish supermarkets and kiosks. It comprise a number of lined-up containers, usually between 20 and 50, each with a different kind of candy, and customers then service themselves with a paper bag and a small scoop. The paper bag is then weighed, and paid for. Both Danish and imported candy are found in these box assortments, and the shape, texture and flavor differences are often very creative. Candy has been manufactured resembling a vast number of objects, such as flying saucers, tennis racquets, soccer balls, butterflies, and, even stranger, teeth and toothbrushes.


Drinks

Traditional or popular drinks consumed in Denmark includes: *Coffee (''Kaffe''). drip brew, Filter coffee is the most popular way to make coffee, closely followed by French press, pressing. The coffee is mostly had black, but milk and sugar is usually offered. It is drunk throughout the day and evening, and always in the morning. Nearly all cafés serves a wide variety of coffee brews, from espresso to flat white and caffè latte. Coffee is a very popular beverage throughout the Nordic countries and Denmark has the fifth highest coffee consumption per capita in the world. *Chocolate milk (''kakaomælk'') and hot chocolate (''varm kakao''). Cold chocolate milk is widely consumed and hot chocolate can be had in most cafés. At home, hot chocolate is often served to children as an essential part of family ''hygge''. *''Elderflower cordial, Hyldeblomstsaft''. Sweetened elderflower drink, often mixed at home with added water. Sometimes served hot in the winter but usually cold. *''Danskvand'', or ''hvid vand'', is simply carbonated water. It is often flavoured with citrus. *''Squash (drink), Saftevand'', a diluting juice made from concentrated and sweetened fruit syrup. The syrup is mixed with plain water by the consumer and served right away. In former times, diluting juices were a luxury product in Denmark, because of the limited availability of sugar, but from the 1980s and 90s, the consumption had risen to the popularity it experiences today. Many different kinds, including artificial products. *''Sodavand'' are soft drinks of various flavours and it has long been a very popular drink. International brands like Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Fanta and Sprite is widely consumed, but there are many local brands of soft drinks as well, some of which are unique. This includes Nikoline (without artificial flavours), Tuborg Squash, Faxe Kondi or the traditional ''citronvand'' (lemon soda) and ''hindbærbrus'' (raspberry soda). Notable alcoholic beverages includes: *''Akvavit'', usually called ''snaps''. A clear, high proof spirit made from potatoes but, unlike vodka, always flavoured with herbs (dill, caraway, sweetgale, etc.)"Akvavit"
, ''VisitDenmark''. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
*Beer (''øl'') has been widely consumed in Denmark for millennia. Carlsberg and Tuborg are two large Danish producers with a notable export. Drinking a "pilsner" is a favored activity by many Danes after work or, when relaxing or socialising. The pilsner type is the dominant beer type, but many other types are available. In the 2000s, small breweries have been budding up all over the country with new local brews of all kinds. *Bitters. The most popular bitter is ''Gammel Dansk'' (translated, Old Danish). *''Mead, Mjød'', mead made legendary by the Vikings. Rare to find outside speciality shops. * Fruit wines. Cherry wine, apple wine, black currant wine, elderberry wine. *''Gløgg'', hot punch made with red wine, brandy and sherry with raisins and almonds. Spiced with cloves and cinnamon, part of the Christmas tradition. *Wine (''vin'') is ever more popular. Almost exclusively imported wines, as Danish wine is only produced in small quantities and is still rare to find outside speciality shops.


Criticism

The Danish food culture is sometimes criticized by gastronomes and nutritionists. Substantial criticism has been directed at the nutritional content of Danish food; for example, at the ratio of meat, side dishes, and greens on the plate. Nutrition information campaigns have been trying to get the Danes to become healthier by eating less meat, fat, and sugar, and more raw vegetables. Instead of a healthier diet, however, the results too often have been feelings of guilt and a view of food as something which is just the correct fuel for the body's machinery. Historian Søren Mørch has characterized the Danish cuisine as a "garbage kitchen" of insipid, sweet and unspiced "baby food" where the tastes of milk and sweetness forms the key elements. He believes that it arose because the export policy of the Danish food sector was to use the Danish home market as a "gutter" for left over products, after high quality bacon and butter had been sold abroad. Skimmed milk, meat scraps only suitable for chopping up, and the replacement product margarine, are all products which Søren Mørch describes as residue products.


Frøken Jensens Kogebog

The cookery book published by Kristine Marie Jensen (1858–1923) in 1901 and titled ''Frk. Jensens Kogebog'' (Miss Jensen's Cookbook) is considered by many Danes to contain all the authentic recipes for traditional dishes as well as for baking bread, cakes and biscuits. It has been reprinted dozens of times and new editions can be found in most Danish bookshops today. When Danes prepare meals for special occasions, for example at Christmas time, they frequently follow Frøken Jensen's detailed descriptions. The book has not been translated into English but many of the traditional Danish recipes on English-language websites are those of Frøken Jensen. The original edition (only in Danish) is available online."Frøken Jensens kogebog (1921)"
''Internet Archive''. Retrieved 9 December 2011.


See also

* Faroese cuisine * Greenlandic cuisine * List of Christmas dishes * Sønderjysk kaffebord


Literature

* Kristine Marie Jensen (2008):
Frøken Jensens Kogebog
', 1st ed., Gyldendal.
The first revised and updated edition by Nanna Simonsen. Published on K.M. Jensens 150 year birthday. * Bent Christensen (2008): ''Gastronomien i Danmark'', Lindhart og Ringhof Forlag,
The story of the most famous chefs and the best restaurants in Denmark since WW II. * Bettina Buhl (2015): ''Danskernes Småkager - et småkageleksikon'', Gyldendal
''Småkager'' in Denmark from a food-historical viewpoint. * Bettina Buhl (2017): ''Sovs skal der til - opskrifter & historie'', Gyldendal
Sauces in the traditional Danish cuisine from a food-historical viewpoint.


References


Bibliography

*Jensen, Kristine Marie (edited and updated by Lundsgaard, Bente Nissen and Bloch, Hanne): Frøken Jensens kogebog, Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 2003, 366 p. *Meyer, Claus: ''Almanak'', Copenhagen, Lindhardt og Ringhof, 2010, 694 p. *Redzepi, René: ''Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine'', London, Phaidon Press, 2010, 368 p. . *Færch, Tove; Møller, Maja; Hougaard, Anne Kirstine, eds. (2008), Det gode madliv - Karoline, maden og måltidet i kulturen, Arla Foods. *


External links


Christian's Danish Recipes— over 600 Danish recipes in English


{{Authority control Danish cuisine, Danish culture, Cuisine