HOME

TheInfoList




Curia (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
plural curiae) in
ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who stud ...
referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came to meet for only a few purposes by the end of the
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
: to confirm the election of
magistrates The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome, a ''Roman magistrate, magistratus'' was one of the highest ranking government officers, and posse ...
with imperium, to witness the installation of
priests A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particu ...
, the making of
wills Wills is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Alec Wills (1911-1941), English cricketer and Royal Air Force officer * Alfred Wills (1828–1912), English High Court judge and mountaineer * Andrew Wills (b. 1972), Australian rules fo ...
, and to carry out certain adoptions. The term is more broadly used to designate an
assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural l ...
,
council A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is t ...

council
, or
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...
, in which public, official, or religious issues are discussed and decided. Lesser curiae existed for other purposes. The word ''curia'' also came to denote the places of assembly, especially of the
senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...

senate
. Similar institutions existed in other towns and cities of Italy. In medieval times, a king's council was often referred to as a ''curia''. Today, the most famous curia is the
Curia Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came ...
of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
, which assists the Roman Pontiff in the
hierarchical government
hierarchical government
of the Church.
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
, can. 360


Origins

The word ''curia'' is thought to derive from
Old Latin Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin ( la, prīsca Latīnitās, lit=the Latinity of the ancients) was the Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a ...
''coviria'', meaning "a gathering of men" (''co-'', "together" =''vir'', "man"). In this sense, any assembly, public or private, could be called a ''curia''. In addition to the Roman curiae, voting assemblies known as ''curiae'' existed in other towns of
Latium Latium ( , ; ) is the region of central western Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory large ...
, and similar institutions existed in other parts of Italy. During the republic, local curiae were established in Italian and provincial
municipia Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin language, Latin term for a town or city. Etymologically the ''municipium'' was a social contract among ''municipes'', the "duty holders," or citizens of the town. The duties, or ''munera'', were a communal ob ...
and
coloniae A Roman colonia (plural ''coloniae'') was originally a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *' ...
. In
imperial times
imperial times
, local magistrates were often elected by municipal senates, which also came to be known as ''curiae''. By extension, the word ''curia'' came to mean not just a gathering, but also the place where an assembly would gather, such as a meeting house.''
Oxford Classical Dictionary The ''Oxford Classical Dictionary'' (''OCD'') is generally considered "the best one-volume dictionary on antiquity," an encyclopedic work in English consisting of articles relating to classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the class ...
'', 2nd Ed. (1970).


Roman Curiae

In Roman times, "curia" had two principal meanings. Originally it applied to the wards of the ''
comitia curiata The Curiate Assembly (''comitia curiata'') was the principal assembly that evolved in shape and form over the course of the Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the ...
''. However, over time the name became applied to the senate house, which in its various incarnations housed meetings of the Roman senate from the time of the kings until the beginning of the seventh century AD.


Comitia Curiata

The most important curiae at Rome were the 30 that together made up the comitia curiata. Traditionally ascribed to the kings, each of the three
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living o ...
established by
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary founder Founder or Founders may refer to: Places *Founders Park, a stadium in South Carolina, formerly known as Carolina Stadium * Founders Park, a waterside park in Islamorada, Florida#In popular culture, Islamora ...

Romulus
, the ''Ramnes, Tities'', and ''Luceres'', was divided into ten curiae. In theory, each ''
gens In ancient Rome, a gens ( or ), plural gentes, was a family consisting of individuals who shared the same Roman naming conventions#Nomen, nomen and who claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a ''stirps'' (plural ''s ...
'' (family, clan) belonged to a particular curia, although whether this was strictly observed throughout Roman history is uncertain.'' Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities'', Second Edition,
Harry Thurston Peck Harry Thurston Peck (November 24, 1856 – March 23, 1914) was an American classical scholar, author, editor, historian and critic. Biography Peck was born in Stamford, Connecticut Stamford () is a city in the U.S. state In the , a ...
, Editor (1897)
Each curia had a distinct name, said to have been derived from the names of some of the abducted by the Romans in the time of Romulus. However, some of the curiae evidently derived their names from particular districts or eponymous heroes. The curiae were probably established geographically, representing specific neighborhoods in Rome, for which reason ''curia'' is sometimes translated as "
ward Ward may refer to: Division or unit * Hospital#Departments or wards, Hospital ward, a hospital division, floor, or room set aside for a particular class or group of patients, for example the psychiatric ward * Prison ward, a division of a pen ...
". Only a few of the names of the 30 curiae have been preserved, including ''Acculeia, Calabra, Faucia, Foriensis, Rapta, Veliensis, Tifata'', and ''Titia.'' The assertion that the
plebeians In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizenship, Roman citizens who were not Patrician (ancient Rome), patricians, as determined by the capite censi, census, or in other words "commoners". Both ...
were not members of the curiae, or that only the dependents ''( clients)'' of the
patricians The patricians (from la, patriciusPatricius may refer to: People * Patricius (consul 500), prominent East Roman general and consul *Patricius (jurist), 5th-century Roman jurist * Patricius (usurper) (died 352), leader of the Jewish revolt aga ...
were admitted, and not entitled to vote, is expressly contradicted by
Dionysius The name Dionysius (; el, Διονύσιος ''Dionysios'', "of Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking and wine, of fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, r ...
. This argument is also refuted by
Mommsen Mommsen is a surname, and may refer to one of a family of German historians, see Mommsen family: * Theodor Mommsen (1817–1903), classical scholar, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature * Hans Mommsen (1930–2015), historian known for arguing ...

Mommsen
. Each curia had its own '''', in which its members, known as ''curiales,'' worshipped the gods of the state and other deities specific to the curia, with their own rites and ceremonies. Each curia had a meeting site and place of worship, named after the curia. Originally, this may have been a simple altar, then a ''
sacellum In Religion in ancient Rome, ancient Roman religion, a ''sacellum'' is a small shrine. The word is a diminutive from ''Glossary of ancient Roman religion#sacer, sacer'' ("belonging to a god"). The numerous ''sacella'' of ancient Rome included both ...
'', and finally a meeting house. The curia was presided over by a ''curio'' (plural, ''curiones''), who was always at least 50 years old, and was elected for life. The curio undertook the religious affairs of the curia. He was assisted by another priest, known as the ''flamen curialis''. When the 30 curiae gathered to make up the ''comitia curiata'', they were presided over by a ''
curio maximus The ''curio maximus'' was an obscure College of Pontiffs, priesthood in ancient Rome that had oversight of the ''curia, curiae'', groups of citizens loosely affiliated within what was originally a Roman tribe#The curiae, tribe. Each curia was led by ...
'', who until 209 BC was always a patrician. Originally, the ''curio maximus'' was probably elected by the ''curiones'', but in later times by the people themselves. Each curia was attended by one
lictor A lictor (possibly from la, ligare, "to bind") was a Ancient Rome, Roman civil servant who was an attendant and bodyguard to a Roman magistrate, magistrate who held ''imperium''. Lictors are documented since the Roman Kingdom, and may have origi ...

lictor
; an assembly of the ''comitia curiata'' was attended by thirty lictors. The ''comitia curiata'' voted to confirm the election of magistrates by passing a law called the ''
lex curiata de imperio In the constitution of ancient Rome, the ''lex curiata de imperio'' (plural ''leges curiatae'') was the law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to fo ...
''. It also witnessed the installation of priests, and adoptions, and the making of wills. The
Pontifex Maximus The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation w ...
may have presided over these ceremonies. The assembly probably possessed much greater authority before the establishment of the ''
comitia centuriata The Centuriate Assembly (Latin: ''comitia centuriata'') of the Roman Republic was one of the three voting assemblies in the Roman constitution. It was named the Centuriate Assembly as it originally divided Roman citizens into groups of one hundred m ...

comitia centuriata
'', which gradually assumed many of the curiate assembly's original functions.


Senate House

Since the
Roman Kingdom The Roman Kingdom, also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome, was the earliest period of Roman history The history of Rome includes the history of the Rome, city of Rome as well as the Ancient Rome, civili ...
, the meeting-house of the Roman senate was known as the ''curia''. The original meeting place was said to have been a
temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
built on the spot where the Romans and Sabines laid down their arms during the reign of Romulus (traditionally reigned 753–717 BC). The institution of the senate was always ascribed to Romulus; although the first senate was said to comprise 100 members, the earliest number which can be called certain is 300, probably connected with the three tribes and 30 curiae also attributed to Romulus.


Curia Hostilia

After the original temple was destroyed by fire, it was replaced by a new meeting house by
Tullus Hostilius Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) was the Roman mythology, legendary third king of Rome. He succeeded Numa Pompilius and was succeeded by Ancus Marcius. Unlike his predecessor, Tullus was known as a warlike king who according to the Roman Histor ...
, the third
King of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class. Historically, the two different meanings of magistrate have often overlapped and ...
(traditionally reigned 673–642 BC). The ''Curia Hostilia'' stood on the north end of the
comitium The Comitium ( it, Comizio) was the original open-air public meeting space of Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century ...

comitium
, where the ''comitia curiata'' and other Roman assemblies met, and was oriented along the four
cardinal points The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at right angles) to north and south, with east being in the c ...
. After more than 500 years of service, the building was restored and enlarged by the
dictator A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the ...
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (; 138–78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Ancient Romans, Roman List of Roman generals, general and Politician, statesman. He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history, and became the first man of Rom ...
in 80 BC. Sulla had doubled the senate's membership from 300 to 600, necessitating a larger building, which retained the original orientation of the ''Curia Hostilia'', but extended further south into the comitium. In 52 BC, following the murder of
Publius Clodius Pulcher Publius Clodius Pulcher (93–52 BC) was a populist Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''E ...
, his ''clientes'' set fire to the senate house, which was rebuilt by Faustus Cornelius Sulla, son of the dictator. Following this reconstruction, the building came to be called the ''
Curia Cornelia The Curia Cornelia was a place where the Roman Senate assembled beginning c. 52 BC. It was the largest of all the ''Curiae'' (Senate Houses) built in Rome. Its construction took over a great deal of the traditional comitium The Comitium ( it, Co ...
.''


Curia Julia

A generation after Sulla enlarged the senate from 300 members to 600,
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
increased its membership to 900, necessitating the construction of a larger meeting house. The ''Curia Cornelia'' was demolished, and shortly before his death in 44 BC, Caesar began the construction of a new building, which became known as the ''
Curia Julia The Curia Julia ( la, Curia Iulia, links=no, it, Curia Iulia, links=no) is the third named ''curia Curia (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was ...

Curia Julia
''. This structure covered most of the ''comitium'', and abandoned the original orientation of the previous curiae, pointing slightly northwest. The building featured a large central hall with a daïs for magistrates, and marble benches on one side. There was also a record office on one side. The building was completed by Caesar's grandnephew,
Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Octavian
, the future emperor Augustus, in 29 BC, although he reduced the senate itself to its former number of 600. In AD 94, the ''Curia Julia'' was rebuilt along Caesar's original plan by the emperor
Domitian Domitian (; la, Domitianus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles thr ...

Domitian
, who also restored the former orientation of the ''Curia Hostilia.'' The building was damaged by fire during the reign of
Carinus Marcus Aurelius Carinus (died 285) was Roman emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout ...
in 283, and again restored under his successor,
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
. The Roman Senate is last mentioned in AD 600. In 630,
Pope Honorius I Pope Honorius I (died 12 October 638) was the pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor ...

Pope Honorius I
transformed the senate house into the church of
Sant'Adriano al Foro Sant'Adriano al Foro was a church in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazi ...
, preserving the structure at its full height. In 1923, the church and an adjacent convent were bought by the Italian government. The building was further restored from 1935 to 1937, removing various medieval additions, to reveal the original Roman architecture.


Curiae Veteres

The ''Curiae Veteres'' was the earliest sanctuary of the thirty ''curiae''. It is discussed by both
Varro Marcus Terentius Varro (; 116–27 BC) was a Roman polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known ...
and by
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
, who mentions it as one point of the
Palatine A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural ''palatini''; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman Empire, Roman times.
Palatine
pomerium The pomerium or pomoerium was a religious boundary around the city of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan ...

pomerium
of ''
Roma quadrataRoma quadrata (Latin, "Square Rome") was an area, or perhaps a structure, within the original pomerium of the ancient city of Rome, probably the Palatine Hill with its Palatium and Cermalus peaks and its slopes. It apparently dated to the earliest ...
''. It is likely that this shrine was located at the northeast corner of the
Palatine Hill The Palatine Hill, (; la, Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; it, Palatino ) which is the centremost of the seven hills of Rome The seven hills of Rome ( la, Septem colles/montes Romae, it, Sette colli di Roma ) east of the river Tiber ...

Palatine Hill
. Its remains have likely been identified in excavations carried out by Clementina Panella. As the Republic continued, the curiae grew too large to meet conveniently at the ''Curiae Veteres'', and a new meeting place, the ''Curiae Novae'', was constructed. A few of the curiae continued to meet at the ''Curiae Veteres'' due to specific religious obligations.


Municipal curiae

In the Roman Empire a town council was known as a curia, or sometimes an ''ordo'', or ''boule''. The existence of such a governing body was the mark of an independent city. Municipal curiae were co-optive, and their members, the decurions, sat for life. Their numbers varied greatly according to the size of the city. In the Western Empire, one hundred seems to have been a common number, but in the East five hundred was customary, on the model of the Athenian Boule. However, by the fourth century, curial duties had become onerous, and it was difficult to fill all the posts; often candidates had to be nominated. The emperor
Constantine Constantine most often refers to: * Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterra ...

Constantine
exempted Christians from serving in the curiae, which led to many rich pagans claiming to be priests in order to escape these duties.


Other curiae

The concept of the curia as a governing body, or the court where such a body met, carried on into medieval times, both as a secular institution, and in the church.


Medieval Curiae

In medieval times, a king's court was frequently known as the ''
curia regis ''Curia regis'' () is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or " ...
'', consisting of the king's chief magnates and councilors. In England, the ''curia regis'' gradually developed into
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. In France, the ''curia regis'' or developed in the twelfth century, with the term gradually becoming applied to a judicial body, and falling out of use by the fourteenth century.


Roman Catholic Church

In the Roman Catholic Church, the administrative body of the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
is known as the ''
Roman Curia The Roman Curia ( la, Romana Curia ministerium suum implent) comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdi ...
''. It is through this Curia that the
Roman Pontiff Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
conducts the business of the Church as a whole.


Modern usage

The
Court of Justice of the European Union The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (french: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne or "''CJUE''"; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European lang ...
uses "CURIA" (in roman script) in its official emblem. The term ''curia'' may refer to separate electoral colleges in a system of
reserved political positions Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of women, minorities or other segments of society, or preserving a political balance of power. These arrangements can di ...
(reserved seats), e.g. during the British mandate of Palestine at the third election (1931) of the Asefat HaNivharim there were three curiae, for the
Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in ...
, the
Sephardi Jews Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews, ''Sephardim'',, Modern Hebrew: ''Sefaraddim'', Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm, also , ''Ye'hude Sepharad'', lit. "The Jews of Spain", es, Judíos sefardíes (or ), pt, Judeus sefarditas ...
and for the
Yemeni Jews Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from ''Yehudei Teman''; ar, اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious g ...
. In the United States Supreme Court an interested third party to a case may file a brief as an
amicus curiae An ''amicus curiae'' (literally, "friend of the court"; plural: ''amici curiae'') is someone who is not a party 300px, '' Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an artists' party in 19th century Denmark ...
. Under the Fundamental Law adopted in 2011,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a in . Spanning of the , it is bordered by to the north, to the northeast, to the east and southeast, to the south, and to the southwest and to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostl ...

Hungary
's supreme court is called the
Curia Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one. While they originally likely had wider powers, they came ...
. The
Federal Palace of Switzerland The Federal Palace (german: Bundeshaus, french: Palais fédéral, it, Palazzo federale, rm, Chasa federala, la, Curia Confœderationis Helveticæ) is the building in Bern housing the Switzerland, Swiss Federal Assembly of Switzerland, Feder ...

Federal Palace of Switzerland
, the seat of the
Swiss Confederation , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal s ...
, bears the inscription ''Curia Confœderationis Helveticæ''.


See also

*
Constitution of the Roman Republic The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of uncodified norms and customs which, together with various written laws, guided the procedural governance of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a sta ...
*
Bouleuterion A bouleuterion ( grc-gre, βουλευτήριον, ''bouleutērion''), also translated as and was a building in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Gre ...

Bouleuterion
*
Altar of Victory The Altar of Victory () was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) and bore a gold statue of the goddess Victory. The altar was established by Octavian Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor ...


References


Further reading

* Bond, Sarah E. 2014.“Curial Communiqué: Memory, Propaganda, and the Roman Senate House” In ''Aspects of Ancient Institutions and Geography: Studies in Honor of Richard J.A. Talbert.'' Impact of Empire, 19. Edited by Lee L. Brice and Daniëlle Slootjes. Leiden: Brill, 84-102. * Crofton-Sleigh, Lissa. 2018. "The Curia in Aeneid 7." ''Illinois Classical Studies'' 43.1. * Gorski, Gilbert J. and James E. Packer. 2015. ''The Roman Forum: A Reconstruction and Architectural Guide.'' New York: Cambridge University Press. * Heinzelmann, Michael. 2011. "The Imperial Building Complex of S. Maria Antiqua in Rome: An Incomplete Senate Building of Domitian?" ''Anales de Arqueología Cordobesa'', 21-22: 57–80. * Millar, Fergus. 1989. “Political Power in Mid-Republican Rome. Curia or Comitium?.” ''The Journal of Roman Studies'' LXXIX, 138–150. * Santangeli Valenzani, Riccardo. 2006. “The Seat and Memory of Power: Caesar's Curia and Forum.” In ''Julius Caesar in Western Culture.'' Edited by Maria Wyke. Oxford: Blackwell, 85–94.


External links

* {{Ancient Rome topics
Roman law {{CatAutoTOC, numerals=no Law in ancient history Ancient Rome, Law Indo-European law, Roman Law by former country ...
Roman Senate