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The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a
digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electr ...
optical disc In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest ...
data storage Data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), variables ...
format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. Currently allowing up to 17.08
GB
GB
of storage, the medium can store any kind of digital data and was widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using
DVD player A DVD player is a device that plays DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing ...

DVD player
s. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than
compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics compri ...

compact disc
s while having the same dimensions. The roles of DVDs have largely been replaced by
solid-state drive A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage Solid-state storage (SSS) is a type of non-volatile computer storage that stores and retrieves digital information Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary di ...
s and direct connection to the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
for local storage,
video streaming Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content its ...
, and online gaming. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using
molding machines
molding machines
that physically stamp data onto the DVD. Such discs are a form of DVD-
ROM Rom, or ROM may refer to: Biomechanics and medicine * Risk of mortality The risk of mortality (ROM) provides a medical classification to estimate the likelihood of inhospital death for a patient. The ROM classes are minor, moderate, major, and ex ...
because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank
recordable DVD DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies. Both terms describe DVD optical discs that can be written to by a DVD recorder, whereas only 'rewritable' discs are able to erase and rewrite data. Data is written ('bur ...
discs (
DVD-R DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies Optical disc authoring requires a number of different optical disc recorder technologies working in tandem, from the optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing character ...

DVD-R
and
DVD+R DVD R may refer to: *DVD+RDVD R may refer to: *DVD+R DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies. Both terms describe DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digi ...
) can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and then function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs (
DVD-RW DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies Optical disc authoring requires a number of different optical disc recorder technologies working in tandem, from the optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing character ...
,
DVD+RW DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies Optical disc authoring requires a number of different optical disc recorder technologies working in tandem, from the optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing character ...
, and
DVD-RAM DVD-RAM (DVD Random Access Memory) is a DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. The medium ...
) can be recorded and erased many times. DVDs are used in
DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and releas ...

DVD-Video
consumer digital video format and in
DVD-Audio DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering high-fidelity High fidelity (often shortened to Hi-Fi or HiFi) is the high-quality reproduction of sound. It is important to audiophile An audiophile is a perso ...
consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special
AVCHD AVCHD (Advanced Video Coding High Definition) is a file-based format for the digital recording In digital recording, an audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), phy ...
format to hold high definition material (often in conjunction with AVCHD format
camcorder A camcorder is an electronic device originally combining a video camera A video camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗ ...

camcorder
s). DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs.


Etymology

The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' comments that, "In 1995, rival manufacturers of the product initially named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc." The OED also states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will simply be DVD.
Toshiba is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign st ...
had been using the name 'digital video disc', but that was switched to 'digital versatile disc' after computer companies complained that it left out their applications." "Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the
DVD Forum The DVD Forum is an international organization composed of hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals ...
's mission statement.


History


Development

There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1963 and first patented in 1968. A consumer optical disc data format known as the
LaserDisc
LaserDisc
was developed in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, and first came to market in
Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta, Georgia
in December 1978. It used much larger discs than the later formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of the LaserDisc was very low in both North America and Europe, and was not widely used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
, such as
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
,
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
and
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. Released in 1987,
CD Video CD Video (also known as CDV, CD-V, or CD+V) is a format of optical media disc that was introduced in 1987 that combines the technologies of standard compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something usin ...
used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard size of audio CDs.
Video CD Video CD (abbreviated as VCD, and also known as Compact Disc Digital Video) is a home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS VHS (Video Home System) is a standard Sta ...
(VCD) became one of the first formats for distributing ''digitally'' encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia
Compact Disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics compri ...

Compact Disc
(MMCD), backed by
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
(developers of the CD and
CD-i The Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-I, later CD-i) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electr ...
), and the other was the Super Density (SD) disc, supported by
Toshiba is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign st ...
,
Time Warner Warner Media, LLC ( traded as WarnerMedia, but stylized as WarnerMedia; formerly known as Time Warner from 1990 to 2001 and again from 2003 to 2018; from 2001 to 2003, AOL Time Warner and from 1972 to 1990, Warner Communications) is an Americ ...
, Matsushita Electric,
Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...
,
Mitsubishi Electric , established on 15 January 1921, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mul ...
,
Pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated west to join in settling and deve ...
, Thomson, and
JVC The , usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese brand owned by JVCKenwood corporation. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VH ...

JVC
. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, and Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc (DVD). The Super Density logo would later be reused in
Secure Digital Secure Digital, officially abbreviated as SD, is a proprietary {{Short pages monitor


DVD-Audio

DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from to
5.1 surround sound 5.1 surround sound ("five-point one") is the common name for surround sound Surround sound is a technique for enriching the fidelity and depth of sound reproduction In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, t ...
) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher
sampling rate In , sampling is the reduction of a to a . A common example is the conversion of a (a continuous signal) to a sequence of samples (a discrete-time signal). A sample is a value or set of values at a point in time and/or space. A sampler is a su ...
s, greater sample resolution and additional channels for
spatial sound 3D audio effects are a group of sound effects that manipulate the sound produced by stereo speakers, surround-sound speakers, speaker-arrays, or headphones. This frequently involves the virtual placement of sound sources anywhere in three-dimension ...
reproduction). DVD-Audio briefly formed a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that
DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and releas ...

DVD-Video
avoided.


Security

DVD-Audio discs employ a
DRM DRM may refer to: Government, military and politics * Defense reform movement, U.S. campaign inspired by Col. John Boyd * Democratic Republic of Madagascar, a former socialist state (1975–1992) on Madagascar * Direction du renseignement militaire ...
mechanism, called Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM), developed by the 4C group (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba). Although CPPM was supposed to be much harder to crack than a DVD-Video
CSS #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS #REDIRECT CSS Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation Introduction A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience. Presentations are typ ...
, it too was eventually cracked, in 2007, with the release of the ''dvdcpxm'' tool. The subsequent release of the libdvdcpxm library (based on dvdcpxm) allowed for the development of open source DVD-Audio players and ripping software. As a result, making 1:1 copies of DVD-Audio discs is now possible with relative ease, much like DVD-Video discs.


Successors and decline

In 2006, two new formats called
HD DVD HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc drive. (CD-R), showing characteristic iridescence. In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, ...
and
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...
were released as the successor to DVD. HD DVD competed unsuccessfully with Blu-ray Disc in the
format war A format war is a competition between similar but mutually incompatible technical standards that compete for the same market, such as for data storage device On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipm ...
of 2006–2008. A dual layer HD DVD can store up to 30 GB and a dual layer Blu-ray disc can hold up to 50 GB. However, unlike previous format changes, e.g., vinyl to Compact Disc or VHS videotape to DVD, there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate, with around 75% of video sales and approximately one billion DVD player sales worldwide as of April 2011. In fact, experts claim that the DVD will remain the dominant medium for at least another five years as Blu-ray technology is still in its introductory phase, write and read speeds being poor and necessary hardware being expensive and not readily available. Consumers initially were also slow to adopt Blu-ray due to the cost. By 2009, 85% of stores were selling Blu-ray Discs. A high-definition television and appropriate connection cables are also required to take advantage of Blu-ray disc. Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs. The DVD succeeded because it offered a compelling alternative to VHS. In addition, the uniform media size lets manufacturers make Blu-ray players (and HD DVD players) backward-compatible, so they can play older DVDs. This stands in contrast to the change from vinyl to CD, and from tape to DVD, which involved a complete change in physical medium. it is still commonplace for studios to issue major releases in "combo pack" format, including both a DVD and a Blu-ray disc (as well as a digital copy). Also, some multi-disc sets use Blu-ray for the main feature, but DVDs for supplementary features (examples of this include the ''Harry Potter (film series), Harry Potter'' "Ultimate Edition" collections, the 2009 re-release of the 1967 ''The Prisoner'' TV series, and a 2007 collection related to ''Blade Runner''). Another reason cited (July 2011) for the slower transition to Blu-ray from DVD is the necessity of and confusion over "firmware updates" and needing an internet connection to perform updates. This situation is similar to the changeover from 78 rpm shellac recordings to 45 rpm and 33⅓ rpm vinyl recordings. Because the new and old media were virtually the same (a disc on a turntable, played by a needle), phonograph player manufacturers continued to include the ability to play 78s for decades after the format was discontinued. Manufacturers continue to release standard DVD titles , and the format remains the preferred one for the release of older television programs and films. Shows that were shot and edited entirely on film, such as ''Star Trek: The Original Series'', cannot be released in high definition without being re-scanned from the original film recordings. Certain special effects were also updated to appear better in high-definition. Shows that were made between the early 1980s and the early 2000s were generally shot on film, then transferred to cassette tape, and then edited natively in either NTSC or PAL, making high-definition transfers impossible as these SD standards were baked into the final cuts of the episodes. ''Star Trek: The Next Generation'' is the only such show that has gotten a Blu-ray release. The process of making high-definition versions of ''TNG'' episodes required finding the original film clips, re-scanning them into a computer at high definition, digitally re-editing the episodes from the ground up, and re-rendering new visual effects shots, an extraordinarily labor-intensive ordeal that cost Paramount over $12 million. The project was a financial failure and resulted in Paramount deciding very firmly against giving ''Deep Space Nine'' and ''Voyager'' the same treatment. However, ''Star Trek: Deep Space Nine#Documentary What We Left Behind, What We Left Behind'' included small amounts of remastered ''Deep Space Nine'' footage. DVDs are also facing competition from video on demand services. With increasing numbers of homes having high speed Internet connections, many people now have the option to either rent or buy video from an online service, and view it by streaming it directly from that service's servers, meaning they no longer need any form of permanent storage media for video at all. By 2017, digital streaming services had overtaken the sales of DVDs and Blu-rays for the first time.


Longevity

Longevity of a storage medium is measured by how long the data remains readable, assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is, how long the disc can be stored until data is lost. Numerous factors affect longevity: composition and quality of the media (recording and substrate layers), humidity and light storage conditions, the quality of the initial recording (which is sometimes a matter of mutual compatibility of media and recorder), etc. According to NIST, "[a] temperature of 64.4 °F (18 °C) and 40% RH [Relative Humidity] would be considered suitable for long-term storage. A lower temperature and RH is recommended for extended-term storage." According to the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA), "Manufacturers claim lifespans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD, DVD-R and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM." According to a NIST/Library of Congress, LoC research project conducted in 2005–2007 using accelerated life testing, "There were fifteen DVD products tested, including five DVD-R, five DVD+R, two DVD-RW and three DVD+RW types. There were ninety samples tested for each product. [...] Overall, seven of the products tested had estimated life expectancies in ambient conditions of more than 45 years. Four products had estimated life expectancies of 30–45 years in ambient storage conditions. Two products had an estimated life expectancy of 15–30 years and two products had estimated life expectancies of less than 15 years when stored in ambient conditions." The life expectancies for 95% survival estimated in this project by type of product are tabulated below:Final Report: NIST/Library of Congress (LC) Optical Disc Longevity Study
, Loc.gov, September 2007 (table derived from figure 7)


See also

*List of computer hardware *Book type *Comparison of popular optical data-storage systems *Digital video recorder *Disk-drive performance characteristics *DVD authoring *DVD ripper *DVD region code *DVD TV game – Interactive movie *Professional Disc, Professional disc *DVD single *M-DISC


Notes


References


Further reading

* * *


External links

* *
Dvddemystified.com: DVD Frequently Asked Questions and Answers
nbsp;– Informational Guide to the Dual Layer Recording Process
YouTube "DVD Gallery": 1997 Toshiba DVD demo disc (segment)
— ''an in-store Toshiba demonstration disc with technical information on the "then-new" DVD format.'' {{Authority control DVD, 120 mm discs Audiovisual introductions in 1996 Products introduced in 1996 Audio storage Consumer electronics Digital audio storage Home video Home video distributors, . Dutch inventions Information technology in Japan Information technology in the Netherlands Japanese inventions Joint ventures Rotating disc computer storage media Science and technology in Japan Science and technology in the Netherlands Video game distribution, . Video storage Digital media Objects with holes