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The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a
research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geogra ...
agency of the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency was created on February 7, 1958, by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
in response to the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
launching of
Sputnik 1 Sputnik 1 (; see #Etymology, § Etymology) was the first Satellite, artificial Earth satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union, USSR on 4 October 1957 as part of the Soviet space program. It orbited for ...

Sputnik 1
in 1957. By collaborating with academia, industry, and government partners, DARPA formulates and executes research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, often beyond immediate
U.S. military The United States Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between ...
requirements.Dwight D. Eisenhower and Science & Technology, (2008). Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission
Source
''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'' has called DARPA the agency "that shaped the modern world," and pointed out that "
Moderna’s covid-19 vaccine
Moderna’s covid-19 vaccine
sits alongside
weather satellite A weather satellite alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that ...
s,
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...
,
drones
drones
,
stealth technology Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasure An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device de ...
, voice interfaces, the
personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, rather than by a computer expert or technician ...
and the
internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

internet
on the list of innovations for which DARPA can claim at least partial credit." Its track record of success has inspired governments around the world to launch similar research and development agencies. DARPA is independent of other military research and development and reports directly to senior Department of Defense management. DARPA comprises approximately 220 government employees in six technical offices, including nearly 100 program managers, who together oversee about 250 research and development programs. The name of the organization first changed from its founding name, ARPA, to DARPA, in March 1972, changing back to ARPA in February 1993, then reverted to DARPA in March 1996. The agency's current director, appointed in March 2021, is Stefanie Tompkins.


Mission

, their mission statement is "to make pivotal investments in breakthrough technologies for national security".


History


Early history (1958–1969)

The creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was authorized by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
in 1958 for the purpose of forming and executing research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, and able to reach far beyond immediate military requirements, the two relevant acts being the Supplemental Military Construction Authorization (Air Force) (Public Law 85-325) and Department of Defense Directive 5105.15, in February 1958. Its creation was directly attributed to the launching of
Sputnik Sputnik 1 (; see § Etymology) was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an Earth-centered orbit near the planet, often specified as having a period Period may ...

Sputnik
and to U.S. realization that the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
had developed the capacity to rapidly exploit military technology. Initial funding of ARPA was $520 million."$ 520 million appropriation and a $ 2 billion budget plan." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (p. 20). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. ARPA's first director, Roy Johnson, left a $160,000 management job at General Electric for an $18,000 job at ARPA."Roy Johnson, ARPA's first director, was, like his boss, a businessman. At age fifty-two, he had been personally recruited by McElroy, who convinced him to leave a $160,000 job with General Electric and take an $18,000 job in Washington." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (p. 21). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition.
Herbert York Herbert Frank York (24 November 1921 – 19 May 2009) was an American nuclear physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of scienc ...

Herbert York
from
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States. With an es ...
was hired as his scientific assistant."Herbert York, whom Killian had been keen on, was given the job and moved to ARPA from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (p. 21). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. Johnson and York were both keen on space projects, but when
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
was established later in 1958 all space projects and most of ARPA's funding were transferred to it. Johnson resigned and ARPA was repurposed to do "high-risk", "high-gain", "far out" basic research, a posture that was enthusiastically embraced by the nation's scientists and research universities."The staff of ARPA saw an opportunity to redefine the agency as a group that would take on the really advanced "far-out" research....The scientific community, predictably, rallied to the call for a reinvention of ARPA as a "high-risk high-gain" research sponsor— the kind of R& D shop they had dreamed of all along" Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (pp. 21,22). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. ARPA's second director was Brigadier General Austin W. Betts, who resigned in early 1961. He was succeeded by
Jack Ruina Jack P. Ruina (August 19, 1923 – February 4, 2015) was a professor of electrical engineering Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use ele ...
who served until 1963."In early 1961 ARPA's second director, Brigadier General Austin W. Betts, resigned" Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (pp. 23,24) Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. Ruina, the first scientist to administer ARPA, managed to raise its budget to $250 million."Ruina raised ARPA's annual budget to $ 250 million." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (p. 23). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. It was Ruina who hired as the first administrator of the
Information Processing Techniques Office The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), originally "Command and Control Research",Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (p. 39). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. was part ...
, which played a vital role in creation of
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
, the basis for the future Internet."J. C. R. Licklider." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet'' (pp. 27–39). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition. Additionally, the political and defense communities recognized the need for a high-level Department of Defense organization to formulate and execute R&D projects that would expand the frontiers of technology beyond the immediate and specific requirements of the Military Services and their laboratories. In pursuit of this mission, DARPA has developed and transferred technology programs encompassing a wide range of scientific disciplines that address the full spectrum of national security needs. From 1958 to 1965, ARPA's emphasis centered on major national issues, including space,
ballistic missile defense Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missile In military terminology, a missile is a guided airborne ranged weapon . English longbowmen fig ...
, and
nuclear test Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine nuclear weapons' effectiveness, yield Yield may refer to: Measures of output/function Computer science * Yield (multithreading) is an action that occurs in a computer program duri ...
detection.projects in ballistic missile defense and nuclear test detection, couched in terms of basic research, were the top priorities." Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19). ''Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet'' (p. 23). Simon & Schuster. Kindle edition. During 1960, all of its civilian space programs were transferred to the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) and the military space programs to the individual services. This allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender (defense against ballistic missiles),
Project Vela Project Vela was a project undertaken by the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a fede ...
(nuclear test detection), and
Project AGILE Project AGILE was an Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) project in the 1960s that investigated means for engaging in remote, limited warfare of an asymmetric type. The research was intended for use in providing U.S. support to countries eng ...
(
counterinsurgency Counterinsurgency (COIN) is "the totality of actions aimed at defeating irregular military, irregular forces". The Oxford English Dictionary defines counterinsurgency as any "military or political action taken against the activities of guerril ...
R&D) programs, and to begin work on computer processing,
behavioral sciences Behavioral sciences explore the cognitive processes within organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are ...
, and materials sciences. The DEFENDER and AGILE programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor,
surveillance Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, many activities, or information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or org ...

surveillance
, and directed energy R&D, particularly in the study of
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
,
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior ...

infrared
sensing, and
x-ray An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Moti ...

x-ray
/
gamma ray A gamma ray, also known as gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, it ...
detection. ARPA at this point (1959) played an early role in
Transit Transit may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * Transit (1979 film), ''Transit'' (1979 film), a 1979 Israeli film * Transit (2005 film), ''Transit'' (2005 film), a film produced by MTV and Staying-Alive about four people in countries in the wo ...
(also called NavSat) a predecessor to the
Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
(GPS). "Fast-forward to 1959 when a joint effort between DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory began to fine-tune the early explorers' discoveries. TRANSIT, sponsored by the Navy and developed under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kirschner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite positioning system." During the late 1960s, with the transfer of these mature programs to the Services, ARPA redefined its role and concentrated on a diverse set of relatively small, essentially exploratory research programs. The agency was renamed the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1972, and during the early 1970s, it emphasized direct energy programs, information processing, and tactical technologies. Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress, initially through its support of the development of
time-sharing In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...
(all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the
Multics Multics ("Multiplexed Information and Computing Service") is an influential early time-sharing In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experi ...

Multics
system, developed by a cooperation among
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
,
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
and
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
, which DARPA supported by funding
Project MAC MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic r ...
at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant). DARPA supported the evolution of the
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
(the first wide-area packet switching network), Packet Radio Network, Packet Satellite Network and ultimately, the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
and research in the
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
fields of speech recognition and signal processing, including parts of Shakey the robot. DARPA also supported the early development of both
hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, ...

hypertext
and
hypermedia Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic v ...
. DARPA funded one of the first two hypertext systems,
Douglas Engelbart Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex sys ...
's NLS computer system, as well as
The Mother of All Demos "The Mother of All Demos" is a name retroactively applied to a landmark computer demonstration, given at the Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A lea ...
. DARPA later funded the development of the
Aspen Movie Map The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. Features The Aspen Movie Map enabled the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Co ...
, which is generally seen as the first hypermedia system and an important precursor of
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality Virtual ...

virtual reality
.


Later history (1970–1980)

The Mansfield Amendment of 1973 expressly limited appropriations for defense research (through ARPA/DARPA) only to projects with direct military application. The resulting " brain drain" is also credited with boosting the development of the fledgling personal computer industry. Some young computer scientists left the universities to startups and private research laboratories such as
Xerox PARC PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California. Founded in 1969 by Jack Goldman, Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, Xerox Corporation's chief scientist, the company was originally a divis ...
. Between 1976 and 1981, DARPA's major projects were dominated by air, land, sea, and space technology, tactical armor and anti-armor programs, infrared sensing for space-based surveillance, high-energy laser technology for space-based missile defense, antisubmarine warfare, advanced cruise missiles, advanced aircraft, and defense applications of advanced computing. These large-scale technological program demonstrations were joined by integrated circuit research, which resulted in submicrometer electronic technology and electron devices that evolved into the
Very-Large-Scale Integration Very large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A ci ...
(VLSI) Program and the Congressionally-mandated charged particle beam program. Many of the successful programs were transitioned to the Services, such as the foundation technologies in automatic target recognition, space based sensing, propulsion, and materials that were transferred to the
Strategic Defense Initiative Organization The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), nicknamed the "''Star Wars'' program", was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by Ballistic missile, ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental bal ...
(SDIO), later known as the
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense that began on 20 May 1974 with the responsibility for all U.S. ballistic missile defense efforts. History It evolved from the SAFEGUARD Sy ...
(BMDO), now titled the
Missile Defense Agency In military terminology, a missile is a missile guidance, guided airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight usually by a jet engine or rocket motor. Missiles are thus also called guided missiles or guided rockets (when in rocket fo ...
(MDA).


Recent history (1981–present)

During the 1980s, the attention of the Agency was centered on information processing and aircraft-related programs, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) or Hypersonic Research Program. The Strategic Computing Program enabled DARPA to exploit advanced processing and networking technologies and to rebuild and strengthen relationships with universities after the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
. In addition, DARPA began to pursue new concepts for small, lightweight satellites ( LIGHTSAT) and directed new programs regarding defense manufacturing, submarine technology, and armor/anti-armor. In 1981, two engineers, Robert McGhee and Kenneth Waldron, started to develop the Adaptive Suspension Vehicle (ASV) nicknamed the "Walker" at the
Ohio State University The Ohio State University, commonly Ohio State or OSU, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the release and spread of information between an individual or an organization ...
, under a research contract from DARPA. The vehicle was 17 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 10.5 feet high, and had six legs to support its three-ton aluminum body, in which it was designed to carry cargo over difficult terrains. However, DARPA lost interest in the ASV, after problems with cold-weather tests. On February 4, 2004, the agency shut down its so called "LifeLog Project". The project's aim would have been, "to gather in a single place just about everything an individual says, sees or does". On October 28, 2009, the agency broke ground on a new facility in
Arlington, Virginia Arlington County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), Willia ...
a few miles from the Pentagon. In fall 2011, DARPA hosted the 100-Year Starship Symposium with the aim of getting the public to start thinking seriously about interstellar travel. On June 5, 2016, NASA and DARPA announced that it planned to build new X-planes with NASA's plan setting to create a whole series of X planes over the next 10 years. Between 2014 and 2016, DARPA shepherded the first
machine-to-machineMachine to machine (M2M) is direct communication between devices using any communications channel, including wired and wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or mor ...
computer security competition, the Cyber Grand Challenge (CGC), bringing a group of top-notch computer security experts to search for security
vulnerabilities Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking. The understan ...
,
exploit Exploit means to take advantage of something (a person, situation, etc.) for one's own end, especially unethically or unjustifiably. Exploit can mean: *Exploitation of natural resources The exploitation of natural resources is the use of natural ...
them, and create fixes that patch those vulnerabilities in a fully-automated fashion. In June 2018, DARPA leaders demonstrated a number of new technologies that were developed within the framework of the GXV-T program. The goal of this program is to create a lightly armored combat vehicle of not very large dimensions, which, due to maneuverability and other tricks, can successfully resist modern
anti-tank weapon Anti-tank warfare originated from the need to develop technology and Military tactics, tactics to destroy tanks during World War I (1914–1918). Since the Triple Entente developed the first tanks in 1916 but did not deploy them in battle until ...
systems. In September 2020, DARPA and the US Air Force announced that the Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept (HAWC) are ready for free-flight tests within the next year. became the director of DARPA in November 2020. In recent years, DARPA officials have contracted out core functions to corporations. For example, during fiscal year 2020, Chenega ran physical security on DARPA's premises, System High Corp. carried out program security, and Agile Defense ran unclassified IT services. General Dynamics runs classified IT services. Strategic Analysis Inc. provided support services regarding engineering, science, mathematics, and front office and administrative work. File:01 The Formative Years 1958 - 1975 (DARPA history).ogv, The formative years
(1958–1975) File:02 - The Cold War Era 1975 - 1989 (DARPA history).ogv, The Cold War era
(1975–1989) File:03 - The Post-Soviet Years 1989 - Present 2008 (DARPA history).ogv, The Post-Soviet years
(1989–present)


Organization


Current program offices

DARPA has six technical offices that manage the agency's research portfolio, and two additional support offices that manage special projects and transition efforts. All offices report to the DARPA director, including: * The Adaptive Execution Office (AEO) is one of two new DARPA offices created in 2009 by the DARPA Director,
Regina Dugan Regina E. Dugan (born 19 March 1963), is an Americans, American businesswoman, inventor, technology developer and government official. She was the first female director of the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where she served from ...
. The office's four project areas include technology transition, assessment, rapid
productivity Productivity is the efficiency Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do th ...
and
adaptive system An adaptive system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole that together are able to respond to environmental changes or changes in the interacting parts, in a way analogous to either contin ...
s. AEO provides the agency with robust connections to the warfighter community and assists the agency with the planning and execution of technology demonstrations and field trials to promote adoption by the warfighter, accelerating the transition of new technologies into DoD capabilities. * The Defense Sciences Office (DSO) vigorously pursues the most promising technologies within a broad spectrum of the science and engineering research communities and develops those technologies into important, radically new military capabilities. DSO identifies and pursues high-risk, high-payoff fundamental research initiatives across a broad spectrum of science and engineering disciplines – sometimes reshaping existing fields or creating entirely new disciplines – and transforms these initiatives into radically new, game-changing technologies for U.S. national security. * The Information Innovation Office (I2O) aims to ensure U.S. technological superiority in all areas where information can provide a decisive military advantage. Some of the program managers in I2O are Stuart Wagner (as of September 2014), Steve Jameson (as of August 2014), Angelos Keromytis (as of July 2014), David Doermann (as of April 2014), and Brian Pierce (prior to September, 2018). As of August 2021, William Scherlis is currently the office director. * The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) mission focuses on the heterogeneous microchip-scale integration of electronics, photonics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Their high risk/high payoff technology is aimed at solving the national level problems of protection from biological, chemical and information attack and to provide operational dominance for mobile distributed command and control, combined manned and unmanned warfare, and dynamic, adaptive military planning and execution. * The Strategic Technology Office (STO) mission is to focus on technologies that have a global theater-wide impact and that involve multiple Services. DARPA Offices. Retrieved 2009-11-08. * The Tactical Technology Office (TTO) engages in high-risk, high-payoff advanced military research, emphasizing the "system" and "subsystem" approach to the development of aeronautic, space, and land systems as well as embedded processors and control systems * The Biological Technologies Office (BTO) fosters, demonstrates, and transitions breakthrough fundamental research, discoveries, and applications that integrate biology, engineering, and computer science for national security. Created in April 2014 by then director
Arati Prabhakar Arati Prabhakar (born February 2, 1959) is an American engineer and the former head of DARPA, the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a position she held from July 30, 2012 to January 20, 2017. She is a founder and the CEO of ...
, taking programs from the MTO and DSO divisions.


Former offices

*
Information Awareness Office The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the United States (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other to U.S. ...
: 2002–2003 * The Advanced Technology Office (ATO) researched, demonstrated, and developed high payoff projects in maritime, communications, special operations, command and control, and information assurance and survivability mission areas. * The Special Projects Office (SPO) researched, developed, demonstrated, and transitioned technologies focused on addressing present and emerging national challenges. SPO investments ranged from the development of enabling technologies to the demonstration of large prototype systems. SPO developed technologies to counter the emerging threat of underground facilities used for purposes ranging from command-and-control, to weapons storage and staging, to the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction. SPO developed significantly more cost-effective ways to counter proliferated, inexpensive cruise missiles, UAVs, and other platforms used for weapon delivery, jamming, and surveillance. SPO invested in novel space technologies across the spectrum of space control applications including rapid access, space situational awareness, counterspace, and persistent tactical grade sensing approaches including extremely large space apertures and structures. * The Office of Special Development (OSD) in the 1960s developed a real-time remote sensing, monitoring, and predictive activity system on trails used by insurgents in Laos, Cambodia, and the Republic of Vietnam. This was done from an office in Bangkok, Thailand, that was ostensibly established to catalog and support the Thai fishing fleet, of which two volumes were published. This is a personal recollection without a published citation. A report on the ARPA group under which OSD operated is found here. * The Information Systems Office (ISO) in the 1990s developed system applications of advanced information technologies. It was a predecessor to the Information Exploitation Office. A 1991 reorganization created several offices which existed throughout the early 1990s: * The Electronic Systems Technology Office combined areas of the Defense Sciences Office and the Defense Manufacturing Office. This new office will focus on the boundary between general-purpose computers and the physical world, such as sensors, displays and the first few layers of specialized signal-processing that couple these modules to standard computer interfaces. * The Computing Systems Technology Office combined functions of the old Information Sciences and Tactical Technology office. The office "will work scalable parallel and distributed heterogeneous computing systems technologies", DoD said. * The Software and Intelligent Systems Technology Office and the Computing Systems office will have responsibility associated with the Presidential High-Performance Computing Initiative. The Software office will also be responsible for "software systems technology, machine intelligence and software engineering." * The Land Systems Office was created to develop advanced land vehicle and anti-armor systems, once the domain of the Tactical Technology Office. * The Undersea Warfare Office combined areas of the Advanced Vehicle Systems and Tactical Technology offices to develop and demonstrate submarine stealth and counter-stealth and automation. A 2010 reorganization merged two offices: * The Transformational Convergence Technology Office (TCTO) mission was to advance new crosscutting capabilities derived from a broad range of emerging technological and social trends, particularly in areas related to computing and computing-reliant subareas of the life sciences, social sciences, manufacturing, and commerce. The TCTO was folded into the I2O in 2010. * The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) focused on inventing the networking, computing, and software technologies vital to ensuring DOD military superiority. The IPTO was combined with TCTO in 2010 to form the I2O.


Projects

A list of DARPA's active and archived projects is available on the agency's website. Because of the agency's fast pace, programs constantly start and stop based on the needs of the U.S. government. Structured information about some of the DARPA's contracts and projects is publicly available.


Active projects

*
ACTUV The ASW Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) is a DARPA The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a agency of the responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Originally known as the ...
: A project to build an unmanned anti-submarine warfare vessel. * Air Dominance Initiative: a 2015 program to develop technologies to be used in sixth-generation jet fighters. *Air Space Total Awareness for Rapid Tactical Execution (ASTARTE): sensors, artificial intelligence algorithms, and virtual testing environments in order to create an understandable common operating picture when troops are spread out across battlefields *Atmospheric Water Extraction (AWE) program * Big mechanism, Big Mechanism: Cancer research. (2015) *binary structure inference system: extract software properties from binary code to support repository-based reverse engineering for micro-patching that minimizes lifecycle maintenance and costs (2020) * DARPA Blackjack program, Blackjack: a 2018+ program to develop and test military satellite constellation technologies with a variety of "military-unique sensors and payloads [attached to] commercial satellite buses. ...as an 'architecture demonstration intending to show the high military utility of global LEO constellations and mesh networks of lower size, weight, and cost spacecraft nodes.' ... The idea is to demonstrate that 'good enough' payloads in LEO can perform military missions, augment existing programs, and potentially perform 'on par or better than currently deployed exquisite space systems."DARPA to begin new effort to build military constellations in low Earth orbit
SpaceNews, 31 May 2018, accessed 22 August 2018.
Blue Canyon Technologies, Raytheon, and SA Photonics Inc. were working on phases 2 and 3 as of fiscal year 2020. *broadband, electro-magnetic spectrum receiver system: prototype and demonstration * BlockADE: Rapidly constructed barrier. (2014) * Boeing X-37 * DARPA Captive Air Amphibious Transporter, Captive Air Amphibious Transporter * Causal Exploration of Complex Operational Environments ("Causal Exploration") – computerized aid to military planning. (2018) * Clean-Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive, Secure Hosts (CRASH), a TCTO initiative * Cognitive Technology Threat Warning System * Collaborative Operations in Denied Environment (CODE): Modular software architecture for UAVs to pass information to each other in contested environments to identify and engage targets with limited operator direction. (2015) * Combat Zones That See: "track everything that moves" in a city by linking up a massive network of surveillance cameras *Control of Revolutionary Aircraft with Novel Effectors (CRANE) program: demonstrate an experimental aircraft design based on active flow control (AFC), which is defined as on-demand addition of energy into a boundary layer in order to maintain, recover, or improve aerodynamic performance. The aim is for CRANE to generally improve aircraft performance and reliability while reducing cost. (2020) * Computational Weapon Optic (CWO): Computer rifle scope that combines various features into one optic. * DARPA XG: technology for Dynamic Spectrum Access for assured military communications. *detection system consisting of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-based assays paired with reconfigurable point-of-need and massively multi-plexed devices for diagnostics and surveillance * Experimental Spaceplane 1 (formerly XS-1): phase 2 and 3 of a reusable unmanned space transport * Fast Lightweight Autonomy: Software algorithms that enable small UAVs to fly fast in cluttered environments without GPS or external communications. (2014) *Fast Network Interface Cards (FastNICs): develop and integrate new, clean-slate network subsystems in order to speed up applications, such as the distributed training of machine learning classifiers by 100x. Perspecta Labs and Raytheon BBN were working on FastNICs as of fiscal year 2020. * Force Application and Launch from Continental United States (FALCON): a research effort within TTO to develop a small satellite launch vehicle. (2008) This vehicle is under development by AirLaunch LLC. *Gamma Ray Inspection Technology (GRIT) program: research and develop high-intensity, tunable, and narrow-bandwidth gamma ray production in compact, transportable form. This technology can be utilized for discovering smuggled nuclear material in cargo via new inspection techniques, and enabling new medical diagnostics and therapies. RadiaBeam Technologies LLC was working on a phase 1 of the program, Laser-Compton approach, in fiscal year 2020. *Glide Breaker program: technology for an advanced interceptor capable of engaging maneuvering hypersonic vehicles or missiles in the upper atmosphere. Northrop Grumman and Aerojet Rocketdyne were working on this program as of fiscal year 2020. * DARPA Gremlins, Gremlins: Air-launched and recoverable UAVs with distributed capabilities to provide low-cost flexibility over expensive multirole platforms. * DARPA GXV-T, Ground X-Vehicle Technology * High Energy Liquid Laser Area Defense System * High Productivity Computing Systems *HIVE (Hierarchical Identify Verify Exploit) CPU architecture. (2017) * DARPA Hydra, Hydra: Undersea network of mobile unmanned sensors. (2013) *hypersonic boost glide systems research *Genetically modified virus#Insect Allies program, Insect Allies (2017–2021) * Integrated Sensor is Structure * Intelligent Integration of Information (I3) in SISTO, 1994–2000 – supported database research and with ARPA CISTO and
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
funded the National Science Foundation, NSF Digital Library program, that led. a.o. to Google. *Joint All-Domain Warfighting Software (JAWS): software suite featuring automation and predictive analytics for battle management and command & control with tactical coordination for capture (“target custody”) and kill missions. Systems & Technology Research of Woburn, Massachusetts, is working on this project, with an expected completion date of March 2022. Raytheon is also working on this project, with an expected completion date of April 2022. *Lasers for Universal Microscale Optical Systems (LUMOS): integrate heterogeneous materials to bring high performance lasers and amplifiers to manufacturable photonics platforms. As of fiscal year 2020, the Research Foundation for the State University of New York (SUNY) was working to enable “on-chip optical gain” to integrated photonics platforms, and enable complete photonics functionality “on a single substrate for disruptive optical microsystems.” * Manta Ray extra-large unmanned underwater vehicle. (2020) *Media Forensics (MediFor): A project aimed at automatically spotting digital manipulation in images and videos, including Deepfakes. (2018) * MEMS Exchange: Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Implementation Environment *Millimeter-wave GaN Maturation (MGM) program: develop new GaN transistor technology to attain high-speed and large voltage swing at the same time. HRL Laboratories LLC, a joint venture between Boeing and General Motors, is working on phase 2 as of fiscal year 2020. *Modular Optical Aperture Building Blocks (MOABB) program: design optical satellite components (e.g. telescope, bulk lasers with mechanical beam-steering, detectors, electronics) in a single device. Create a wafer-scale system that is one hundred times smaller and lighter than existing systems and can steer the optical beam far faster than mechanical components. Research and design electronic-photonic unit cells that can be tiled together to form large-scale planar apertures (up to 10 centimeters in diameter) that can run at 100 watts of optical power. The overall goals of such technology are (1) rapid 3D scanning using devices smaller than a cell-phone camera; (2) high-speed laser communications without mechanical steering; (3) and foliage-penetrating perimeter sensing, remote wind sensing, and long-range 3-D mapping. As of fiscal year 2020, Analog Photonics LLC of Boston, Massachusetts, was working on phase 3 of the program and is expected to finish by May 2022. *Multi- Azimuth Defense Fast Intercept Round Engagement System (MAD-FIRES) program: develop technologies that combine advantages of a missile (guidance, precision, accuracy) with advantages of a bullet (speed, rapid-fire, large ammunition capacity) to be used on a medium-caliber guided projectile in defending ships. Raytheon is currently working on MAD-FIRES phase 3 (enhance seeker performance, and develop a functional demonstration illuminator and engagement manager to engage and defeat a representative surrogate target) and is expected to be finished by November 2022. * Near Zero Power RF and Sensor Operations (N-ZERO): Reducing or eliminating the standby power unattended ground sensors consume. (2015) * Neural implants for soldiers. (2014) *Novel, nonsurgical, bi-directional brain-computer interface with high spacio-temporal resolution and low latency for potential human use. *Operational Fires (OpFires): developing a new mobile ground-launched booster that helps hypersonic boost glide weapons penetrate enemy air defenses. As of 17 July 2020, Lockheed Martin was working on phase 3 of the program (develop propulsion components for the missile's Stage 2 section) to be completed by January 2022. * Persistent Close Air Support *PREventing EMerging Pathogenic Threats (PREEMPT) * Protein Design: Processes * QuASAR: Quantum Assisted Sensing and Readout * QuBE: Quantum Effects in Biological Environments * QuEST, QUEST: Quantum Entanglement Science and Technology * Quiness: Macroscopic Quantum Communications * QUIST: Quantum Information Science and Technology *RADICS: Rapid Attack Detection, Isolation and Characterization Systems *Rational Integrated Design of Energetics (RIDE): developing tools that speed up and facilitate energetics research. * DARPA RSGS, Robotic Servicing of Geosynchronous Satellites program: a telerobotic and autonomous robot, autonomous robotic satellite-servicing project, conceived in 2017, and planned for launch no earlier than the 2020s. * Remote-controlled insects * SafeGenes: a synthetic biology project to program "undo" sequences into gene editing programs (2016) *Sea Train develop and demonstrate ways to overcome range limitations in medium unmanned surface vessels by exploiting wave-making resistance reductions. Applied Physical Sciences Corp. of Groton, Connecticut, is undertaking Phase 1 of the Sea Train program, with an expected completion date of March 2022. *Secure Advanced Framework for Simulation & Modeling (SAFE-SiM) program: build a rapid modeling and simulation environment to enable quick analysis in support of senior-level decision-making. As of fiscal year 2020, Radiance Technologies and L3Harris were working on portions of the program, with expected completion in August and September 2021, respectively. *Securing Information for Encrypted Verification and Evaluation (SIEVE) program: use zero knowledge proofs to enable the verification of capabilities for the US military “without revealing the sensitive details associated with those capabilities." Galois Inc. of Portland, Oregon, and Stealth Software Technologies of Los Angeles, California, are currently working on the SIEVE program, with a projected completion date of May 2024. * Satellite Remote Listening System: a satellite mounted system that can eavesdrop on a targeted area on the surface of the planet in coordination with satellite cameras. This project is in its infant stage. *Semantic Forensics (SemaFor) program: develop technologies to automatically detect, attribute, and characterize falsified media (e.g., text, audio, image, video) to defend against automated disinformation. SRI International of Menlo Park, California, and Kitware Inc. of Clifton, New York, are working on the SemaFor program, with an expected completion date of July 2024. * Sensor plants: DARPA "is working on a plan to use plants to gather intelligence information" through DARPA's Advanced Plant Technologies (APT) program, which aims to control the physiology of plants in order to detect chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats. (2017) * SIGMA: A network of radiological detection devices the size of smart phones that can detect small amounts of radioactive materials. The devices are paired with larger detector devices along major roads and bridges. (2016) *SIGMA+ program: by building on concepts theorized in the SIGMA program, develop new sensors and analytics to detect small traces of explosives and chemical and biological weaponry throughout any given large metropolitan area. * SoSITE: System of Systems Integration Technology and Experimentation: Combinations of aircraft, weapons, sensors, and mission systems that distribute air warfare capabilities across a large number of interoperable manned and unmanned platforms. (2015) *SSITH: System Security Integrated Through Hardware and Firmware - secure hardware platform (2017); basis for open-source, hack-proof voting system project and 2019 system prototype contract * SXCT: Squad X Core Technologies: Digitized, integrated technologies that improve infantry squads' awareness, precision, and influence. (2015) * SyNAPSE: Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics * Tactical Boost Glide (TBG): Air-launched hypersonic boost glide missile. (2016) Dr. Peter Erbland, Lt. Col. Joshua Stults: Tactical Boost Glide (TBG)
/ref> Theresa Hitchens (February 27, 2020) Lockheed Martin, Air Force Press Ahead On Air-Launched Hypersonic Missile
HSW-ab --note: Tactical Boost Glide (TBG) "competitor Raytheon was awarded a TBG concept maturation contract for $63.3 million in 2019"
* Tactically Exploited Reconnaissance Node: Ship-based long-range ISR UAV. (2014) * TransApps (Transformative Applications), rapid development and fielding of secure mobile apps in the battlefield * UAVForge (2011) * ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical Response, Awareness and Visualization): Heads-up display for individual soldiers. (2014) *underwater network, heterogeneous: develop concepts and reconfigurable architecture, leveraging advancement in undersea communications and autonomous ocean systems, to demonstrate utility at sea. Raytheon BBN is currently working on this program, with work expected through 4 May 2021, though if the government exercises all options on the contract then work will continue through 4 February 2024. * Upward Falling Payloads: Payloads stored on the ocean floor that can be activated and retrieved when needed. (2014) *Urban Reconnaissance through Supervised Autonomy (URSA) program: develop technology for use in cities to enable autonomous systems that U.S. infantry and ground forces operate to detect and identify enemies before U.S. troops come across them. Program will factor in algorithms, multiple sensors, and scientific knowledge about human behavior to determine subtle differences between hostiles and innocent civilians. Soar Technology Inc. of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is currently working on pertinent vehicle autonomy technology, with work expected completed by March 2022. * VTOL X-Plane (2013) * Warrior Web: Soft exosuit to alleviate musculoskeletal stress on soldiers when carrying heavy loads. (2014) * DARPA XDATA, XDATA: Processing and analyzing vast amounts of information. (2012)


Past or transitioned projects

* 4MM (4-minute mile): Wearable jetpack to enable soldiers to run at increased speed. * AGM-158C LRASM: Anti-ship cruise missile.  * Adaptive Vehicle Make: Revolutionary approaches to the design, verification, and manufacturing of complex defense systems and vehicles. * ArcLight (missile), ArcLight: Ship-based weapon system capable of striking targets nearly anywhere on the globe, based on the Standard Missile 3. * Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing observatory, ARPA Midcourse Optical Station (AMOS), a research facility that now forms part of the Haleakala Observatory. *
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
, earliest History of the Internet, predecessor of the Internet. * ASTOVL, precursor of the Joint Strike Fighter programA history of the Joint Strike Fighter Program
Martin-Baker. Retrieved 4 August 2010
* The
Aspen Movie Map The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. Features The Aspen Movie Map enabled the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Aspen, Co ...
allowed one to virtually tour the streets of Aspen, Colorado. Developed in 1978, it is the earliest predecessor to products like Google Street View. * Atlas (robot), Atlas: A humanoid robot. * Battlefield Illusion * BigDog/Legged Squad Support System (2012): legged robots. * The Boeing X-45 unmanned combat aerial vehicle refers to a mid-2000s concept demonstrator for autonomous military aircraft. * Boomerang (mobile shooter detection system): an acoustic gunfire locator developed by BBN Technologies for detecting snipers on military combat vehicles. * CALO or "Cognitive Assistant that Learns and Organizes": software * CPOF: the command post of the future—networked information system for Command control. * DARPA Agent Markup Language, DAML * DARPA ALASA program, ALASA: (Airborne Launch Assist Space Access): A rocket capable of launching a 100-pound satellite into low Earth orbit for less than $1 million. * DARPA Falcon Project, FALCON * DARPA Grand Challenge: driverless car competitions * DARPA GXV-T: Ground X Vehicle * DARPA Network Challenge (before 2010) * DARPA Shredder Challenge 2011 – Reconstruction of shredded documents * DARPA Silent Talk: A planned program attempting to identify EEG patterns for words and transmit these for covert communications. * DARPA Spectrum Challenge (2014) * DEFENDER * Defense Simulation Internet, a wide-area network supporting Distributed Interactive Simulation * Discoverer II radar satellite constellation * Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot, EATR * EXACTO: Sniper rifle firing guided smart bullets. * DARPA Global autonomous language exploitation program, GALE: Global Autonomous Language Exploitation * High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP): An ionospheric research program jointly funded by DARPA, the U.S. Air Force's Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL and the U.S. Navy's United States Naval Research Laboratory, NRL. The most prominent area during this research was the high-power radio frequency transmitter facility, which tested the use of the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI). * High Performance Knowledge Bases * HISSS * Human Universal Load Carrier: battery-powered human exoskeleton. * Hypersonic Research Program * Luke Arm, a DEKA (company), DEKA creation produced under the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. * MAHEM: Molten penetrating munition. * MeshWorm: an earthworm-like robot. * Mind's Eye (US Military), Mind's Eye: A visual intelligence system capable of detecting and analyzing activity from video feeds. * MOSIS * MQ-1 Predator *
Multics Multics ("Multiplexed Information and Computing Service") is an influential early time-sharing In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experi ...

Multics
* Next Generation Tactical Wearable Night Vision: Smaller and lighter sunglass-sized night vision devices that can switch between different viewing bands. * NLS (computer system), NLS/Augment: the origin of the canonical contemporary computer user interface * Northrop Grumman Switchblade: an unmanned oblique-wing flying aircraft for high speed, long range and long endurance flight * DARPA One Shot, One Shot: Sniper scope that automatically measures crosswind and range to ensure accuracy in field conditions. * Onion routing, a technique developed in the mid-1990s and later employed by Tor (network), Tor to anonymize communications over a computer network. * Passive radar * DARPA Phoenix program, Phoenix: A 2012–early-2015 satellite project with the aim to recycle retired satellite parts into new on-orbit assets. The project was initiated in July 2012 with plans for system launches no earlier than 2016. At the time, Satlet tests in low Earth orbit were projected to occur as early as 2015. * Policy Analysis Market, evaluating the trading of information futures contracts based on possible political developments in several Middle Eastern countries. An application of prediction markets. * POSSE project, POSSE *
Project AGILE Project AGILE was an Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) project in the 1960s that investigated means for engaging in remote, limited warfare of an asymmetric type. The research was intended for use in providing U.S. support to countries eng ...
, a
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
-era investigation into methods of remote, asymmetric warfare for use in conflicts with Communist insurgents. *
Project MAC MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic r ...
* Proto 2: a thought-controlled prosthetic arm * Rapid Knowledge Formation * Sea Shadow * SIMNET: Wide area network with vehicle simulators and displays for real-time distributed combat simulation: tanks, helicopters and airplanes in a virtual battlefield. * System F6—''Future, Fast, Flexible, Fractionated Spacecraft, Fractionated Free-flying Spacecraft United by Information Exchange''—technology demonstrator: a 2006–2012 * I3 (Intelligent Integration of Information), supported the Digital Library research effort through National Science Foundation, NSF * Strategic Computing Program * Synthetic Aperture Ladar for Tactical Applications (SALTI) * XOS 2, XOS: powered military exoskeleton $226 million technology development program. Cancelled in 2013 before the notionally planned 2015 launch date. * SURAN (1983–87) *
Project Vela Project Vela was a project undertaken by the United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a fede ...
(1963) * DARPA Vulture, Vulture: Long endurance, high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle. * VLSI Project – Its offspring include Berkeley Software Distribution, BSD Unix, the RISC processor concept, many Computer-aided design, CAD tools still in use today. * Walrus HULA: high-capacity, long range cargo airship. * Wireless Network after Next (WNaN), advanced tactical mobile ad hoc network * WolfPack (2010)


Notable fiction

DARPA is well known as a high-tech government agency, and as such has many appearances in popular fiction. Some realistic references to DARPA in fiction are as "ARPA" in ''Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X'' (DARPA consults on a technical threat), in episodes of television program ''The West Wing'' (the ARPA-DARPA distinction), the television program ''Numb3rs'', and the Netflix film ''Spectral''.


See also

* Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (NWC) * Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) * ARPA-E, Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E) * Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) * HSARPA, Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) * Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) *Joint European Disruptive Initiative (JEDI) * Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or LBL) *
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States. With an es ...
(LLNL) * Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) * Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC) * Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake (NAWS) * Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) * Office of Naval Research (ONR) * Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) * Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) * United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) * United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) * United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) * United States Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory (MCWL)


References


Further reading

*
The Advanced Research Projects Agency, 1958-1974
', Barber Associates, December 1975. *
DARPA Technical Accomplishments: 1958-1990
', Volumes 1–3, Richard H. Van Atta, Sidney G. Reed, Seymour J. Deitchman, et al., Institute for Defense Analyses, January 1990 - March 1991. * William Saletan writes of Belfiore's book that "His tone is reverential and at times breathless, but he captures the agency's essential virtues: boldness, creativity, agility, practicality and speed." () * Castell, Manuel, ''The Network Society: A Cross-cultural Perspective'', Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK, 2004. * Annie Jacobsen, Jacobsen, Annie, * * * Sharon Weinberger, Weinberger, Sharon, ''The Imagineers of War: The Untold Story of DARPA, the Pentagon Agency that Changed the World'', New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2017, .


External links


DARPA Home Page

Ongoing Research Programs

Declassified DARPA documents
OSD & Joint Staff FOIA Service
DARPA FY2015 Research Program Breakthrough Technologies for National Security DARPA March 2015
(approved for public release, distribution unlimited) {{DEFAULTSORT:Darpa DARPA, 1958 establishments in Virginia Articles containing video clips Collier Trophy recipients Corporate spin-offs Government agencies established in 1958 Life sciences industry Military units and formations established in 1958 Research and development in the United States Research projects United States Department of Defense agencies