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Dada () or Dadaism was an
art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defin ...
of the European
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New A ...
in the early 20th century, with early centres in
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916).
New York Dada Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas ...

New York Dada
began c. 1915, and after 1920 Dada flourished in Paris. Dadaist activities lasted until c. the mid 1920s. Developed in reaction to
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
,
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
, and
aestheticism Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) was an art movement, both practical and theoretical, of the late 19th century supporting an emphasis on aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from ...
of modern
capitalist society Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with ...
, instead expressing
nonsense Nonsense is a communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
,
irrationality Irrationality is cognition Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as ...
, and
anti-bourgeois Anti-capitalism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use t ...
protest in their works.Budd, Dona, ''The Language of Art Knowledge'', Pomegranate Communications. The art of the movement spanned visual, literary, and sound media, including
collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

collage
,
sound poetry Sound poetry is an artistic form bridging literacy and musical composition Musical composition can refer to an Originality, original piece or work of music, either Human voice, vocal or Musical instrument, instrumental, the musical form, stru ...
, cut-up writing, and sculpture. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent toward violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with
radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Creator from the 2011 album ''Goblin (album ...
left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
and
far-left politics Far-left politics are politics further to the left on the left–right political spectrum than the standard political left. There are different definitions of the far-left. Some scholars define it as representing the left of social democracy, whi ...
. There is no consensus on the origin of the movement's name; a common story is that the German artist
Richard Huelsenbeck Carl Wilhelm Richard Hülsenbeck (23 April 189220 April 1974) was a German writer, poet, and psychoanalyst born in Frankenau, Hessen-Nassau. Huelsenbeck was a medical student on the eve of World War I. He was invalided out of the army and emigra ...
slid a
paper knife The terms paper knife and letter opener are often used interchangeably to refer to a knife-like desktop tool. In truth, they are actually for different functions and were in use at different times. Paper knives are used for cutting open the pages ...

paper knife
(letter-opener) at random into a dictionary, where it landed on "dada", a colloquial French term for a
hobby horse The term hobby horse is used, principally by folklorists Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom, is the branch of anthropology devoted to the study of folkl ...
.
Jean Arp Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966), better known as Jean Arp in English, was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. He was known as Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 ...
wrote that
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
invented the word at 6 p.m. on 6 February 1916, in the Café de la Terrasse in Zürich. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning (or no meaning at all) in any language, reflecting the movement's internationalism. The roots of Dada lie in pre-war avant-garde. The term
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
, a precursor to Dada, was coined by
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
around 1913 to characterize works that challenge accepted definitions of art.
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
and the development of
collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

collage
and
abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th c ...
would inform the movement's detachment from the constraints of reality and convention. The work of French poets, Italian
Futurists Futurists (also known as futurologists, prospectivists, Foresight (futures studies), foresight practitioners and horizon scanning, horizon scanners) are people whose specialty or interest is Futures studies, futurology or the attempt to systematic ...

Futurists
and the German Expressionists would influence Dada's rejection of the tight correlation between words and meaning."Dada"
Dawn Adès Josephine Dawn Adès, (''née'' Tylden-Pattenson; born 6 May 1943), also known as Dawn Adès, is a British art historian and academic. She is professor emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used ...
and Matthew Gale, ''
Grove Art Online ''Grove Art Online'' is the online edition of ''The Dictionary of Art'', often referred to as the ''Grove Dictionary of Art'', and part of Oxford Art Online Oxford Art Online is an Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is th ...
'', Oxford University Press, 2009
Works such as ''
Ubu Roi ''Ubu Roi'' (''Ubu the King'' or ''King Ubu'') is a play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digita ...
'' (1896) by
Alfred Jarry Alfred Jarry (; 8 September 1873 – 1 November 1907) was a French symbolist Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts seeking to represent absolute truths symbolica ...

Alfred Jarry
and the ballet ''Parade'' (1916–17) by
Erik Satie Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (, ; ; 17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. He was the son of a French father and a British mother. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire The Conserva ...

Erik Satie
would also be characterized as proto-Dadaist works. The Dada movement's principles were first collected in
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
's Dada Manifesto in 1916. The Dadaist movement included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/
literary journals A literary magazine is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The ...
; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Key figures in the movement included Jean Arp,
Johannes Baader Johannes Baader (June 21/22, 1875/76 – January 14/15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a German writer and artist associated with Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; ...
,
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
,
Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design Graphic design is the art, professio ...
,
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven Elsa Hildegard Baroness von Freytag-Loringhoven (née Plötz; 12 July 1874 – 14 December 1927) was a German avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, ...

Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
,
George Grosz George Grosz (; born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by ...
,
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
,
John Heartfield John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld; 19 June 1891 – 26 April 1968) was a German visual artist who pioneered the use of art as a political weapon. Some of his most famous photomontages were anti-Nazi and anti-fascist statements. Heartfield al ...
,
Emmy Hennings Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen, 17 January 1885 – 10 August 1948) was a performer and poet. She was also the wife of celebrated Dadaist Hugo Ball. Life and work Hennings was born on 17 January 1885 in Flensburg, German Empire, desc ...
,
Hannah Höch Hannah Höch (; 1 November 1889 – 31 May 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar Republic, Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage ...
, Richard Huelsenbeck,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
,
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in . He was a significant contributor to the and movements, although his ties to each were informal. He p ...
, Hans Richter,
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
,
Sophie Taeuber-Arp Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber-Arp (; 19 January 1889 – 13 January 1943) was a Swiss artist, painter, sculptor, textile designer, furniture and interior designer, architect, and dancer. Born in 1889, in Switzerland, the daughter of a pharmac ...
, Tristan Tzara, and Beatrice Wood, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and
downtown music Downtown music is a subdivision of Music of the United States, American music, closely related to experimental music, which developed in downtown Manhattan in the 1960s. History The scene the term describes began in 1960, when Yoko Ono, one of th ...
movements, and groups including
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
, ''
nouveau réalisme Nouveau réalisme (French: new realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany Pierre Restany (24 June 1930 – 29 May 2003), was an internationally known French art critic An art critic is a person ...
'',
pop art
pop art
and
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus ...
.


Overview

Dada was an informal international movement, with participants in Europe and North America. The beginnings of Dada correspond with the outbreak of World War I. For many participants, the movement was a protest against the
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
and
colonialist Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign c ...

colonialist
interests, which many Dadaists believed were the root cause of the war, and against the cultural and intellectual conformity—in art and more broadly in society—that corresponded to the war. Avant-garde circles outside France knew of pre-war Parisian developments. They had seen (or participated in) Cubist exhibitions held at
Galeries Dalmau , c. 1921-22, ''Optophone I'', encre, aquarelle et mine de plomb sur papier, 72 x 60 cm. Reproduced in Galeries Dalmau, ''Picabia'', exhibition catalogue, Barcelona, November 18 - December 8, 1922 Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery An art gallery ...
, Barcelona (1912), Galerie
Der Sturm ''Der Sturm'' (german: The Storm) was a German art and literary magazine founded by Herwarth Walden, covering Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophica ...
in Berlin (1912), the
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
in New York (1913), SVU Mánes in Prague (1914), several Jack of Diamonds exhibitions in Moscow and at , Amsterdam (between 1911 and 1915).
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
developed in response to the work of various artists. Dada subsequently combined these approaches. Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois
capitalist Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, ...

capitalist
society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace
chaos Chaos or CHAOS may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Fictional elements * Chaos (Kinnikuman), Chaos (''Kinnikuman'') * Chaos (Sailor Moon), Chaos (''Sailor Moon'') * Chaos (Sesame Park), Chaos (''Sesame Park'') * Chaos (Warhammer), Chaos ('' ...
and
irrationality Irrationality is cognition Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as ...
. For example,
George Grosz George Grosz (; born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by ...
later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction". According to Hans Richter Dada was not art: it was "
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
." Dada represented the opposite of everything which art stood for. Where art was concerned with traditional
aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

aesthetics
, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend. As
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
expressed it, "For us, art is not an end in itself ... but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in." A reviewer from the '' American Art News'' stated at the time that "Dada philosophy is the sickest, most paralyzing and most destructive thing that has ever originated from the brain of man." Art historians have described Dada as being, in large part, a "reaction to what many of these artists saw as nothing more than an insane spectacle of collective homicide". Years later, Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path...
t was T, or t, is the twentieth letter in the modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conques ...
a systematic work of destruction and demoralization... In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege." To quote Dona Budd's ''The Language of Art Knowledge'',
Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zürich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara's and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words "da, da," meaning "yes, yes" in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a
paper knife The terms paper knife and letter opener are often used interchangeably to refer to a knife-like desktop tool. In truth, they are actually for different functions and were in use at different times. Paper knives are used for cutting open the pages ...

paper knife
stuck into a French–German dictionary happened to point to 'dada', a French word for ' hobbyhorse'.
The movement primarily involved
visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as p ...

visual arts
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...

literature
,
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
,
art manifesto manifesto, 1918 An art manifesto is a public declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of an artist or artistic movement. Manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an indiv ...
s,
art theory Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

art theory
,
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...

theatre
, and
graphic design Graphic design is the profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely recogni ...
, and concentrated its
anti-war An anti-war movement (also ''antiwar'') is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause. The term anti-war can also refer to p ...

anti-war
politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
through anti-art cultural works. The creations of Duchamp, Picabia, Man Ray, and others between 1915 and 1917 eluded the term Dada at the time, and "
New York Dada Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas ...

New York Dada
" came to be seen as a post facto invention of Duchamp. At the outset of the 1920s the term Dada flourished in Europe with the help of Duchamp and Picabia, who had both returned from New York. Notwithstanding, Dadaists such as Tzara and Richter claimed European precedence. Art historian David Hopkins notes:
Ironically, though, Duchamp's late activities in New York, along with the machinations of Picabia, re-cast Dada's history. Dada's European chroniclers—primarily Richter, Tzara, and Huelsenbeck—would eventually become preoccupied with establishing the pre-eminence of Zurich and Berlin at the foundations of Dada, but it proved to be Duchamp who was most strategically brilliant in manipulating the genealogy of this avant-garde formation, deftly turning New York Dada from a late-comer into an originating force.


History

Dada emerged from a period of artistic and literary movements like
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
,
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
and
Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and ...
; centered mainly in Italy, France and Germany respectively, in those years. However, unlike the earlier movements Dada was able to establish a broad base of support, giving rise to a movement that was international in scope. Its adherents were based in cities all over the world including New York, Zürich, Berlin, Paris and others. There were regional differences like an emphasis on literature in Zürich and political protest in Berlin. Prominent Dadaists published manifestos, but the movement was loosely organized and there was no central hierarchy. On 14 July 1916, Ball originated the seminal
manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a ...
. wrote a second Dada manifesto, considered important Dada reading, which was published in 1918. Tzara's manifesto articulated the concept of "Dadaist disgust"—the contradiction implicit in avant-garde works between the criticism and affirmation of modernist reality. In the Dadaist perspective modern art and culture are considered a type of fetishization where the objects of consumption (including organized systems of thought like philosophy and morality) are chosen, much like a preference for cake or cherries, to fill a void. The shock and scandal the movement inflamed was deliberate; Dadist magazines were banned and their exhibits closed. Some of the artists even faced imprisonment. These provocations were part of the entertainment but, over time, audiences' expectations eventually outpaced the movement's capacity to deliver. As the artists' well-known "sarcastic laugh" started to come from the audience, the provocations of Dadaists began to lose their impact. Dada was an active movement during years of political turmoil from 1916 when European countries were actively engaged in World War I, the conclusion of which, in 1918, set the stage for a new political order.


Zürich

There is some disagreement about where Dada originated. The movement is commonly accepted by most art historians and those who lived during this period to have identified with the Cabaret Voltaire (housed inside the ''Holländische Meierei'' bar in Zürich) co-founded by poet and
cabaret Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama. It is mainly distinguished by the performance venue, which might be a pub, a casino, a hotel, a restaurant, or a nightclub with a stage for performa ...

cabaret
singer
Emmy Hennings Emmy Hennings (born Emma Maria Cordsen, 17 January 1885 – 10 August 1948) was a performer and poet. She was also the wife of celebrated Dadaist Hugo Ball. Life and work Hennings was born on 17 January 1885 in Flensburg, German Empire, desc ...
and
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
. Some sources propose a Romanian origin, arguing that Dada was an offshoot of a vibrant artistic tradition that transposed to Switzerland when a group of Jewish
modernist Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
artists, including Tristan Tzara,
Marcel Janco Marcel Janco (, , common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu , last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; 24 May 1895 – 21 April 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist. He was the co-inventor of Dada ...

Marcel Janco
, and Arthur Segal settled in Zürich. Before World War I, similar art had already existed in Bucharest and other Eastern European cities; it is likely that Dada's catalyst was the arrival in Zürich of artists like Tzara and Janco. The name ''Cabaret Voltaire'' was a reference to the French philosopher
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
, whose novel ''
Candide ( , ) is a French satire Satire is a genre of the visual arts, visual, literature, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently Nonfiction, non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses and shortcoming ...
'' mocked the religious and philosophical
dogma Dogma is a belief or set of beliefs that is accepted by the members of a group without being questioned or doubted. It may be in the form of an official system of principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior ...

dogma
s of the day. Opening night was attended by Ball, Tzara,
Jean Arp Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966), better known as Jean Arp in English, was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. He was known as Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 ...
, and Janco. These artists along with others like
Sophie Taeuber Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber-Arp (; 19 January 1889 – 13 January 1943) was a Swiss artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyda ...

Sophie Taeuber
,
Richard Huelsenbeck Carl Wilhelm Richard Hülsenbeck (23 April 189220 April 1974) was a German writer, poet, and psychoanalyst born in Frankenau, Hessen-Nassau. Huelsenbeck was a medical student on the eve of World War I. He was invalided out of the army and emigra ...
and Hans Richter started putting on performances at the Cabaret Voltaire and using art to express their disgust with the war and the interests that inspired it. Having left Germany and Romania during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the artists arrived in politically neutral Switzerland. They used abstraction to fight against the social, political, and cultural ideas of that time. They used
shock art Shock art is contemporary art Contemporary art is the art of today, produced in the second half of the 20th century or in the 21st century. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and technologically advancing wo ...
, provocation, and "
vaudeville Vaudeville (; ) is a of born in France at the end of the 19th century. A vaudeville was originally a comedy without psychological or moral intentions, based on a comical situation: a dramatic composition or light poetry, mixed with songs or b ...
ian excess" to subvert the conventions they believed had caused the Great War. The Dadaists believed those ideas to be a byproduct of bourgeois society that was so apathetic it would wage war against itself rather than challenge the ''status quo'': Ball said that Janco's mask and costume designs, inspired by Romanian folk art, made "the horror of our time, the paralyzing background of events" visible. According to Ball, performances were accompanied by a "balalaika orchestra playing delightful folk-songs". Influenced by
African music African music is a tradition mainly played at gatherings at special occasions. The traditional music of Africa, given the vastness of the continent, is historically ancient, rich and diverse, with different regions and nations of Africa ...

African music
, arrhythmic drumming and jazz were common at Dada gatherings. After the cabaret closed down, Dada activities moved on to a new gallery, and
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
left for Bern. Tzara began a relentless campaign to spread Dada ideas. He bombarded French and Italian artists and writers with letters, and soon emerged as the Dada leader and master strategist. The Cabaret Voltaire re-opened, and is still in the same place at the Spiegelgasse 1 in the Niederdorf. Zürich Dada, with Tzara at the helm, published the art and literature review ''Dada'' beginning in July 1917, with five editions from Zürich and the final two from Paris. Other artists, such as
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
and
Philippe Soupault Philippe Soupault (2 August 1897 – 12 March 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. He was active in Dadaism : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center ...
, created "literature groups to help extend the influence of Dada". After the fighting of the First World War had ended in the armistice of November 1918, most of the Zürich Dadaists returned to their home countries, and some began Dada activities in other cities. Others, such as the Swiss native
Sophie Taeuber Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber-Arp (; 19 January 1889 – 13 January 1943) was a Swiss artist An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyda ...

Sophie Taeuber
, would remain in Zürich into the 1920s.


Berlin

"Berlin was a city of tightened stomachers, of mounting, thundering hunger, where hidden rage was transformed into a boundless money lust, and men's minds were concentrating more and more on questions of naked existence... Fear was in everybody's bones" – Richard Hülsenbeck
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
, who helped establish Dada in Berlin, published his
manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a ...
''Synthethic Cino of Painting'' in 1918 where he attacked Expressionism and the art critics who promoted it. Dada is envisioned in contrast to art forms, such as Expressionism, that appeal to viewers' emotional states: "the exploitation of so-called echoes of the soul". In Hausmann's conception of Dada, new techniques of creating art would open doors to explore new artistic impulses. Fragmented use of real world stimuli allowed an expression of reality that was radically different from other forms of art: The groups in Germany were not as strongly
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
as other groups. Their activity and art were more political and social, with corrosive
manifestos A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a n ...
and propaganda, satire, public demonstrations and overt political activities. The intensely political and war-torn environment of Berlin had a dramatic impact on the ideas of Berlin Dadaists. Conversely, New York's geographic distance from the war spawned its more theoretically-driven, less political nature. According to Hans Richter, a Dadaist who was in Berlin yet “aloof from active participation in Berlin Dada”, several distinguishing characteristics of the Dada movement there included: “its political element and its technical discoveries in painting and literature”; “inexhaustible energy”; “mental freedom which included the abolition of everything”; and “members intoxicated with their own power in a way that had no relation to the real world”, who would “turn their rebelliousness even against each other”. In February 1918, while the Great War was approaching its climax, Huelsenbeck gave his first Dada speech in Berlin, and he produced a Dada manifesto later in the year. Following the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, by then out of the war,
Hannah Höch Hannah Höch (; 1 November 1889 – 31 May 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar Republic, Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage ...
and
George Grosz George Grosz (; born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by ...
used Dada to express communist sympathies. Grosz, together with
John Heartfield John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld; 19 June 1891 – 26 April 1968) was a German visual artist who pioneered the use of art as a political weapon. Some of his most famous photomontages were anti-Nazi and anti-fascist statements. Heartfield al ...
, Höch and Hausmann developed the
technique Technique or techniques may refer to: Music * The Techniques, a Jamaican rocksteady vocal group of the 1960s *Technique (band), a British female synth pop band in the 1990s *Technique (album), ''Technique'' (album), by New Order, 1989 *Techniques ( ...
of
photomontage Photomontage is the process and the result of making a composite Composite or compositing may refer to: Materials * Composite material, a material that is made from several different substances ** Metal matrix composite, composed of metal and oth ...

photomontage
during this period.
Johannes Baader Johannes Baader (June 21/22, 1875/76 – January 14/15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a German writer and artist associated with Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; ...
, the uninhibited Oberdada, was the “crowbar” of the Berlin movement's
direct action Direct action originated as a political activism, activist term for economic and political acts in which the actors use their power (e.g. economic power, economic or physical) to directly reach certain goals of interest; in contrast to those a ...
according to Hans Richter and is credited with creating the first giant collages, according to
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
. After the war, the artists published a series of short-lived political magazines and held the
First International Dada FairThe First International Dada Fair took place in Berlin in 1920. It was Grosz, Heartfield and Hausmann. It was to become the most famous of all Berlin Dada's exploits. It featured almost 200 works by artists including Hans Arp, Max Ernst, Hannah Höch ...
, 'the greatest project yet conceived by the Berlin Dadaists', in the summer of 1920.Dada, Dickermann, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2006 p443 As well as work by the main members of Berlin Dada – Grosz,
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
,
Hannah Höch Hannah Höch (; 1 November 1889 – 31 May 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar Republic, Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage ...
,
Johannes Baader Johannes Baader (June 21/22, 1875/76 – January 14/15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a German writer and artist associated with Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; ...
, Huelsenbeck and Heartfield – the exhibition also included the work of
Otto Dix Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (; 2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and Printmaking, printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of German society during the Weimar Republic and the brutality of war. Along ...
,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
, Jean Arp,
Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design Graphic design is the art, professio ...
, Rudolf Schlichter, Johannes Baargeld and others. In all, over 200 works were exhibited, surrounded by incendiary slogans, some of which also ended up written on the walls of the Nazi's ''
Entartete Kunst Degenerate art (german: Entartete Kunst) was a term adopted in the 1920s by the Nazi Party in Germany to describe modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and deno ...
'' exhibition in 1937. Despite high ticket prices, the exhibition lost money, with only one recorded sale. The Berlin group published periodicals such as ''Club Dada'', ''Der Dada'', '' Everyman His Own Football'', and ''Dada Almanach''. They also established a political party, the Central Council of Dada for the World Revolution.


Cologne

In Cologne, Ernst, Baargeld, and Arp launched a controversial Dada exhibition in 1920 which focused on nonsense and anti-bourgeois sentiments. Cologne's Early Spring Exhibition was set up in a pub, and required that participants walk past urinals while being read lewd poetry by a woman in a Eucharist, communion dress. The police closed the exhibition on grounds of obscenity, but it was re-opened when the charges were dropped.


New York

Like Zürich, New York City was a refuge for writers and artists from the First World War. Soon after arriving from France in 1915,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
and
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
met American artist
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in . He was a significant contributor to the and movements, although his ties to each were informal. He p ...
. By 1916 the three of them became the center of radical
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
activities in the United States. American Beatrice Wood, who had been studying in France, soon joined them, along with
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven Elsa Hildegard Baroness von Freytag-Loringhoven (née Plötz; 12 July 1874 – 14 December 1927) was a German avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, ...

Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
. Arthur Cravan, fleeing conscription in France, was also in New York for a time. Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's gallery, 291 (art gallery), 291, and the home of Walter Conrad Arensberg, Walter and Louise Arensberg. The New Yorkers, though not particularly organized, called their activities ''Dada,'' but they did not issue manifestos. They issued challenges to art and culture through publications such as ''The Blind Man'', ''Rongwrong'', and ''New York Dada'' in which they criticized the traditionalist basis for ''museum'' art. New York Dada lacked the disillusionment of European Dada and was instead driven by a sense of irony and humor. In his book ''Adventures in the arts: informal chapters on painters, vaudeville and poets'' Marsden Hartley included an essay on "s:The Importance of Being Dada, The Importance of Being 'Dada' ". During this time Duchamp began exhibiting "Readymades of Marcel Duchamp, readymades" (everyday objects found or purchased and declared art) such as a bottle rack, and was active in the Society of Independent Artists. In 1917 he submitted the now famous ''Fountain (Duchamp), Fountain'', a urinal signed R. Mutt, to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition but they rejected the piece. First an object of scorn within the arts community, the ''Fountain'' has since become almost canonized by some''Fountain' most influential piece of modern art''
, Independent, December 2, 2004
as one of the most recognizable modernist works of sculpture. Art world experts polled by the sponsors of the 2004 Turner Prize, Gordon's gin, voted it "the most influential work of modern art". As recent scholarship documents, the work is still controversial. Duchamp indicated in a 1917 letter to his sister that a female friend was centrally involved in the conception of this work: "One of my female friends who had adopted the pseudonym Richard Mutt sent me a porcelain urinal as a sculpture." The piece is in line with the scatological aesthetics of Duchamp's neighbour, the Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. In an attempt to "pay homage to the spirit of Dada" a performance artist named Pierre Pinoncelli made a crack in a replica of ''The Fountain'' with a hammer in January 2006; he also urinated on it in 1993. Picabia's travels tied New York, Zürich and Paris groups together during the Dadaist period. For seven years he also published the Dada periodical ''391 (magazine), 391'' in Barcelona, New York City, Zürich, and Paris from 1917 through 1924. By 1921, most of the original players moved to Paris where Dada had experienced its last major incarnation.


Paris

The French
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New A ...
kept abreast of Dada activities in Zürich with regular communications from
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
(whose pseudonym means "sad in country," a name chosen to protest the treatment of Jews in his native Romania), who exchanged letters, poems, and magazines with Guillaume Apollinaire,
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
, Max Jacob, Clément Pansaers, and other French writers, critics and artists. Paris had arguably been the classical music capital of the world since the advent of musical Impressionism in the late 19th century. One of its practitioners,
Erik Satie Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (, ; ; 17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. He was the son of a French father and a British mother. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire The Conserva ...

Erik Satie
, collaborated with Pablo Picasso, Picasso and Jean Cocteau, Cocteau in a mad, scandalous ballet called ''Parade (ballet), Parade''. First performed by the Ballets Russes in 1917, it succeeded in creating a scandal but in a different way than Stravinsky's ''Le Sacre du printemps'' had done almost five years earlier. This was a ballet that was clearly parodying itself, something traditional ballet patrons would obviously have serious issues with. Dada in Paris surged in 1920 when many of the originators converged there. Inspired by Tzara, Paris Dada soon issued manifestos, organized demonstrations, staged performances and produced a number of journals (the final two editions of ''Dada'', ''Le Cannibale'', and ''Littérature'' featured Dada in several editions.) The first introduction of Dada artwork to the Parisian public was at the ''Salon des Indépendants'' in 1921. Jean Crotti exhibited works associated with Dada including a work entitled, ''Explicatif'' bearing the word ''Tabu''. In the same year Tzara staged his Dadaist play ''The Gas Heart'' to howls of derision from the audience. When it was re-staged in 1923 in a more professional production, the play provoked a theatre riot (initiated by
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
) that heralded the split within the movement that was to produce
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
. Tzara's last attempt at a Dadaist drama was his "Irony, ironic tragedy" ''Handkerchief of Clouds'' in 1924.


Netherlands

In the Netherlands the Dada movement centered mainly around Theo van Doesburg, best known for establishing the ''De Stijl'' movement and magazine of the same name. Van Doesburg mainly focused on poetry, and included poems from many well-known Dada writers in ''De Stijl'' such as
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
, Hans Arp and
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
. Van Doesburg and (a cordwainer and artist in Drachten) became friends of Schwitters, and together they organized the so-called ''Dutch Dada campaign'' in 1923, where van Doesburg promoted a leaflet about Dada (entitled ''What is Dada?''), Schwitters read his poems, Vilmos Huszár demonstrated a mechanical dancing doll and Nelly van Doesburg (Theo's wife), played
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New A ...
compositions on piano. Van Doesburg wrote Dada poetry himself in ''De Stijl'', although under a pseudonym, I.K. Bonset, which was only revealed after his death in 1931. 'Together' with I.K. Bonset, he also published a short-lived Dutch literature, Dutch Dada magazine called ''Mécano'' (1922–3). Another Dutchman identified by K. Schippers in his study of the movement in the Netherlands was the Groningen typographer H. N. Werkman, who was in touch with van Doesburg and Schwitters while editing his own magazine, ''The Next Call'' (1923–6). Two more artists mentioned by Schippers were German-born and eventually settled in the Netherlands. These were Otto van Rees, who had taken part in the liminal exhibitions at the Café Voltaire in Zürich, and Paul Citroen.


Georgia

Though Dada itself was unknown in Georgia (country), Georgia until at least 1920, from 1917 until 1921 a group of poets called themselves "41st Degree" (referring both to the latitude of Tbilisi, Georgia and to the Celsius temperature of a high fever [equal to 105.8 Fahrenheit]) organized along Dadaist lines. The most important figure in this group was Ilia Zdanevich, Iliazd, whose radical typographical designs visually echo the publications of the Dadaists. After his flight to Paris in 1921, he collaborated with Dadaists on publications and events.


Yugoslavia

In Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia, alongside the new art movement Zenitism, there was significant Dada activity between 1920 and 1922, run mainly by Dragan Aleksić and including work by Mihailo S. Petrov, Ljubomir Micić and Branko Ve Poljanski. Aleksić used the term "Yougo-Dada" and is known to have been in contact with
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
,
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
, and
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
.


Italy

The Dada movement in Italy, based in Mantua, was met with distaste and failed to make a significant impact in the world of art. It published a magazine for a short time and held an exhibition in Rome, featuring paintings, quotations from Tristan Tzara, and original epigrams such as "True Dada is against Dada". One member of this group was Julius Evola, who went on to become an eminent scholar of occultism, as well as a right-wing philosopher.


Japan

A prominent Dada group in Japan was Mavo, founded in July 1923 by Tomoyoshi Murayama, and Yanase Masamu later joined by Tatsuo Okada. Other prominent artists were Jun Tsuji, Eisuke Yoshiyuki, Shinkichi Takahashi and Katué Kitasono. In Tsuburaya Productions's ''Ultraman, Ultra Series'', an alien named Dada was inspired by the Dadaism movement, with said character first appearing in episode 28 of the 1966 tokusatsu series, ''Ultraman (1966 TV series), Ultraman'', its design by character artist Toru Narita. Dada's design is primarily monochromatic, and features numerous sharp lines and alternating black and white stripes, in reference to the movement and, in particular, to chessboard and Go (game), Go patterns. On May 19, 2016, in celebration to the 100 year anniversary of Dadaism in Tokyo, the Ultra Monster was invited to meet the Swiss Ambassador Urs Bucher. Butoh, the Japanese dance-form originating in 1959, can be considered to have direct connections to the spirit of the Dada movement, as Tatsumi Hijikata, one of Butoh's founders, "was influenced early in his career by Dadaism".


Russia

Dada in itself was relatively unknown in Russia, however, avant-garde art was widespread due to the Bolshevik's revolutionary agenda. The , a literary group sharing Dadaist ideals achieved infamy after one of its members suggested that Vladimir Mayakovsky should go to the "Pampushka" (Pameatnik Pushkina – Pushkinskaya Square, Pushkin monument) on the "Tverbul" (Tverskoy Boulevard) to clean the shoes of anyone who desired it, after Mayakovsky declared that he was going to cleanse Russian literature. For more information on Dadaism's influence upon Russian avant-garde art, see the book ''Russian Dada 1914–1924''.


Poetry

Dadists used shock, nihilism, negativity, paradox, randomness, subconscious forces and antinomianism to subvert established traditions in the aftermath of the Great War. Tzara's 1920 manifesto proposed cutting words from a newspaper and randomly selecting fragments to write poetry, a process in which the synchronous universe itself becomes an active agent in creating the art. A poem written using this technique would be a "fruit" of the words that were clipped from the article. In literary arts Dadaists focused on poetry, particularly the so-called sound poetry invented by
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
. Dadaist poems attacked traditional conceptions of poetry, including structure, order, as well as the interplay of sound and the meaning of language. For Dadaists, the existing system by which information is articulated robs language of its dignity. The dismantling of language and poetic conventions are Dadaist attempts to restore language to its purest and most innocent form: "With these sound poem, we wanted to dispense with a language which journalism had made desolate and impossible." Simultaneous poems (or ''poèmes simultanés'') were recited by a group of speakers who, collectively, produced a chaotic and confusing set of voices. These poems are considered manifestations of modernity including advertising, technology, and conflict. Unlike movements such as Expressionism, Dadaism did not take a negative view of modernity and the urban life. The chaotic urban and futuristic world is considered natural terrain that opens up new ideas for life and art.


Music

Dada was not confined to the visual and literary arts; its influence reached into sound and music.
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
developed what he called ''Sound poetry, sound poems'', while
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes composed Dada music performed at the Festival Dada in Paris on 26 May 1920. Other composers such as Erwin Schulhoff, Hans Heusser and Alberto Savinio all wrote ''Dada music'', while members of Les Six collaborated with members of the Dada movement and had their works performed at Dada gatherings.
Erik Satie Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (, ; ; 17 May 18661 July 1925), who signed his name Erik Satie after 1884, was a French composer and pianist. He was the son of a French father and a British mother. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire The Conserva ...

Erik Satie
also dabbled with Dadaist ideas during his career, although he is primarily associated with musical Impressionism.


Legacy

While broadly based, the movement was unstable. By 1924 in Paris, Dada was melding into Surrealism, and artists had gone on to other ideas and movements, including
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
, social realism and other forms of modernism. Some theorists argue that Dada was actually the beginning of postmodern art. By the dawn of the World War II, Second World War, many of the European Dadaists had emigrated to the United States. Some (Otto Freundlich, Walter Serner) died in death camps under Adolf Hitler, who actively persecuted the kind of "degenerate art" that he considered Dada to represent. The movement became less active as post-war optimism led to the development of new movements in art and literature. Dada is a named influence and reference of various
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
and political and cultural movements, including the Situationist International and culture jamming groups like the Cacophony Society. Upon breaking up in July 2012, anarchist pop band Chumbawamba issued a statement which compared their own legacy with that of the Dada art movement. At the same time that the Zürich Dadaists were making noise and spectacle at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zürich), Cabaret Voltaire, Vladimir Lenin, Lenin was planning his revolutionary plans for Russia in a nearby apartment. Tom Stoppard used this coincidence as a premise for his play ''Travesties'' (1974), which includes Tzara, Lenin, and James Joyce as characters. French writer Dominique Noguez imagined Lenin as a member of the Dada group in his tongue-in-cheek ''Lénine Dada'' (1989). The former building of the Cabaret Voltaire fell into disrepair until it was occupied from January to March 2002, by a group proclaiming themselves Neo-Dadaists, led by Mark Divo. The group included Leumund Cult, Jan Thieler, Ingo Giezendanner, Aiana Calugar, Lennie Lee, and Dan Jones. After their eviction, the space was turned into a museum dedicated to the history of Dada. The work of Lee and Jones remained on the walls of the new museum. Several notable retrospectives have examined the influence of Dada upon art and society. In 1967, a large Dada retrospective was held in Paris. In 2006, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City mounted a Dada exhibition in partnership with the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. The LTM Recordings, LTM label has released a large number of Dada-related sound recordings, including interviews with artists such as Tzara, Picabia, Schwitters, Arp, and Huelsenbeck, and musical repertoire including Satie, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Picabia, and Nelly van Doesburg. Musician Frank Zappa was a self-proclaimed Dadaist after learning of the movement:
In the early days, I didn't even know what to call the stuff my life was made of. You can imagine my delight when I discovered that someone in a distant land had the same idea—AND a nice, short name for it.
David Bowie adapted William S. Burrough's cut-up technique for writing lyrics and Kurt Cobain also admittedly used this method for many of his Nirvana lyrics, including "In Bloom".


Art techniques developed

Dadaism also blurred the line between literary and visual arts:
Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on , a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that laid the foundation for
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
.


Collage

The Dadaists imitated the techniques developed during the cubist movement through the pasting of cut pieces of paper items, but extended their art to encompass items such as transportation tickets, maps, plastic wrappers, etc. to portray aspects of life, rather than representing objects viewed as still life. They also invented the “chance collage" technique, involving dropping torn scraps of paper onto a larger sheet and then pasting the pieces wherever they landed.


Cut-up technique

Cut-up technique is an extension of collage to words themselves,
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
describes this in the Dada Manifesto: TO MAKE A DADAIST POEM Take a newspaper. Take some scissors. Choose from this paper an article of the length you want to make your poem. Cut out the article. Next carefully cut out each of the words that makes up this article and put them all in a bag. Shake gently. Next take out each cutting one after the other. Copy conscientiously in the order in which they left the bag. The poem will resemble you. And there you are – an infinitely original author of charming sensibility, even though unappreciated by the vulgar herd.


Photomontage

The Dadaists – the "monteurs" (mechanics) – used scissors and glue rather than paintbrushes and paints to express their views of modern life through images presented by the media. A variation on the collage technique, photomontage utilized actual or reproductions of real photographs printed in the press. In Cologne,
Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design Graphic design is the art, professio ...
used images from the First World War to illustrate messages of the destruction of war.


Assemblage

The assemblage (art), assemblages were three-dimensional variations of the collage – the assembly of everyday objects to produce meaningful or meaningless (relative to the war) pieces of work including war objects and trash. Objects were nailed, screwed or fastened together in different fashions. Assemblages could be seen in the round or could be hung on a wall.


Readymades

Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
began to view the manufactured objects of his collection as objects of art, which he called "Readymades of Marcel Duchamp, readymades". He would add signatures and titles to some, converting them into artwork that he called "readymade aided" or "rectified readymades". Duchamp wrote: "One important characteristic was the short sentence which I occasionally inscribed on the 'readymade.' That sentence, instead of describing the object like a title, was meant to carry the mind of the spectator towards other regions more verbal. Sometimes I would add a graphic detail of presentation which in order to satisfy my craving for alliterations, would be called 'readymade aided.'""The Writings of Marcel Duchamp" One such example of Duchamp's readymade works is the urinal that was turned onto its back, signed "R. Mutt", titled ''Fountain (Duchamp), Fountain'', and submitted to the Society of Independent Artists exhibition that year, though it was not displayed.


Artists

* Dragan Aleksić (1901–1958), Yugoslavia * Louis Aragon (1897–1982), France *
Jean Arp Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966), better known as Jean Arp in English, was a German-French sculptor, painter, and poet. He was known as Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 ...
(1886–1966), Germany, France *
Sophie Taeuber-Arp Sophie Henriette Gertrud Taeuber-Arp (; 19 January 1889 – 13 January 1943) was a Swiss artist, painter, sculptor, textile designer, furniture and interior designer, architect, and dancer. Born in 1889, in Switzerland, the daughter of a pharmac ...
(1889–1943) Switzerland, France *
Johannes Baader Johannes Baader (June 21/22, 1875/76 – January 14/15, 1955), originally trained as an architect, was a German writer and artist associated with Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; ...
(1875–1955) Germany *
Hugo Ball Hugo Ball (; 22 February 1886 – 14 September 1927) was a German author, poet, and essentially the founder of the Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille ...

Hugo Ball
(1886–1927), Germany, Switzerland *
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
(1896–1966), France * John Covert (painter) (1882–1960), US * Jean Crotti (1878–1958), France *
Otto Dix Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix (; 2 December 1891 – 25 July 1969) was a German painter and Printmaking, printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of German society during the Weimar Republic and the brutality of war. Along ...
(1891–1969), Germany * Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931) Netherlands *
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
(1887–1968), France * Suzanne Duchamp (1889–1963), France * Paul Éluard (1895–1952), France *
Max Ernst Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German (naturalised American in 1948 and French in 1958) painter, sculptor, graphic artist A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design Graphic design is the art, professio ...
(1891–1976), Germany, US * Julius Evola (1898–1974), Italy *
George Grosz George Grosz (; born Georg Ehrenfried Groß; July 26, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was a German artist known especially for his caricatural drawings and paintings of Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by ...
(1893–1959), Germany, France, US *
Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann (July 12, 1886 – February 1, 1971) was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in t ...

Raoul Hausmann
(1886–1971), Germany *
John Heartfield John Heartfield (born Helmut Herzfeld; 19 June 1891 – 26 April 1968) was a German visual artist who pioneered the use of art as a political weapon. Some of his most famous photomontages were anti-Nazi and anti-fascist statements. Heartfield al ...
(1891–1968), Germany, USSR, Czechoslovakia, UK *
Hannah Höch Hannah Höch (; 1 November 1889 – 31 May 1978) was a German Dada artist. She is best known for her work of the Weimar Republic, Weimar period, when she was one of the originators of photomontage. Photomontage, or fotomontage, is a type of collage ...
(1889–1978), Germany *
Richard Huelsenbeck Carl Wilhelm Richard Hülsenbeck (23 April 189220 April 1974) was a German writer, poet, and psychoanalyst born in Frankenau, Hessen-Nassau. Huelsenbeck was a medical student on the eve of World War I. He was invalided out of the army and emigra ...
(1892–1974), Germany * Georges Hugnet (1906–1974), France *
Marcel Janco Marcel Janco (, , common rendition of the Romanian name Marcel Hermann Iancu , last name also Ianco, Janko or Jancu; 24 May 1895 – 21 April 1984) was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect and art theorist. He was the co-inventor of Dada ...

Marcel Janco
(1895–1984), Romania, Israel *
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven Elsa Hildegard Baroness von Freytag-Loringhoven (née Plötz; 12 July 1874 – 14 December 1927) was a German avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, ...

Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven
(1874–1927), Germany, US * Clément Pansaers (1885–1922), Belgium *
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde painter, poet and typographist. After experimenting with Impressionism and Pointillism, Picabia became associated with Cubism. ...

Francis Picabia
(1879–1953), France *
Man Ray Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky; August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in . He was a significant contributor to the and movements, although his ties to each were informal. He p ...
(1890–1976), France, US * Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (1884–1974), France * Hans Richter, Germany, Switzerland * Juliette Roche, Juliette Roche Gleizes (1884–1980), France *
Kurt Schwitters Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lo ...
(1887–1948), Germany * Walter Serner (1889–1942), Austria *
Philippe Soupault Philippe Soupault (2 August 1897 – 12 March 1990) was a French writer and poet, novelist, critic, and political activist. He was active in Dadaism : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center ...
(1897–1990), France *
Tristan Tzara Tristan Tzara (; ; born Samuel or Samy Rosenstock, also known as S. Samyro; – 25 December 1963) was a Romanian and French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or '', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are exper ...

Tristan Tzara
(1896–1963), Romania, France * Beatrice Wood (1893–1998), US


See also

*Art intervention *''Dadaglobe'' *List of Dadaists *Épater la bourgeoisie *Happening *Incoherents *Transgressive art


References

Sources * * * *


Further reading

*''The Dada Almanac'', ed Richard Huelsenbeck [1920], re-edited and translated by Malcolm Green et al., Atlas Press, with texts by Hans Arp, Johannes Baader, Hugo Ball, Paul Citröen, Paul Dermée, Daimonides, Max Goth, John Heartfield, Raoul Hausmann, Richard Huelsenbeck, Vincente Huidobro, Mario D'Arezzo, Adon Lacroix, Walter Mehring, Francis Picabia, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, Alexander Sesqui, Philippe Soupault, Tristan Tzara. *''Blago Bung, Blago Bung'', Hugo Ball's Tenderenda, Richard Huelsenbeck's Fantastic Prayers, & Walter Serner's Last Loosening – three key texts of Zurich ur-Dada. Translated and introduced by Malcolm Green. Atlas Press, *Ball, Hugo. ''Flight Out Of Time'' (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996) *Hanne Bergius, Bergius, Hanne ''Dada in Europa – Dokumente und Werke'' (co-ed. Eberhard Roters), in: ''Tendenzen der zwanziger Jahre''. 15. Europäische Kunstausstellung, Catalogue, Vol.III, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1977. *Bergius, Hanne ''Das Lachen Dadas. Die Berliner Dadaisten und ihre Aktionen''. Gießen: Anabas-Verlag 1989. *Bergius, Hanne ''Dada Triumphs! Dada Berlin, 1917–1923. Artistry of Polarities. Montages – Metamechanics – Manifestations''. Translated by Brigitte Pichon. Vol. V. of the ten editions of ''Crisis and the Arts: the History of Dada'', ed. by Stephen Foster, New Haven, Connecticut, Thomson/Gale 2003. . *Jones, Dafydd W. ''Dada 1916 In Theory: Practices of Critical Resistance'' (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2014). *Biro, M. ''The Dada Cyborg: Visions of the New Human in Weimar Berlin''. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. *Dachy, Marc. Journal du mouvement Dada 1915–1923, Genève, Albert Skira, 1989 (Grand Prix du Livre d'Art, 1990) *''Dada & les dadaïsmes'', Paris, Gallimard, Folio Essais, n° 257, 1994. *''Dada : La révolte de l'art'', Paris, Gallimard / Centre Pompidou, collection "Découvertes Gallimard" (nº 476), 2005. *''Archives Dada / Chronique'', Paris, Hazan, 2005. *''Dada, catalogue d'exposition'', Centre Pompidou, 2005. *Durozoi, Gérard. ''Dada et les arts rebelles'', Paris, Hazan, Guide des Arts, 2005 *Hoffman, Irene
''Documents of Dada and Surrealism: Dada and Surrealist Journals in the Mary Reynolds Collection''
Ryerson and Burnham Libraries, The Art Institute of Chicago. *Hopkins, David, ''A Companion to Dada and Surrealism'', Volume 10 of Blackwell Companions to Art History, John Wiley & Sons, May 2, 2016, *Huelsenbeck, Richard. ''Memoirs of a Dada Drummer'', (University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1991) *Jones, Dafydd. ''Dada Culture'' (New York and Amsterdam: Rodopi Verlag, 2006) *Lavin, Maud. ''Cut With the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch''. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993. *Lemoine, Serge. ''Dada'', Paris, Hazan, coll. L'Essentiel. *Lista, Giovanni. ''Dada libertin & libertaire'', Paris, L'insolite, 2005. *Melzer, Annabelle. 1976. ''Dada and Surrealist Performance.'' PAJ Books ser. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1994. . *Novero, Cecilia. "Antidiets of the Avant-Garde: From Futurist Cooking to Eat Art." (University of Minnesota Press, 2010) *Richter, Hans. ''Dada: Art and Anti-Art'' (London: Thames and Hudson, 1965) *Sanouillet, Michel. ''Dada à Paris'', Paris, Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 1965, Flammarion, 1993, CNRS, 2005 *Sanouillet, Michel. ''Dada in Paris'', Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MIT Press, 2009 *Schippers, K. ''Holland Dada'', Amsterdam, Em. Querido, 1974 *Schneede, Uwe M. ''George Grosz, His life and work'' (New York: Universe Books, 1979) *Verdier, Aurélie. ''L'ABCdaire de Dada'', Paris, Flammarion, 2005.


Filmography

* 1968: , Documentary by Universal Education, Presented By Kartes Video Communications, 56 Minutes * 1971: , Une émission produite par Jean José Marchand, réalisée par Philippe Collin et Hubert Knapp, Ce documentaire a été diffusé pour la première fois sur la RTF le 28.03.1971, 267 min. * 2016:
Das Prinzip Dada
', Documentary by , Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen ('), 52 Minutes * 2016 , Bruno Art Group in collaboration with Cabaret Voltaire & Art Stage Singapore 2016, 27 minutes


External links


Dada Companion
bibliographies, chronology, artists' profiles, places, techniques, reception * *Th
International Dada Archive
University of Iowa, early Dada periodicals, online scans of publications

history, bibliography, documents, and news


New York dada (magazine), Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray, April, 1921
Bibliothèque Kandinsky, Centre Pompidou (access online)
Kunsthaus Zürich
one of the world's largest Dada collections
"A Brief History of Dada"
''Smithsonian Magazine''
Introduction to Dada
Khan Academy Art 1010
National Gallery of Art 2006 Dada ExhibitionHathi Trust full-text Dadaism publications onlineCollection: "Dada and Neo-Dada"
from the University of Michigan Museum of Art Manifestos *Wikisource:Dada Manifesto (1916, Hugo Ball), Text of Hugo Ball's 1916 Dada Manifesto
Text of Tristan Tzara's 1918 Dada Manifesto
*[http://keever.us/tzaraseven.pdf Seven Dada Manifestos by Tristan Tzara] {{Authority control Dada, Avant-garde art Art movements 20th-century German literature Nonsense