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, , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–1939
1945–1992
, p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Republic , flag_s1 = Flag of the Czech Republic.svg , s2 = Slovakia , flag_s2 = Flag of Slovakia.svg , image_flag = Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg , flag = Flag of Czechoslovakia , flag_type = Flag
, flag_border = Flag of Czechoslovakia , image_coat = Coat of arms of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.svg , symbol_type = Lesser coat of arms
, image_map = Czechoslovakia location map.svg , image_map_caption = Czechoslovakia during the
interwar period In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or ...
and the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of tension between the and the and their respective allies, the and the , which began following . Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span ...
, national_motto = , anthems =




, capital =
Prague (''Praha'')
Prague <small>(''Praha'')</small>
, largest_city = capital , coordinates = , official_languages =
Czechoslovak , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , flag_p1 = Flag of Austria-Hungary 1869-1918.svg , s1 = Czech Republic , flag_s1 = Flag of the Czech Republic.s ...
, after 1948
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
, recognised_languages = , demonym = Czechoslovak , government_type =
, title_leader =
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, leader1 = Tomáš G. Masaryk , year_leader1 = 1918–1935 , leader2 =
Edvard Beneš Edvard Beneš (; 28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948) was a Czech politician and statesman who served as the President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948. He also led the Czechoslovak government-in-exile 1939 to 1945 ...

Edvard Beneš
, year_leader2 = , leader3 =
Emil Hácha
Emil Hácha
, year_leader3 = 1938–1939 , leader4 =
Klement Gottwald Klement Gottwald (; 23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czech Communism, communist politician, who was the leader of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until his death in 1953–titled as general secretary until 1945 and as cha ...

Klement Gottwald
, year_leader4 = 1948–1953 , leader5 = Antonín Zápotocký , year_leader5 = 1953–1957 , leader6 = Antonín Novotný , year_leader6 = 1957–1968 , leader7 =
Ludvík Svoboda
Ludvík Svoboda
, year_leader7 = 1968–1975 , leader8 =
Gustáv Husák Gustáv Husák (, , ; 10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Czechoslovak communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was or ...
, year_leader8 = 1976–1989 , leader9 =
Václav Havel Václav Havel (; 5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, playwright, and former dissident A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established Political system, political or Organized religion, religious system, doctrine, ...

Václav Havel
, year_leader9 = 1989–1992 , title_deputy =
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
, deputy1 =
Karel Kramář Karel Kramář (27 December 1860 – 26 May 1937) was a Czech politician. He was a representative of the major Czech political party, the Young Czechs The Young Czech Party ( cz, Mladočeši, officially National Liberal Party, ''Národní str ...

Karel Kramář
, year_deputy1 = 1918–1919 (first) , deputy2 = Jan Stráský , year_deputy2 = 1992 (last) , era = , event_start =
Proclamation A proclamation (Lat. ''proclamare'', to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known. Proclamations are currently used within the governing framework of some nations ...
, date_start = 28 October , year_start = 1918 , event1 =
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at on 30 September 1938, by , the , the , and the . It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territ ...
, date_event1 = 30 September 1938 , event2 =
Dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
, date_event2 = 14 March 1939 , event3 = Re-establishment , date_event3 = 10 May 1945 , event4 =
Coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
, date_event4 = 25 February 1948 , event5 =
Soviet occupation During World War II, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed several countries effectively handed over by Nazi Germany in the secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939. These included Kresy, the eastern regions of Second Polish Republic, Poland (incor ...
, date_event5 = 21 August 1968 , event6 =
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
, date_event6 = 17 November – 29 December 1989 , event_end =
Dissolution Dissolution may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books * Dissolution (Forgotten Realms novel), ''Dissolution'' (''Forgotten Realms'' novel), a 2002 fantasy novel by Richard Lee Byers * Dissolution (Sansom novel), ''Dissolution'' (Sansom novel), a 2 ...
, date_end = 1 January , year_end = 1993 , cctld = .cs , calling_code = +42 , HDI = 0.810 , HDI_ref = , HDI_year = 1992 , currency =
Czechoslovak koruna The Czechoslovak koruna (in Czech and Slovak: ''Koruna československá'', at times ''Koruna česko-slovenská''; ''koruna'' means ''crown'') was the currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "runni ...
, footnotes = Calling code +42 was withdrawn in the winter of 1997. The number range was divided between the :Czech Republic (
+420 Following the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, break-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, continued to share the 42 country code until 28 February 1997, with the Czech Republic then adopting 420 and S ...
) and :Slovak Republic ( +421). , footnotes2 = Current
ISO 3166-3 ISO 3166-3 is part of the ISO 3166 ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard-setting body composed of repres ...
code is "CSHH". , today = Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (;
Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A countr ...
and sk, Československo, ''Česko-Slovensko''), was a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
in Central Europe, created in October 1918, when it declared its independence from
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
. In 1938, after the
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at on 30 September 1938, by , the , the , and the . It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territ ...
, the
Sudetenland The Sudetenland (; ; Czech and sk, Sudety) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918– ...

Sudetenland
became part of
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, while the country lost further territories to
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...
and
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
. Between 1939 and 1945 the state ceased to exist, as
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...
proclaimed its independence and subsequently the remaining territories in the east became part of
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...
, while in the remainder of the
Czech Lands#REDIRECT Czech lands The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands ( cs, České země ) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech part of Czechoslovakia since 1918, the Czech Soci ...
the German
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; cs, Protektorát Čechy a Morava; its territory was called by the Nazis ("the rest of Czechia"). was a partially annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian ...

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
was proclaimed. In October 1939, after the outbreak of the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, former Czechoslovak President
Edvard Beneš Edvard Beneš (; 28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948) was a Czech politician and statesman who served as the President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948. He also led the Czechoslovak government-in-exile 1939 to 1945 ...

Edvard Beneš
formed a
government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
and sought recognition from the
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
. After the end of the war, the pre-1938 Czechoslovakia was reestablished, with the exception of
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
, which became part of the
Ukrainian SSR The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR or UkSSR; uk, Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, translit=Ukrainska Radianska Sotsialistychna Respublika, abbreviated ...
(A Republic of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
). From 1948 to 1989, Czechoslovakia was part of the
Eastern Bloc The Eastern Bloc, also known as the Communist Bloc, the Socialist Bloc and the Soviet Bloc, was the group of socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' ...
with a
command economy A planned economy is a type of economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ...
. Its economic status was formalized in membership of
Comecon#REDIRECT Comecon The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (, ; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, CEMA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Uni ...

Comecon
from 1949 and its defense status in the
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
, was violently ended when the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, assisted by some other Warsaw Pact countries
invaded An invasion is a Offensive (military), military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitics, geopolitical Legal entity, entity aggressively enter territory (country subdivision), territory owned by another such entity, gene ...
Czechoslovakia. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their socialist government in the
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. In January 1993, Czechoslovakia
split Split(s) or The Split may refer to: Places * Split, Croatia, the largest coastal city in Croatia * Split Island, Canada, an island in the Hudson Bay * Split Island, Falkland Islands * Split Island, Fiji, better known as Hạfliua Arts, entertainm ...
into the two
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
s of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
and
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
.


Characteristics

;Form of state *1918–1938: A
democratic republicA democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics a ...
championed by
Tomáš MasarykTomáš () is a Czech and Slovak given name, equivalent to the name Thomas THOMAS was the first online database of United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal governmen ...
. *1938–1939: After the acquisition of
Sudetenland The Sudetenland (; ; Czech and sk, Sudety) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918– ...

Sudetenland
by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A strip of southern Slovakia and
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
was redeemed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. *1939–1945: The remainder of the state was dismembered and became split into the
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; cs, Protektorát Čechy a Morava; its territory was called by the Nazis ("the rest of Czechia"). was a partially annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian ...

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
and the
Slovak Republic Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entit ...
, while the rest of Carpathian Ruthenia was occupied and annexed by Hungary. A
government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
; after the German invasion of Soviet Union, it was also recognized by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Czechoslovakia adhered to the
Declaration by United Nations The Declaration by United Nations was the main treaty that formalized the Allies of World War II and was signed by 47 national governments between 1942 and 1945. On New Year's Day 1942, during the Arcadia Conference, the Allied "Four Policemen, Bi ...
and was a founding member of the United Nations. *1946–1948: The country was governed by a
coalition government A coalition government is a form of government in which political parties cooperate to form a government. The usual reason for such an arrangement is that no single party has achieved an absolute majority after an election An election is a ...
with
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior.
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
was ceded to the Soviet Union. *1948–1989: The country became a Marxist-Leninist state under Soviet domination with a
command economy A planned economy is a type of economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ...
. In 1960, the country officially became a socialist republic, the
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Republic ( cs, Československá republika, sk, Česko-slovenská republika) or Fourth Czechoslovak Republic existed between 1948 and 1960. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech language, Czech and sk, Československá soc ...
. It was a
satellite state A satellite state is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state ...
of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. *1989–1990: Czechoslovakia formally became a
federal republic A federal republic is a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of I ...
comprising the
Czech Socialist Republic Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Au ...
and the
Slovak Socialist Republic Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe Central Europe is ...

Slovak Socialist Republic
. In late 1989, the communist rule came to an end during the
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
followed by the re-establishment of a democratic
parliamentary republic A parliamentary republic is a republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
. *1990–1992: Shortly after the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic After the Velvet Revolution in late-1989, Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , flag_p1 = Flag of Austria-Hungary 1869-1918.s ...
, consisting of the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
and the
Slovak Republic Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entit ...
(Slovakia) until the peaceful dissolution on 1 January 1993. ;Neighbors *
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
1918–1938, 1945–1992 *Germany (both predecessors,
West Germany West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; german: Bundesrepublik Deutschland , BRD) between its formation on 23 May 1949 and the German reunification German reunification (german: Deutsche Wieder ...
and
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
, were neighbors between 1949 and 1990) *
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...
*
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...
*
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
1918–1938 *
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
1945–1991 *
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
1991–1992 ( Soviet Union member until 1991) ;Topography The country was of generally irregular terrain. The western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region ...

Carpathian Mountains
and lands of the
Danube River The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of se ...

Danube River
basin. ;Climate The weather is mild winters and mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, the Baltic Sea from the north, and Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather.


Names

*1918–1938: Czechoslovak Republic (abbreviated ČSR), or Czechoslovakia, before the formalization of the name in 1920, also known as Czecho-Slovakia or the Czecho-Slovak state *1938–1939: , or Czecho-Slovakia *1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), or Czechoslovakia *1960–1990:
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Republic ( cs, Československá republika, sk, Česko-slovenská republika) or Fourth Czechoslovak Republic existed between 1948 and 1960. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech language, Czech and sk, Československá soc ...
(ČSSR), or Czechoslovakia *1990–1992:
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic After the Velvet Revolution in late-1989, Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , flag_p1 = Flag of Austria-Hungary 1869-1918.s ...
(ČSFR), or Czechoslovakia


History


Origins

The area was long a part of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...

Austro-Hungarian Empire
until the empire collapsed at the end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The new state was founded by
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (; born Tomáš Masaryk; 7 March 185014 September 1937) was a Czechoslovaks, Czechoslovak politician, statesman, sociologist, and philosopher. Until 1914, he advocated restructuring the Austro-Hungarian Empire i ...

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
(1850–1937), who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his close ally,
Edvard Beneš Edvard Beneš (; 28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948) was a Czech politician and statesman who served as the President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948. He also led the Czechoslovak government-in-exile 1939 to 1945 ...

Edvard Beneš
(1884–1948). The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
, promoted the
Czech language Czech (; Czech ), historically also Bohemian (; ''lingua Bohemica'' in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kno ...
and pride in the
Czech people The Czechs ( cs, Češi, ; singular masculine: ''Čech'' , singular feminine: ''Češka'' ), or the Czech people (), are a West Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person ...
. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian (1798–1876) founded various patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported
Austro-Slavism Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic people Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguist ...
and worked for a reorganized and federal
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats. An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the '' Reichsrat'' (Austrian Parliament), first from 1891 to 1893 for the
Young Czech Party The Young Czech Party ( cz, Mladočeši, officially National Liberal Party, ''Národní strana svobodomyslná'') was formed in the Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical reg ...
, and again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with
Karel Kramář Karel Kramář (27 December 1860 – 26 May 1937) was a Czech politician. He was a representative of the major Czech political party, the Young Czechs The Young Czech Party ( cz, Mladočeši, officially National Liberal Party, ''Národní str ...

Karel Kramář
and Josef Kaizl. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
a number of Czechs and Slovaks, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies of World War I, Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists.


First Czechoslovak Republic


Formation

The Bohemian Kingdom ceased to exist in 1918 when it was incorporated into Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia was founded in October 1918, as one of the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and as part of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It consisted of the present day territories of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia and
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
. Its territory included some of the most industrialized regions of the former Austria-Hungary.


Ethnicity

The new country was a multi-ethnic state, with Czechs and Slovaks as ''constituent peoples''. The population consisted of Czechs (51%), Slovaks (16%), Germans (22%), Hungarians (5%) and Rusyns (4%). Many of the Germans, Hungarians, Ruthenians and Poles, ''Prague Post'', 6 July 2005 and some Slovaks, felt oppressed because the political elite did not generally allow political autonomy for minority ethnic groups. This policy led to unrest among the non-Czech population, particularly in German-speaking
Sudetenland The Sudetenland (; ; Czech and sk, Sudety) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918– ...

Sudetenland
, which initially had proclaimed itself part of the Republic of German-Austria in accordance with the self-determination principle. The state proclaimed the official ideology that there were no separate Czech and Slovak nations, but only one nation of Czechoslovaks (see Czechoslovakism), to the disagreement of Slovaks and other ethnic groups. Once a unified Czechoslovakia was restored after World War II (after the country had been divided during the war), the conflict between the Czechs and the Slovaks surfaced again. The governments of Czechoslovakia and other Central European nations deported ethnic Germans, reducing the presence of minorities in the nation. Most of the Jews had been killed during the war by the Nazis. ''*Jews identified themselves as Germans or Hungarians (and Jews only by religion not ethnicity), the sum is, therefore, more than 100%.''


Interwar period

During the period between the two world wars Czechoslovakia was a democratic state. The population was generally literate, and contained fewer alienated groups. The influence of these conditions was augmented by the political values of Czechoslovakia's leaders and the policies they adopted. Under Tomas Masaryk, Czech and Slovak politicians promoted progressive social and economic conditions that served to defuse discontent. Foreign minister Beneš became the prime architect of the Czechoslovak-Romanian-Yugoslav alliance (the "Little Entente", 1921–38) directed against Hungarian attempts to reclaim lost areas. Beneš worked closely with France. Far more dangerous was the German element, which after 1933 became allied with the Nazis in Germany. The increasing feeling of inferiority among the Slovaks, who were hostile to the more numerous Czechs, weakened the country in the late 1930s. Many Slovaks supported an extreme nationalist movement and welcomed the puppet Slovak state set up under Hitler's control in 1939. After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in central and eastern Europe.


Munich Agreement, and Two-Step German Occupation

In September 1938, Adolf Hitler demanded control of the
Sudetenland The Sudetenland (; ; Czech and sk, Sudety) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918– ...

Sudetenland
. On 29 September 1938, Britain and France ceded control in the Appeasement at the Munich Conference; France ignored the military alliance it had with Czechoslovakia. During October 1938,
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
occupied the Sudetenland border region, effectively crippling Czechoslovak defences. The First Vienna Award assigned a strip of southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary. Poland Teschen conflict, occupied Zaolzie, an area whose population was majority Polish, in October 1938. On 14 March 1939, the remainder ("rump") of Czechoslovakia was dismembered by the proclamation of the Slovak State, the next day the rest of
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
was occupied and annexed by Hungary, while the following day the German
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; cs, Protektorát Čechy a Morava; its territory was called by the Nazis ("the rest of Czechia"). was a partially annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian ...

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
was proclaimed. The eventual goal of the German state under Nazi leadership was to eradicate Czech nationality through assimilation, deportation, and extermination of the Czech intelligentsia; the intellectual elites and middle class made up a considerable number of the 200,000 people who passed through concentration camps and the 250,000 who died during German occupation. Under Generalplan Ost, it was assumed that around 50% of Czechs would be fit for Germanization. The Czech intellectual elites were to be removed not only from Czech territories but from Europe completely. The authors of Generalplan Ost believed it would be best if they emigrated overseas, as even in Siberia they were considered a threat to German rule. Just like Jews, Poles, Serbs, and several other nations, Czechs were considered to be untermenschen by the Nazi state. In 1940, in a secret Nazi plan for the Germanization of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia it was declared that those considered to be of racially Mongoloid origin and the Czech intelligentsia were not to be Germanized. The deportation of Jews to concentration camps was organized under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich, and the fortress town of Theresienstadt concentration camp, Terezín was made into a ghetto way station for Jewish families. On 4 June 1942 Heydrich died after being wounded by an assassin in Operation Anthropoid. Heydrich's successor, Colonel General Kurt Daluege, ordered mass arrests and executions and the destruction of the villages of Lidice and Ležáky. In 1943 the German war effort was accelerated. Under the authority of Karl Hermann Frank, German minister of state for Bohemia and Moravia, some 350,000 Czech laborers were dispatched to the Reich. Within the protectorate, all non-war-related industry was prohibited. Most of the Czech population obeyed quiescently up until the final months preceding the end of the war, while thousands were involved in the resistance movement. For the Czechs of the Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, Occupation of Czechoslovakia, German occupation was a period of brutal oppression. Czech losses resulting from political persecution and deaths in concentration camps totaled between 36,000 and 55,000. The Jewish populations of Bohemia and Moravia (118,000 according to the 1930 census) were virtually annihilated. Many Jews emigrated after 1939; more than 70,000 were killed; 8,000 survived at Terezín. Several thousand Jews managed to live in freedom or in hiding throughout the occupation. Despite the estimated 136,000 deaths at the hands of the Nazi regime, the population in the Reichsprotektorate saw a net increase during the war years of approximately 250,000 in line with an increased birth rate. On 6 May 1945, the third US Army of General Patton entered Pilsen from the south west. On 9 May 1945, Soviet Red Army troops entered Prague.


Communist Czechoslovakia

After World War II, pre-war Czechoslovakia was re-established, with the exception of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, which was annexed by the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Beneš decrees were promulgated concerning ethnic Germans (see Potsdam Agreement) and ethnic Hungarians. Under the decrees, citizenship was abrogated for people of German and Hungarian ethnic origin who had accepted German or Hungarian citizenship during the occupations. In 1948, this provision was cancelled for the Hungarians, but only partially for the Germans. The government then confiscated the property of the Germans and Expulsion of Germans after World War II, expelled about 90% of the ethnic German population, over 2 million people. Those who remained were Collective accountability, collectively accused of supporting the Nazis after the
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at on 30 September 1938, by , the , the , and the . It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territ ...
, as 97.32% of Sudeten Germans had voted for the NSDAP in the December 1938 elections. Almost every decree explicitly stated that the sanctions did not apply to antifascists. Some 250,000 Germans, many married to Czechs, some antifascists, and also those required for the post-war reconstruction of the country, remained in Czechoslovakia. The Beneš Decrees still cause controversy among nationalist groups in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria and Hungary.
Carpathian Ruthenia Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia rue, Карпатьска Русь (''Karpat'ska Rus); ( uk, Закарпаття, translit=Zakarpattia or ; Slovak and cz, Podkarpatská Rus; pl, Zakarpacie, hu, Kárpátalja; ro, ...
(Podkarpatská Rus) was occupied by (and in June 1945 formally ceded to) the Soviet Union. In the 1946 parliamentary election, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was the winner in the Czech lands, and the Democratic Party (Slovakia, 1944), Democratic Party won in Slovakia. In 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, February 1948 the Communists seized power. Although they would maintain the fiction of political pluralism through the existence of the National Front (Czechoslovakia), National Front, except for a short period in the late 1960s (the
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
) the country had no liberal democracy. Since citizens lacked significant electoral methods of registering protest against government policies, periodically there were street protests that became violent. For example, there were riots in the town of Plzeň uprising of 1953, Plzeň in 1953, reflecting economic discontent. Police and army units put down the rebellion, and hundreds were injured but no one was killed. While its economy remained more advanced than those of its neighbors in Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia grew increasingly economically weak relative to Western Europe. The currency reform of 1953 caused dissatisfaction among Czechoslovak laborers. To equalize the wage rate, Czechoslovaks had to turn in their old money for new at a decreased value. The banks also confiscated savings and bank deposits to control the amount of money in circulation. In the 1950s, Czechoslovakia experienced high economic growth (averaging 7% per year), which allowed for a substantial increase in wages and living standards, thus promoting the stability of the regime. In 1968, when the reformer Alexander Dubček was appointed to the key post of First Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, there was a brief period of liberalization known as the
Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
. In response, after failing to persuade the Czechoslovak leaders to change course, five other Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, members of the Warsaw Pact invaded. Soviet tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia on the night of 20–21 August 1968. Soviet Communist Party General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev viewed this intervention as vital for the preservation of the Soviet, socialist system and vowed to intervene in any state that sought to replace Marxism-Leninism with Capitalism (Marxism), capitalism. In the week after the invasion there was a spontaneous campaign of civil resistance against the occupation. This resistance involved a wide range of acts of non-cooperation and defiance: this was followed by a period in which the Czechoslovak Communist Party leadership, having been forced in Moscow to make concessions to the Soviet Union, gradually put the brakes on their earlier liberal policies. Meanwhile, one plank of the reform program had been carried out: in 1968–69, Czechoslovakia was turned into a federation of the
Czech Socialist Republic Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Au ...
and
Slovak Socialist Republic Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe Central Europe is ...

Slovak Socialist Republic
. The theory was that under the federation, social and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the state would be largely eliminated. A number of ministries, such as education, now became two formally equal bodies in the two formally equal republics. However, the centralized political control by the Czechoslovak Communist Party severely limited the effects of federalization. The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia, represented among others by
Václav Havel Václav Havel (; 5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, playwright, and former dissident A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established Political system, political or Organized religion, religious system, doctrine, ...

Václav Havel
. The movement sought greater political participation and expression in the face of official disapproval, manifested in limitations on work activities, which went as far as a ban on professional employment, the refusal of higher education for the dissidents' children, police harassment and prison.


After 1989

In 1989, the
Velvet Revolution The Velvet Revolution ( cs, sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution ( sk, nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations agains ...
restored democracy. This occurred at around the same time as the fall of communism in Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland. The word "socialist" was removed from the country's full name on 29 March 1990 and replaced by "federal". In 1992, because of growing nationalist tensions in the government, Czechoslovakia was dissolution of Czechoslovakia, peacefully dissolved by parliament. On 1 January 1993 it formally separated into two independent countries, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.


Government and politics

After World War II, a political monopoly was held by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).
Gustáv Husák Gustáv Husák (, , ; 10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Czechoslovak communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was or ...
was elected first secretary of the KSČ in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to the KSČ. All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, were grouped under umbrella of the National Front (Czechoslovakia), National Front. Human rights activists and religious activists were severely repressed.


Constitutional development

Czechoslovakia had the following constitutions during its history (1918–1992): *Temporary constitution of 14 November 1918 (democratic): see History of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938) *The Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920, 1920 constitution (The Constitutional Document of the Czechoslovak Republic), democratic, in force until 1948, several amendments *The Communist 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution *The Communist 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, 1960 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic with major amendments in 1968 (Constitutional Law of Federation), 1971, 1975, 1978, and 1989 (at which point the leading role of the Communist Party was abolished). It was amended several more times during 1990–1992 (for example, 1990, name change to Czecho-Slovakia, 1991 incorporation of the human rights charter)


Heads of state and government

*List of presidents of Czechoslovakia *List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia


Foreign policy


International agreements and membership

In the 1930s, the nation formed a military alliance with France, which collapsed in the
Munich Agreement The Munich Agreement ( cs, Mnichovská dohoda; sk, Mníchovská dohoda; german: Münchner Abkommen) was an agreement concluded at on 30 September 1938, by , the , the , and the . It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territ ...
of 1938. After World War II, an active participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (
Comecon#REDIRECT Comecon The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (, ; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, CEMA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Uni ...

Comecon
),
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defense Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement ...
, United Nations and its specialized agencies; signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.Ladislav Cabada and Sarka Waisova, ''Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic in World Politics'' (Lexington Books; 2012)


Administrative divisions

*1918–1923: Different systems in former Austrian territory (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) compared to former Hungarian territory (Slovakia and Ruthenia): three lands (''země'') (also called district units (''kraje'')): Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, plus 21 counties (''župy'') in today's Slovakia and three counties in today's Ruthenia; both lands and counties were divided into districts (''okresy''). *1923–1927: As above, except that the Slovak and Ruthenian counties were replaced by six (grand) counties (''(veľ)župy'') in Slovakia and one (grand) county in Ruthenia, and the numbers and boundaries of the ''okresy'' were changed in those two territories. *1928–1938: Four lands (Czech: ''země'', Slovak: ''krajiny''): Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia, Slovakia and Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia, divided into districts (''okresy''). *Late 1938 – March 1939: As above, but Slovakia and Ruthenia gained the status of "autonomous lands". Slovakia was called ''Slovenský štát'', with its own currency and government. *1945–1948: As in 1928–1938, except that Ruthenia became part of the Soviet Union. *1949–1960: 19 regions (''kraje'') divided into 270 ''okresy''. *1960–1992: 10 ''kraje'', Prague, and (from 1970) Bratislava (capital of Slovakia); these were divided into 109–114 okresy; the kraje were abolished temporarily in Slovakia in 1969–1970 and for many purposes from 1991 in Czechoslovakia; in addition, the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic were established in 1969 (without the word ''Socialist'' from 1990).


Population and ethnic groups


Economy

Before World War II, the economy was about the fourth in all industrial countries in Europe. The state was based on strong economy, manufacturing cars (Škoda Auto, Škoda, Tatra (company), Tatra), trams, aircraft (Aero Vodochody, Aero, Avia), ships, ship engines (Škoda Works, Škoda), canons, shoes (Bata Shoes, Baťa), turbines, guns (Zbrojovka Brno). It was the industrial workshop for the Austro-Hungarian empire. The Slovak lands relied more heavily on agriculture than the Czech lands. After World War II, the economy was centrally planned, with command links controlled by the communist party, similarly to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. The large metallurgical industry was dependent on imports of iron and non-ferrous ores. *Industry: Extractivism, Extractive industry and manufacturing dominated the sector, including machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. The sector was wasteful in its use of energy, materials, and labor and was slow to upgrade technology, but the country was a major supplier of high-quality machinery, instruments, electronics, aircraft, airplane engines and arms to other socialist countries. *Agriculture: Agriculture was a minor sector, but collectivized farms of large acreage and relatively efficient mode of production enabled the country to be relatively self-sufficient in the food supply. The country depended on imports of grains (mainly for livestock feed) in years of adverse weather. Meat production was constrained by a shortage of feed, but the country still recorded high per capita consumption of meat. *Foreign Trade: Exports were estimated at US$17.8 billion in 1985. Exports were machinery (55%), fuel and materials (14%), and manufactured consumer goods (16%). Imports stood at an estimated US$17.9 billion in 1985, including fuel and materials (41%), machinery (33%), and agricultural and forestry products (12%). In 1986, about 80% of foreign trade was with other socialist countries. *Exchange rate: Official, or commercial, the rate was crowns (Kčs) 5.4 per US$1 in 1987. Tourist, or non-commercial, the rate was Kčs 10.5 per US$1. Neither rate reflected purchasing power. The exchange rate on the black market was around Kčs 30 per US$1, which became the official rate once the currency became convertible in the early 1990s. *Fiscal year: Calendar year. *Fiscal policy: The state was the exclusive owner of means of production in most cases. Revenue from state enterprises was the primary source of revenues followed by turnover tax. The government spent heavily on social programs, subsidies, and investment. The budget was usually balanced or left a small surplus.


Resource base

After World War II, the country was short of energy, relying on imported crude oil and natural gas from the Soviet Union, domestic Lignite, brown coal, and nuclear power, nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints were a major factor in the 1980s.


Transport and communications

Slightly after the foundation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, there was a lack of needful infrastructure in many areas – paved roads, railways, bridges etc. Massive improvement in the following years enabled Czechoslovakia to develop its industry. Prague's civil airport in Ruzyně became one of the most modern terminals in the world when it was finished in 1937. Tomáš Baťa, Czech entrepreneur and visionary outlined his ideas in the publication "Budujme stát pro 40 milionů lidí", where he described the future motorway system. Construction of the first motorways in Czechoslovakia begun in 1939, nevertheless, they were stopped after German occupation during World War II.


Society


Education

Education was free at all levels and compulsory from ages 6 to 15. The vast majority of the population was literate. There was a highly developed system of apprenticeship training and vocational schools supplemented general secondary schools and institutions of higher education.


Religion

In 1991: Roman Catholics 46%, Lutheranism, Evangelical Lutheran 5.3%, Atheist 30%, n/a 17%, but there were huge differences in religious practices between the two constituent republics; see Czech Republic and Slovakia.


Health, social welfare and housing

After World War II, Universal healthcare, free health care was available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health care centres supplemented hospitals and other inpatient institutions. There was a substantial improvement in rural health care during the 1960s and 1970s.


Mass media

During the era between the World Wars, Czechoslovak democracy and liberalism facilitated conditions for free publication. The most significant daily newspapers in these times were Lidové noviny, Národní listy, Český deník and Československá Republika. During Communist rule, the mass media in Czechoslovakia were controlled by the Communist Party. Private ownership of any publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden, although churches and other organizations published small periodicals and newspapers. Even with this information monopoly in the hands of organizations under KSČ control, all publications were Censorship, reviewed by the government's Office for Press and Information.


Sports

The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second place in 1934 and 1962. The team also won the UEFA European Football Championship, European Football Championship in 1976, came in third in 1980 and won the Football at the Summer Olympics, Olympic gold in Football at the 1980 Summer Olympics, 1980. Well-known football players such as Pavel Nedvěd, Antonín Panenka, Milan Baroš, Tomáš Rosický, Vladimír Šmicer or Petr Čech were all born in Czechoslovakia. The International Olympic Committee code for Czechoslovakia is TCH, which is still used in historical listings of results. The Czechoslovak national ice hockey team won many medals from the world championships and Olympic Games. Peter Šťastný, Jaromír Jágr, Dominik Hašek, Peter Bondra, Petr Klíma, Marián Gáborík, Marián Hossa, Miroslav Šatan and Pavol Demitra all come from Czechoslovakia. Emil Zátopek, winner of four Olympic gold medals in Athletics (sport), athletics, is considered one of the top athletes in Czechoslovak history. Věra Čáslavská was an Olympic gold medallist in gymnastics, winning seven gold medals and four silver medals. She represented Czechoslovakia in three consecutive Olympics. Several accomplished professional tennis players including Jaroslav Drobný, Ivan Lendl, Jan Kodeš, Miloslav Mečíř, Hana Mandlíková, Martina Hingis, Martina Navratilova, Jana Novotna, Petra Kvitová and Daniela Hantuchová were born in Czechoslovakia.


Culture

*Czech RepublicSlovakia *List of CzechsList of Slovaks *International Women's Day, MDŽ (International Women's Day) *Jazz in dissident Czechoslovakia


Postage stamps

*Postage stamps and postal history of Czechoslovakia *List of people on stamps of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia stamp reused by Slovak Republic after 18 January 1939 by overprinting country and value


See also

*Effects on the environment in Czechoslovakia from Soviet influence during the Cold War *Former countries in Europe after 1815 *List of former sovereign states


Notes


References


Sources

*


Further reading

*Heimann, Mary. ''Czechoslovakia: The State That Failed'' (2009). *Hermann, A. H. ''A History of the Czechs'' (1975). *Kalvoda, Josef. ''The Genesis of Czechoslovakia'' (1986). *Leff, Carol Skalnick. ''National Conflict in Czechoslovakia: The Making and Remaking of a State, 1918–87'' (1988). *Mantey, Victor. ''A History of the Czechoslovak Republic'' (1973). *Myant, Martin. ''The Czechoslovak Economy, 1948–88'' (1989). *Naimark, Norman, and Leonid Gibianskii, eds. ''The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944–1949'' (1997
online edition
*Orzoff, Andrea. ''Battle for the Castle: The Myth of Czechoslovakia in Europe 1914–1948'' (Oxford University Press, 2009)
online review
online *Paul, David. ''Czechoslovakia: Profile of a Socialist Republic at the Crossroads of Europe'' (1990). *Renner, Hans. ''A History of Czechoslovakia since 1945'' (1989). *Seton-Watson, R. W. ''A History of the Czechs and Slovaks'' (1943). *Stone, Norman, and E. Strouhal, eds.''Czechoslovakia: Crossroads and Crises, 1918–88'' (1989). *Wheaton, Bernard; Zdenek Kavav. "The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia, 1988–1991" (1992). *Williams, Kieran, "Civil Resistance in Czechoslovakia: From Soviet Invasion to "Velvet Revolution", 1968–89",
in Adam Roberts (scholar), Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), ''Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present'' (Oxford University Press, 2009). *Windsor, Philip, and Adam Roberts, ''Czechoslovakia 1968: Reform, Repression and Resistance'' (1969). *Wolchik, Sharon L. ''Czechoslovakia: Politics, Society, and Economics'' (1990).


External links


Online books and articles
*English/Czech

*[https://www.britannica.com/place/Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia by Encyclopædia Britannica] * Katrin Boeckh
Crumbling of Empires and Emerging States: Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia as (Multi)national Countries
in

Maps with Hungarian-language rubrics:
Border changes after the creation of CzechoslovakiaInterwar CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia after Munich Agreement
{{Authority control Czechoslovakia, Eastern Bloc Former republics Former Slavic countries Soviet satellite states Geography of Central Europe History of Central Europe 20th century in Czechoslovakia, 1918 establishments in Czechoslovakia 1939 disestablishments in Czechoslovakia 1945 establishments in Czechoslovakia 1992 disestablishments in Czechoslovakia States and territories established in 1918 States and territories disestablished in 1939 States and territories established in 1945 States and territories disestablished in 1992 1918 establishments in Europe 1992 disestablishments in Europe