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Cubism is an early-20th-century
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New Av ...
art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defin ...
that revolutionized European
painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film. It is most commonly used to protect, ...

painting
and
sculpture ''lamassu 300px, ''Lamassu'' from Dur-Sharrukin. University of Chicago Oriental Institute. Syrian limestone Neo-Assyrian Period, c. 721–705 BCE ''Lama'', ''Lamma'' or ''Lamassu'' (Cuneiform: , ; Sumerian language, Sumerian: lammař; late ...

sculpture
, and inspired related movements in
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
and
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century.Christopher Green, MoMA collection, ''Cubism, Introduction'', from Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2009
The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (
Montmartre Image:StPierreParis.jpg, upSaint-Pierre de Montmartre (originally 1133, much of it destroyed in 1790 and rebuilt in the 19th century) seen from the dome of the Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissem ...

Montmartre
and
Montparnasse Montparnasse () is an area in the south of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018 ...

Montparnasse
) or near Paris (
Puteaux Puteaux () is a Communes of France, commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the heart of the Hauts-de-Seine Departments of France, department, from the Kilometre zero, centre of Paris. In 2016, it had a population of 44,9 ...
) during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
and
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, and joined by
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
,
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
,
Henri Le Fauconnier Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubism, Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le ...
,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, and
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
. One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of
three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:παρά#Ancient Greek, παρά, ''par ...
form in the late works of
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
.Christopher Green, 2009, ''Cubism'', MoMA, Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press
A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the
Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an art exhibition held annually in Paris, France. Since 2011, it is held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid-October. The fi ...
of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907.Joann Moser, ''Jean Metzinger in Retrospect, Pre-Cubist works, 1904–1909'', The University of Iowa Museum of Art, J. Paul Getty Trust, University of Washington Press 1985, pp. 34–42 In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism,
abstract art Abstract art uses visual language#REDIRECT Visual language Water, rabbit, deer pictographs on a replica of an Aztec Stone of the Sun. The visual language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication c ...
and later
Purism Purism, referring to the arts, was a movement that took place between 1918 and 1925 that influenced French painting and architecture. Purism was led by and . Ozenfant and Le Corbusier formulated an aesthetic doctrine born from a criticism of an ...
. The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging. In France and other countries
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
,
Suprematism Suprematism (russian: Супремати́зм) is an early twentieth-century art movement focused on the fundamentals of geometry (circles, squares, rectangles), painted in a limited range of colors. The term ''suprematism'' refers to an abstract ...
,
Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...

Dada
,
Constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
,
Vorticism Vorticism was a London-based modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 1 ...
,
De Stijl ''De Stijl'' (; ), Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
and
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...
developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time or successively, also called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity,Christopher Green, 2009, ''Cubism, Meanings and interpretations'', MoMA, Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2009
while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, and the association of mechanization and modern life.


History

Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as ''Analytic Cubism'', a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori, Honour, H. and J. Fleming, (2009) ''A World History of Art''. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, p. 784. was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France. A second phase, ''Synthetic Cubism'', remained vital until around 1919, when the
Surrealist Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") i ...

Surrealist
movement gained popularity. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, ''The Cubist Epoch''. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", (from 1906 to 1908) when the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being called "High Cubism", (from 1909 to 1914) during which time
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
emerged as an important exponent (after 1911); and finally Cooper referred to "Late Cubism" (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical
avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art, culture, or society.John Picchione, The New Av ...
movement.Douglas Cooper
"The Cubist Epoch"
pp. 11–221, 232, Phaidon Press Limited 1970 in association with the
Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be a ...
and the
Metropolitan Museum of Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also ...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
Douglas Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Picasso, Gris (from 1911) and Léger (to a lesser extent) implied an intentional value judgement.


Proto-Cubism: 1907–1908

Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting ''
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (''The Young Ladies of Avignon'', originally titled ''The Brothel of Avignon'') is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. The work, part of the permanent collection of the Museum of ...
'' has often been considered a proto-Cubist work. In 1908, in his review of
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery, the critic
Louis Vauxcelles Louis Vauxcelles (1 January 187021 July 1943), born Louis Meyer, was an influential French Jewish art critic. He is credited with coining the terms ''Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' ( French for "the wild beasts"), a ...
called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in o the 1908 Salon d'Automnea painting made of little cubes". The critic Charles Morice relayed Matisse's words and spoke of Braque's little cubes. The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Georges Braque's 1908 '' Houses at L’Estaque'' (and related works) prompted Vauxcelles, in ''Gil Blas'', 25 March 1909, to refer to ''bizarreries cubiques'' (cubic oddities).
Gertrude Stein Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the Allegheny West (Pittsburgh), Allegheny West neighborhood and raised in Oakland, Califor ...

Gertrude Stein
referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as ''Reservoir at Horta de Ebro'', as the first Cubist paintings. The first organized group exhibition by Cubists took place at the
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
during the spring of 1911 in a room called 'Salle 41'; it included works by
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
,
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
and
Henri Le Fauconnier Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubism, Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le ...
, yet no works by Picasso or Braque were exhibited. By 1911 Picasso was recognized as the inventor of Cubism, while Braque's importance and precedence was argued later, with respect to his treatment of space, volume and mass in the L’Estaque landscapes. But "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 .. The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass, time, and volume supports (rather than contradicts) the flatness of the canvas was made by
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (25 June 1884 – 11 January 1979) was a German-born art collector, and one of the most notable French art dealer An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells Work of art, works of art, or acts as the intermedi ...
as early as 1920, but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s, especially by
Clement Greenberg Clement Greenberg () (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994), occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh, was an American essayist known mainly as a very influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art Modern art ...
. Contemporary views of Cubism are complex, formed to some extent in response to the "Salle 41" Cubists, whose methods were too distinct from those of Picasso and Braque to be considered merely secondary to them. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were later associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g.,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wi ...

Francis Picabia
; the brothers
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
,
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
and
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, who beginning in late 1911 formed the core of the
Section d'Or , 1911, '' La Chasse (the Hunt)'', oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm. Published in '' L'Intransigeant'', 10 October 1911, ''The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Les Peintres Cubistes'' 1913, by G. Apollinaire, and Au Salon d'Automne', Revue d'Eur ...
(or the
Puteaux Group Puteaux () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
); the sculptors
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American a ...
,
Joseph Csaky Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are p ...
and
Ossip Zadkine Ossip Zadkine (russian: Осип Цадкин; 28 January 1888 – 25 November 1967) was a Belarusian-born French naturalized artist. He is primarily known as a sculptor, but also produced paintings and lithographs. Early years and education Zadk ...

Ossip Zadkine
as well as
Jacques Lipchitz Jacques Lipchitz (26 May 1973) was a Cubism, Cubist sculptor. Lipchitz retained highly figurative and legible components in his work leading up to 1915–16, after which naturalist and descriptive elements were muted, dominated by a synthetic style ...
and
Henri Laurens File:Henri Laurens, Céline Arnauld, Tournevire, 1919.jpg, upHenri Laurens, ''Céline Arnauld'', reproduced in ''Tournevire'', Edition de L'Esprit Nouveau, 1919 Henri Laurens (February 18, 1885 – May 5, 1954) was a French sculpture, sculptor ...

Henri Laurens
; and painters such as Louis Marcoussis,
Roger de La Fresnaye Roger de La Fresnaye (; 11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist Painting, painter. Early years and education La Fresnaye was born in Le Mans where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed. The La Fresnaye ...

Roger de La Fresnaye
,
František Kupka František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as ''Frank Kupka'' or ''François Kupka,'' was a Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ) ...
,
Diego Rivera Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (; December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), was a prominent Mexican painter. His large fresco Fresco (plural ''fre ...

Diego Rivera
,
Léopold Survage Léopold Frédéric Léopoldowitsch Survage (31 July 1879 – 31 October 1968) was a French painter of Finnish origin. Trained in Moscow, he identified with the Russian avant-garde before moving to Paris, where he shared a studio with Amedeo Modigli ...
,
Auguste Herbin Auguste Herbin (29 April 1882 – 31 January 1960) was a French painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a t ...
, André Lhote,
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
(after 1916), María Blanchard (after 1916) and
Georges Valmier Georges Valmier (11 April 1885 – 25 March 1937) was a French people, French painter. His work encompassed the great movements in the modern history of painting, starting with Impressionism in his early years, then Cubism which he discovered when ...
(after 1918). More fundamentally, Christopher Green argues that Douglas Cooper's terms were "later undermined by interpretations of the work of Picasso, Braque, Gris and Léger that stress iconographic and ideological questions rather than methods of representation."
John Berger John Peter Berger (; 5 November 1926 – 2 January 2017) was an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet. His novel ''G. (novel), G.'' won the 1972 Booker Prize, and his essay on art criticism ''Ways of Seeing'', written as an accompanimen ...
identifies the essence of Cubism with the mechanical diagram. "The metaphorical model of Cubism is the diagram: The diagram being a visible symbolic representation of invisible processes, forces, structures. A diagram need not eschew certain aspects of appearance but these too will be treated as signs not as imitations or recreations."


Early Cubism: 1909–1914

There was a distinct difference between Kahnweiler's Cubists and the Salon Cubists. Prior to 1914, Picasso, Braque, Gris and Léger (to a lesser extent) gained the support of a single committed art dealer in Paris, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, who guaranteed them an annual income for the exclusive right to buy their works. Kahnweiler sold only to a small circle of connoisseurs. His support gave his artists the freedom to experiment in relative privacy. Picasso worked in Montmartre until 1912, while Braque and Gris remained there until after the First World War. Léger was based in Montparnasse. In contrast, the Salon Cubists built their reputation primarily by exhibiting regularly at the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Indépendants, both major non-academic Salons in Paris. They were inevitably more aware of public response and the need to communicate. Already in 1910 a group began to form which included Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay and Léger. They met regularly at Henri le Fauconnier's studio near the
boulevard du Montparnasse The Boulevard du Montparnasse is a two-way boulevard in Montparnasse, in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, 6th, 14th arrondissement of Paris, 14th and 15th arrondissement of Paris, 15th arrondissements in Paris. Situation The boulevard joins the ...
. These soirées often included writers such as Guillaume Apollinaire and
André Salmon André Salmon (4 October 1881, Paris – 12 March 1969, Sanary-sur-Mer) was a French poet, art critic and writer. He was one of the early defenders of Cubism, with Guillaume Apollinaire and Maurice Raynal. Biography André Salmon was born in Par ...
. Together with other young artists, the group wanted to emphasise a research into form, in opposition to the Neo-Impressionist emphasis on color. Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of the 26th Salon des Indépendants (1910), made a passing and imprecise reference to Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, Léger and Le Fauconnier as "ignorant geometers, reducing the human body, the site, to pallid cubes."Daniel Robbins, ''Jean Metzinger: At the Center of Cubism'', 1985, ''Jean Metzinger in Retrospect'', The University of Iowa Museum of Art, J. Paul Getty Trust, University of Washington Press At the 1910 Salon d'Automne, a few months later, Metzinger exhibited his highly fractured '' Nu à la cheminée (Nude)'', which was subsequently reproduced in both ''Du "Cubisme"'' (1912) and ''Les Peintres Cubistes'' (1913). The first public controversy generated by Cubism resulted from Salon showings at the Indépendants during the spring of 1911. This showing by Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, le Fauconnier and Léger brought Cubism to the attention of the general public for the first time. Amongst the Cubist works presented, Robert Delaunay exhibited his ''Eiffel Tower, Tour Eiffel'' (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York). At the Salon d'Automne of the same year, in addition to the Indépendants group of ''Salle 41'', were exhibited works by André Lhote,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, Jacques Villon,
Roger de La Fresnaye Roger de La Fresnaye (; 11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist Painting, painter. Early years and education La Fresnaye was born in Le Mans where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed. The La Fresnaye ...

Roger de La Fresnaye
, André Dunoyer de Segonzac and
František Kupka František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as ''Frank Kupka'' or ''François Kupka,'' was a Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ) ...
. The exhibition was reviewed in the October 8, 1911 issue of ''The New York Times''. This article was published a year after
Gelett Burgess Frank Gelett Burgess (January 30, 1866 – September 18, 1951) was an American artist, art critic, poet, author and humorist. An important figure in the San Francisco Bay Area literary renaissance of the 1890s, particularly through his iconoclas ...

Gelett Burgess
' ''The Wild Men of Paris'', and two years prior to the
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
, which introduced astonished Americans, accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism, Cubism, and Futurism. The 1911 ''New York Times'' article portrayed works by Picasso, Matisse, Derain, Metzinger and others dated before 1909; not exhibited at the 1911 Salon. The article was titled ''The "Cubists" Dominate Paris' Fall Salon'' and subtitled ''Eccentric School of Painting Increases Its Vogue in the Current Art Exhibition – What Its Followers Attempt to Do.''
Among all the paintings on exhibition at the Paris Fall Salon none is attracting so much attention as the extraordinary productions of the so-called "Cubist" school. In fact, dispatches from Paris suggest that these works are easily the main feature of the exhibition. .. In spite of the crazy nature of the "Cubist" theories the number of those professing them is fairly respectable. Georges Braque, André Derain, Picasso, Czobel, Othon Friesz, Herbin, Metzinger—these are a few of the names signed to canvases before which Paris has stood and now again stands in blank amazement. What do they mean? Have those responsible for them taken leave of their senses? Is it art or madness? Who knows?


Salon des Indépendants

The subsequent 1912 Salon des Indépendants located in Paris (20 March to 16 May 1912) was marked by the presentation of Marcel Duchamp's '' Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'', which itself caused a scandal, even amongst the Cubists. It was in fact rejected by the hanging committee, which included his brothers and other Cubists. Although the work was shown in the Salon de la Section d'Or in October 1912 and the 1913 Armory Show in New York, Duchamp never forgave his brothers and former colleagues for censoring his work. Juan Gris, a new addition to the Salon scene, exhibited his ''Portrait of Picasso'' (Art Institute of Chicago), while Metzinger's two showings included '' La Femme au Cheval (Woman with a horse)'' 1911–1912 (
National Gallery of Denmark The National Gallery of Denmark ( da, Statens Museum for Kunst, also known as "SMK", literally State Museum for Art) is the Danish national gallery, located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, registers, maintains, researches and hand ...
). Delaunay's monumental ''La Ville de Paris'' (Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris) and Léger's ''La Noce'', ''The Wedding'' (Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris), were also exhibited.


Galeries Dalmau

In 1912,
Galeries Dalmau , c. 1921-22, ''Optophone I'', encre, aquarelle et mine de plomb sur papier, 72 x 60 cm. Reproduced in Galeries Dalmau, ''Picabia'', exhibition catalogue, Barcelona, November 18 - December 8, 1922 Galeries Dalmau was an art gallery An art gallery ...
presented the first declared group exhibition of Cubism worldwide (''Exposició d'Art Cubista''),Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten, ''A Cubism Reader, Documents and Criticism, 1906–1914'', University of Chicago Press, 2008, pp. 293–295Carol A. Hess, ''Manuel de Falla and Modernism in Spain, 1898–1936''
University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 76,
with a controversial showing by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin and Marcel Duchamp (Barcelona, 20 April to 10 May 1912). The Dalmau exhibition comprised 83 works by 26 artists.Mercè Vidal, ''L'exposició d'Art Cubista de les Galeries Dalmau 1912''
Edicions Universitat Barcelona, 1996,
Jacques Nayral's association with Gleizes led him to write the Preface for the Cubist exhibition, which was fully translated and reproduced in the newspaper ''La Veu de Catalunya''. Duchamp's ''Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'' was exhibited for the first time.William H. Robinson, Jordi Falgàs, Carmen Belen Lord, ''Barcelona and Modernity: Picasso, Gaudí, Miró, Dalí''
Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York), Yale University Press, 2006,
Extensive media coverage (in newspapers and magazines) before, during and after the exhibition launched the Galeries Dalmau as a force in the development and propagation of modernism in Europe. While press coverage was extensive, it was not always positive. Articles were published in the newspapers ''Esquella de La Torratxa'' and ''El Noticiero Universal'' attacking the Cubists with a series of caricatures laced with derogatory text. Art historian Jaime Brihuega writes of the Dalmau show: "No doubt that the exhibition produced a strong commotion in the public, who welcomed it with a lot of suspicion.


Salon d'Automne

The Cubist contribution to the 1912 Salon d'Automne created scandal regarding the use of government owned buildings, such as the
Grand Palais The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...

Grand Palais
, to exhibit such artwork. The indignation of the politician Jean Pierre Philippe Lampué made the front page of ''Le Journal'', 5 October 1912. The controversy spread to the Municipal Council of Paris, leading to a debate in the Chambre des Députés about the use of public funds to provide the venue for such art.Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Chambre des députés, 3 Décembre 1912, pp. 2924–2929. Bibliothèque et Archives de l'Assemblée nationale, 2012–7516
.
The Cubists were defended by the Socialist deputy,
Marcel Sembat Marcel Sembat (19 October 1862 – 5 September 1922) was a French Socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of Economic systems, economic and social ...
.Patrick F. Barrer: ''Quand l'art du XXe siècle était conçu par les inconnus'', pp. 93–101, gives an account of the debate. It was against this background of public anger that Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes wrote ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'' (published by Eugène Figuière in 1912, translated to English and Russian in 1913). Among the works exhibited were Le Fauconnier's vast composition ''Les Montagnards attaqués par des ours (Mountaineers Attacked by Bears)'' now at Rhode Island School of Design Museum,
Joseph Csaky Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are p ...
's ''Deux Femme, Two Women'' (a sculpture now lost), in addition to the highly abstract paintings by Kupka, ''Amorpha'' (The National Gallery, Prague), and
Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, ...
, '''' (Museum of Modern Art, New York).


Abstraction and the ready-made

The most extreme forms of Cubism were not those practiced by Picasso and Braque, who resisted total abstraction. Other Cubists, by contrast, especially
František Kupka František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as ''Frank Kupka'' or ''François Kupka,'' was a Czech Czech may refer to: * Anything from or related to the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ) ...
, and those considered Orphists by
Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish-Belarusian descent. Apollinaire is considered one of the foremost poets of the early 20th century ...

Apollinaire
(Delaunay, Léger, Picabia and Duchamp), accepted abstraction by removing visible subject matter entirely. Kupka's two entries at the 1912 Salon d'Automne, ''Amorpha-Fugue à deux couleurs'' and ''Amorpha chromatique chaude'', were highly abstract (or nonrepresentational) and metaphysical in orientation. Both Duchamp in 1912 and Picabia from 1912 to 1914 developed an expressive and allusive abstraction dedicated to complex emotional and sexual themes. Beginning in 1912 Delaunay painted a series of paintings entitled ''Simultaneous Windows'', followed by a series entitled ''Formes Circulaires'', in which he combined planar structures with bright prismatic hues; based on the optical characteristics of juxtaposed colors his departure from reality in the depiction of imagery was quasi-complete. In 1913–14 Léger produced a series entitled ''Contrasts of Forms'', giving a similar stress to color, line and form. His Cubism, despite its abstract qualities, was associated with themes of mechanization and modern life. Apollinaire supported these early developments of abstract Cubism in ''Les Peintres cubistes'' (1913), writing of a new "pure" painting in which the subject was vacated. But in spite of his use of the term Orphism these works were so different that they defy attempts to place them in a single category. Also labeled an Orphist by Apollinaire, Marcel Duchamp was responsible for another extreme development inspired by Cubism. The ready-made arose from a joint consideration that the work itself is considered an object (just as a painting), and that it uses the material detritus of the world (as collage and papier collé in the Cubist construction and Assemblage). The next logical step, for Duchamp, was to present an ordinary object as a self-sufficient work of art representing only itself. In 1913 he attached a bicycle wheel to a kitchen stool and in 1914 selected a bottle-drying rack as a sculpture in its own right.


Section d'Or

The ''Section d'Or'', also known as ''Groupe de Puteaux'', founded by some of the most conspicuous Cubists, was a collective of painters, sculptors and critics associated with Cubism and Orphism, active from 1911 through about 1914, coming to prominence in the wake of their controversial showing at the 1911
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
. The ''Salon de la Section d'Or'' at the ''Galerie La Boétie'' in Paris, October 1912, was arguably the most important pre-World War I Cubist exhibition; exposing Cubism to a wide audience. Over 200 works were displayed, and the fact that many of the artists showed artworks representative of their development from 1909 to 1912 gave the exhibition the allure of a Cubist retrospective. The group seems to have adopted the name Section d'Or to distinguish themselves from the narrower definition of Cubism developed in parallel by
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
and
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
in the
Montmartre Image:StPierreParis.jpg, upSaint-Pierre de Montmartre (originally 1133, much of it destroyed in 1790 and rebuilt in the 19th century) seen from the dome of the Basilica of the Sacré-Cœur Montmartre ( , , ) is a large hill in 18th arrondissem ...

Montmartre
quarter of Paris, and to show that Cubism, rather than being an isolated art-form, represented the continuation of a grand tradition (indeed, the
golden ratio In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...

golden ratio
had fascinated Western intellectuals of diverse interests for at least 2,400 years). The idea of the Section d'Or originated in the course of conversations between Metzinger, Gleizes and Jacques Villon. The group's title was suggested by Villon, after reading a 1910 translation of
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
's ''
Trattato della Pittura ''A Treatise on Painting'' (''Trattato della pittura'') is a collection of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, Drawing, dr ...
'' by
Joséphin Péladan Joséphin Péladan (28 March 1858 in Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; w ...

Joséphin Péladan
. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Europeans were discovering
African African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa *** Ethnic groups ...

African
, Polynesian,
Micronesia Micronesia (, ; from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' "small" and ''nêsos'' "island") is a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is ...

Micronesia
n and
Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United States * Indigenous peoples in Canada, the indigenous p ...
art. Artists such as
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetism, Synthetist style that were di ...
,
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculpture, scul ...

Henri Matisse
, and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the stark power and simplicity of styles of those foreign cultures. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse through
Gertrude Stein Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the Allegheny West (Pittsburgh), Allegheny West neighborhood and raised in Oakland, Califor ...

Gertrude Stein
, at a time when both artists had recently acquired an interest in
primitivism Primitivism is a mode of aesthetic idealization that either emulates or aspires to recreate "primitive" experience. In Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 16 ...
,
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...
sculpture,
African art African art describes the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture Visual culture is the aspect of culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), ...
and African tribal masks. They became friendly rivals and competed with each other throughout their careers, perhaps leading to Picasso entering a new period in his work by 1907, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian and African art. Picasso's paintings of 1907 have been characterized as Protocubism, as notably seen in ''
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (''The Young Ladies of Avignon'', originally titled ''The Brothel of Avignon'') is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. The work, part of the permanent collection of the Museum of ...
'', the
antecedent An antecedent is a preceding event, condition, cause, phrase, or word. More specifically, it may refer to: * Antecedent (behavioral psychology), the stimulus that occurs before a trained behavior * Antecedent (genealogy), antonym of descendant, gen ...
of Cubism. The art historian Douglas Cooper states that
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetism, Synthetist style that were di ...
and
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
"were particularly influential to the formation of Cubism and especially important to the paintings of Picasso during 1906 and 1907". Cooper goes on to say: "The ''Demoiselles'' is generally referred to as the first Cubist picture. This is an exaggeration, for although it was a major first step towards Cubism it is not yet Cubist. The disruptive,
expressionist Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and ...
element in it is even contrary to the spirit of Cubism, which looked at the world in a detached, realistic spirit. Nevertheless, the ''Demoiselles'' is the logical picture to take as the starting point for Cubism, because it marks the birth of a new pictorial idiom, because in it Picasso violently overturned established conventions and because all that followed grew out of it." The most serious objection to regarding the ''Demoiselles'' as the origin of Cubism, with its evident influence of primitive art, is that "such deductions are unhistorical", wrote the art historian Daniel Robbins. This familiar explanation "fails to give adequate consideration to the complexities of a flourishing art that existed just before and during the period when Picasso's new painting developed." Between 1905 and 1908, a conscious search for a new style caused rapid changes in art across France, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, and Russia. The Impressionists had used a double point of view, and both
Les Nabis Les Nabis (French: les nabis, ) were a group of young French artists active in Paris from 1888 until 1900, who played a large part in the transition from impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively sma ...
and the
Symbolists Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French art, French, Russian art, Russian and Art of Belgium, Belgian origin in poetry and other arts seeking to represent absolute truths symbolically through metaphorical images and language ...
(who also admired Cézanne) flattened the picture plane, reducing their subjects to simple geometric forms.
Neo-Impressionist Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by French art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are ...
structure and subject matter, most notably to be seen in the works of
Georges Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of pai ...
(e.g., ''Parade de Cirque'', ''
Le Chahut ''Le Chahut'' (English: ''The Can-can'') is a Neo-Impressionist painting by Georges Seurat, dated 1889–90. It was first exhibited at the 1890 Société des Artistes Indépendants, Salon de la Société des Artistes Indépendants (titled ''Chahut ...
'' and ''
Le Cirque Le Cirque is a French restaurant A restaurant (), or an eatery, is a business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). ...
''), was another important influence. There were also parallels in the development of literature and social thought. In addition to Seurat, the roots of cubism are to be found in the two distinct tendencies of Cézanne's later work: first his breaking of the painted surface into small multifaceted areas of paint, thereby emphasizing the plural viewpoint given by
binocular vision Binocular may refer to: Science and technology * Binocular vision In , binocular vision is a type of in which an animal has two s capable of facing the same direction to perceive a single of its surroundings. Neurological researcher Manfred ...

binocular vision
, and second his interest in the simplification of natural forms into cylinders, spheres, and cones. However, the cubists explored this concept further than Cézanne. They represented all the surfaces of depicted objects in a single picture plane, as if the objects had all their faces visible at the same time. This new kind of depiction revolutionized the way objects could be visualized in painting and art. The historical study of Cubism began in the late 1920s, drawing at first from sources of limited data, namely the opinions of
Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written ...

Guillaume Apollinaire
. It came to rely heavily on
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (25 June 1884 – 11 January 1979) was a German-born art collector, and one of the most notable French art dealer An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells Work of art, works of art, or acts as the intermedi ...
's book ''Der Weg zum Kubismus'' (published in 1920), which centered on the developments of Picasso, Braque, Léger, and Gris. The terms "analytical" and "synthetic" which subsequently emerged have been widely accepted since the mid-1930s. Both terms are historical impositions that occurred after the facts they identify. Neither phase was designated as such at the time corresponding works were created. "If Kahnweiler considers Cubism as Picasso and Braque," wrote Daniel Robbins, "our only fault is in subjecting other Cubists' works to the rigors of that limited definition." The traditional interpretation of "Cubism", formulated ''post facto'' as a means of understanding the works of Braque and Picasso, has affected our appreciation of other twentieth-century artists. It is difficult to apply to painters such as
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, Albert Gleizes,
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
and
Henri Le Fauconnier Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubism, Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le ...
, whose fundamental differences from traditional Cubism compelled Kahnweiler to question whether to call them Cubists at all. According to Daniel Robbins, "To suggest that merely because these artists developed differently or varied from the traditional pattern they deserved to be relegated to a secondary or satellite role in Cubism is a profound mistake." The history of the term "Cubism" usually stresses the fact that Matisse referred to "cubes" in connection with a painting by Braque in 1908, and that the term was published twice by the critic
Louis Vauxcelles Louis Vauxcelles (1 January 187021 July 1943), born Louis Meyer, was an influential French Jewish art critic. He is credited with coining the terms ''Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' ( French for "the wild beasts"), a ...
in a similar context. However, the word "cube" was used in 1906 by another critic, Louis Chassevent, with reference not to Picasso or Braque but rather to Metzinger and Delaunay: ::"M. Metzinger is a mosaicist like M. Signac but he brings more precision to the cutting of his cubes of color which appear to have been made mechanically ...Robert Herbert, Neo-Impressionism, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1968 The critical use of the word "cube" goes back at least to May 1901 when Jean Béral, reviewing the work of
Henri-Edmond Cross Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker. He is most acclaimed as a master of Neo-Impressionism and he played an important role in shaping the second phase of tha ...
at the Indépendants in ''Art et Littérature'', commented that he "uses a large and square pointillism, giving the impression of mosaic. One even wonders why the artist has not used cubes of solid matter diversely colored: they would make pretty revetments." (Robert Herbert, 1968, p. 221) The term Cubism did not come into general usage until 1911, mainly with reference to Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, and Léger. In 1911, the poet and critic
Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written ...

Guillaume Apollinaire
accepted the term on behalf of a group of artists invited to exhibit at the Brussels Indépendants. The following year, in preparation for the Salon de la
Section d'Or , 1911, '' La Chasse (the Hunt)'', oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm. Published in '' L'Intransigeant'', 10 October 1911, ''The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Les Peintres Cubistes'' 1913, by G. Apollinaire, and Au Salon d'Automne', Revue d'Eur ...
, Metzinger and Gleizes wrote and published ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'' in an effort to dispel the confusion raging around the word, and as a major defence of Cubism (which had caused a public scandal following the 1911 Salon des Indépendants and the 1912 Salon d'Automne in Paris). Clarifying their aims as artists, this work was the first theoretical treatise on Cubism and it still remains the clearest and most intelligible. The result, not solely a collaboration between its two authors, reflected discussions by the circle of artists who met in
Puteaux Puteaux () is a Communes of France, commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the heart of the Hauts-de-Seine Departments of France, department, from the Kilometre zero, centre of Paris. In 2016, it had a population of 44,9 ...
and
Courbevoie Courbevoie () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs t ...
. It mirrored the attitudes of the "artists of Passy", which included Picabia and the Duchamp brothers, to whom sections of it were read prior to publication. The concept developed in ''Du "Cubisme"'' of observing a subject from different points in space and time simultaneously, i.e., the act of moving around an object to seize it from several successive angles fused into a single image (multiple viewpoints, mobile perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity), is a generally recognized device used by the Cubists. The 1912 manifesto ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'' by Metzinger and Gleizes was followed in 1913 by '' Les Peintres Cubistes'', a collection of reflections and commentaries by Guillaume Apollinaire.Guillaume Apollinaire, ''Les Peintres cubistes: Méditations esthétiques'' (Paris, 1913) Apollinaire had been closely involved with Picasso beginning in 1905, and Braque beginning in 1907, but gave as much attention to artists such as Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, Picabia, and Duchamp. The fact that the 1912 exhibition had been curated to show the successive stages through which Cubism had transited, and that ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'' had been published for the occasion, indicates the artists' intention of making their work comprehensible to a wide audience (art critics, art collectors, art dealers and the general public). Undoubtedly, due to the great success of the exhibition, Cubism became avant-garde movement recognized as a genre or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal.


Crystal Cubism: 1914–1918

A significant modification of Cubism between 1914 and 1916 was signaled by a shift towards a strong emphasis on large overlapping geometric planes and flat surface activity. This grouping of styles of painting and sculpture, especially significant between 1917 and 1920, was practiced by several artists; particularly those under contract with the art dealer and collector Léonce Rosenberg. The tightening of the compositions, the clarity and sense of order reflected in these works, led to its being referred to by the critic Maurice Raynal as 'crystal' Cubism. Considerations manifested by Cubists prior to the outset of World War I—such as the Fourth dimension in art, fourth dimension, dynamism of modern life, the occult, and Henri Bergson's concept of Duration (philosophy), duration—had now been vacated, replaced by a purely formal frame of reference.Christopher Green, ''Cubism and Its Enemies: Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–1928''
, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1987,
Crystal Cubism, and its associative ''rappel à l'ordre'', has been linked with an inclination—by those who served the armed forces and by those who remained in the civilian sector—to escape the realities of the Great War, both during and directly following the conflict. The purifying of Cubism from 1914 through the mid-1920s, with its cohesive unity and voluntary constraints, has been linked to a much broader Ideology, ideological transformation towards conservatism in both French society and Culture of France, French culture.


Cubism after 1918

The most innovative period of Cubism was before 1914. After World War I, with the support given by the dealer Léonce Rosenberg, Cubism returned as a central issue for artists, and continued as such until the mid-1920s when its avant-garde status was rendered questionable by the emergence of geometric abstraction and Surrealism in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. Many Cubists, including Picasso, Braque, Gris, Léger, Gleizes, and Metzinger, while developing other styles, returned periodically to Cubism, even well after 1925. Cubism reemerged during the 1920s and the 1930s in the work of the American Stuart Davis (painter), Stuart Davis and the Englishman Ben Nicholson. In France, however, Cubism experienced a decline beginning in about 1925. Léonce Rosenberg exhibited not only the artists stranded by Kahnweiler's exile but others including Laurens, Lipchitz, Metzinger, Gleizes, Csaky, Herbin and Severini. In 1918 Rosenberg presented a series of Cubist exhibitions at his Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris. Attempts were made by Louis Vauxcelles to argue that Cubism was dead, but these exhibitions, along with a well-organized Cubist show at the 1920 Salon des Indépendants and a revival of the Salon de la Section d’Or in the same year, demonstrated it was still alive. The reemergence of Cubism coincided with the appearance from about 1917–24 of a coherent body of theoretical writing by Pierre Reverdy, Maurice Raynal and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler and, among the artists, by Gris, Léger and Gleizes. The occasional return to classicism—figurative work either exclusively or alongside Cubist work—experienced by many artists during this period (called Neoclassicism) has been linked to the tendency to evade the realities of the war and also to the cultural dominance of a classical or Latin image of France during and immediately following the war. Cubism after 1918 can be seen as part of a wide ideological shift towards conservatism in both French culture, French society and culture. Yet, Cubism itself remained evolutionary both within the oeuvre of individual artists, such as Gris and Metzinger, and across the work of artists as different from each other as Braque, Léger and Gleizes. Cubism as a publicly debated movement became relatively unified and open to definition. Its theoretical purity made it a gauge against which such diverse tendencies as Realism (visual arts), Realism or Realism (arts)#Realism or naturalism as resisting idealizing, Naturalism,
Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...

Dada
, Surrealism and abstraction could be compared.


Influence in Asia

Japan and China were among the first countries in Asia to be influenced by Cubism. Contact first occurred via European texts translated and published in Japanese art journals in the 1910s. In the 1920s, Japanese and Chinese artists who studied in Paris, for example those enrolled at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, brought back with them both an understanding of modern art movements, including Cubism. Notable works exhibiting Cubist qualities were Tetsugorō Yorozu's ''Self Portrait with Red Eyes'' (1912) and Fang Ganmin's ''Melody in Autumn'' (1934).


Interpretation


Intentions and criticism

The Cubism of Picasso and Braque had more than a technical or formal significance, and the distinct attitudes and intentions of the Salon Cubists produced different kinds of Cubism, rather than a derivative of their work. "It is by no means clear, in any case," wrote Christopher Green, "to what extent these other Cubists depended on Picasso and Braque for their development of such techniques as faceting, 'passage' and multiple perspective; they could well have arrived at such practices with little knowledge of 'true' Cubism in its early stages, guided above all by their own understanding of Cézanne." The works exhibited by these Cubists at the 1911 and 1912 Salons extended beyond the conventional Cézanne-like subjects—the posed model, still-life and landscape—favored by Picasso and Braque to include large-scale modern-life subjects. Aimed at a large public, these works stressed the use of multiple perspective and complex planar faceting for expressive effect while preserving the eloquence of subjects endowed with literary and philosophical connotations. In ''Du "Cubisme"'' Metzinger and Gleizes explicitly related the sense of time to multiple perspective, giving symbolic expression to the notion of ‘duration’ proposed by the philosopher Henri Bergson according to which life is subjectively experienced as a continuum, with the past flowing into the present and the present merging into the future. The Salon Cubists used the faceted treatment of solid and space and effects of multiple viewpoints to convey a physical and psychological sense of the fluidity of consciousness, blurring the distinctions between past, present and future. One of the major theoretical innovations made by the Salon Cubists, independently of Picasso and Braque, was that of ''simultaneity'', drawing to greater or lesser extent on theories of Henri Poincaré, Ernst Mach, Charles Henry (librarian), Charles Henry, Maurice Princet, and Henri Bergson. With simultaneity, the concept of separate spatial and temporal dimensions was comprehensively challenged. Perspective (graphical), Linear perspective developed during the Renaissance was vacated. The subject matter was no longer considered from a specific point of view at a moment in time, but built following a selection of successive viewpoints, i.e., as if viewed simultaneously from numerous angles (and in multiple dimensions) with the eye free to roam from one to the other. This technique of representing simultaneity, multiple viewpoints (or relative motion) is pushed to a high degree of complexity in Metzinger's ''Nu à la cheminée'', exhibited at the 1910 Salon d'Automne; Gleizes' monumental ''Harvest Threshing, Le Dépiquage des Moissons (Harvest Threshing)'', exhibited at the 1912 Salon de la Section d'Or; Le Fauconnier's ''Abundance'' shown at the Indépendants of 1911; and Delaunay's ''City of Paris'', exhibited at the Indépendants in 1912. These ambitious works are some of the largest paintings in the history of Cubism. Léger's ''The Wedding'', also shown at the Salon des Indépendants in 1912, gave form to the notion of simultaneity by presenting different motifs as occurring within a single temporal frame, where responses to the past and present interpenetrate with collective force. The conjunction of such subject matter with simultaneity aligns Salon Cubism with early Futurist paintings by Umberto Boccioni, Gino Severini and Carlo Carrà; themselves made in response to early Cubism. Cubism and modern art, modern European art was introduced into the United States at the now legendary 1913
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
in New York City, which then traveled to Chicago and Boston. In the Armory show
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
exhibited ''La Femme au pot de moutarde'' (1910), the sculpture ''Head of a Woman (Fernande)'' (1909–10), ''Les Arbres'' (1907) amongst other cubist works.
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
exhibited seven important and large drypoints, while his brother
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
shocked the American public with his painting '' Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2'' (1912).
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wi ...

Francis Picabia
exhibited his abstractions ''La Danse à la source'' and ''La Procession, Seville'' (both of 1912).
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
exhibited ''La Femme aux Phlox (Gleizes), La Femme aux phlox'' (1910) and ''Man on a Balcony (Gleizes), L'Homme au balcon'' (1912), two highly stylized and faceted cubist works.
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
,
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
,
Roger de La Fresnaye Roger de La Fresnaye (; 11 July 1885 – 27 November 1925) was a French Cubist Painting, painter. Early years and education La Fresnaye was born in Le Mans where his father, an officer in the French army, was temporarily stationed. The La Fresnaye ...

Roger de La Fresnaye
and
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American a ...
also contributed examples of their cubist works.


Cubist sculpture

Just as in painting, Cubist sculpture is rooted in Paul Cézanne's reduction of painted objects into component planes and geometric solids (cubes, spheres, cylinders, and cones). And just as in painting, it became a pervasive influence and contributed fundamentally to
Constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
and
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...

Futurism
. Cubist sculpture developed in parallel to Cubist painting. During the autumn of 1909 Picasso sculpted ''Head of a Woman (Fernande)'' with positive features depicted by negative space and vice versa. According to Douglas Cooper: "The first true Cubist sculpture was Picasso's impressive ''Woman's Head'', modeled in 1909–10, a counterpart in three dimensions to many similar analytical and faceted heads in his paintings at the time." These positive/negative reversals were ambitiously exploited by
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American a ...
in 1912–13, for example in ''Woman Walking''.
Joseph Csaky Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are p ...
, after Archipenko, was the first sculptor in Paris to join the Cubists, with whom he exhibited from 1911 onwards. They were followed by
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
and then in 1914 by
Jacques Lipchitz Jacques Lipchitz (26 May 1973) was a Cubism, Cubist sculptor. Lipchitz retained highly figurative and legible components in his work leading up to 1915–16, after which naturalist and descriptive elements were muted, dominated by a synthetic style ...
,
Henri Laurens File:Henri Laurens, Céline Arnauld, Tournevire, 1919.jpg, upHenri Laurens, ''Céline Arnauld'', reproduced in ''Tournevire'', Edition de L'Esprit Nouveau, 1919 Henri Laurens (February 18, 1885 – May 5, 1954) was a French sculpture, sculptor ...

Henri Laurens
and
Ossip Zadkine Ossip Zadkine (russian: Осип Цадкин; 28 January 1888 – 25 November 1967) was a Belarusian-born French naturalized artist. He is primarily known as a sculptor, but also produced paintings and lithographs. Early years and education Zadk ...

Ossip Zadkine
. Indeed, Cubist construction was as influential as any pictorial Cubist innovation. It was the stimulus behind the proto-Constructivist work of both Naum Gabo and Vladimir Tatlin and thus the starting-point for the entire constructive tendency in 20th-century modernist sculpture.


Architecture

Cubism formed an important link between early-20th-century art and architecture. The historical, theoretical, and socio-political relationships between avant-garde practices in painting, sculpture and architecture had early ramifications in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Czechoslovakia. Though there are many points of intersection between Cubism and architecture, only a few direct links between them can be drawn. Most often the connections are made by reference to shared formal characteristics: faceting of form, spatial ambiguity, transparency, and multiplicity. Architectural interest in Cubism centered on the dissolution and reconstitution of three-dimensional form, using simple geometric shapes, juxtaposed without the illusions of classical perspective. Diverse elements could be superimposed, made transparent or penetrate one another, while retaining their spatial relationships. Cubism had become an influential factor in the development of modern architecture from 1912 (''La Maison Cubiste'', by
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
and André Mare) onwards, developing in parallel with architects such as Peter Behrens and Walter Gropius, with the simplification of building design, the use of materials appropriate to industrial production, and the increased use of glass. Cubism was relevant to an architecture seeking a style that needed not refer to the past. Thus, what had become a revolution in both painting and sculpture was applied as part of "a profound reorientation towards a changed world". The Cubo-Futurist ideas of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti influenced attitudes in avant-garde architecture. The influential
De Stijl ''De Stijl'' (; ), Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
movement embraced the aesthetic principles of Neo-plasticism developed by Piet Mondrian under the influence of Cubism in Paris. De Stijl was also linked by
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
to Cubist theory through the writings of Albert Gleizes. However, the linking of basic geometric forms with inherent beauty and ease of industrial application—which had been prefigured by Marcel Duchamp from 1914—was left to the founders of Purism (arts), Purism, Amédée Ozenfant and Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (better known as Le Corbusier,) who exhibited paintings together in Paris and published ''Après le cubisme'' in 1918. Le Corbusier's ambition had been to translate the properties of his own style of Cubism to architecture. Between 1918 and 1922, Le Corbusier concentrated his efforts on Purist theory and painting. In 1922, Le Corbusier and his cousin Jeanneret opened a studio in Paris at 35 rue de Sèvres. His theoretical studies soon advanced into many different architectural projects.


La Maison Cubiste (Cubist House)

At the 1912
Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an art exhibition held annually in Paris, France. Since 2011, it is held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid-October. The fi ...
an architectural installation was exhibited that quickly became known as ''Maison Cubiste'' (Cubist House), with architecture by
Raymond Duchamp-Villon Raymond Duchamp-Villon (5 November 1876 – 9 October 1918) was a France, French sculptor. Duchamp-Villon was born Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp in Damville, Eure, Damville, Eure, in the Normandy region of France, the second son of Eugène and Lu ...
and interior decoration by André Mare along with a group of collaborators. Metzinger and Gleizes in ''
Du "Cubisme" ''Du "Cubisme"'', also written ''Du Cubisme'', or ''Du « Cubisme »'' (and in English, ''On Cubism'' or ''Cubism''), is a book written in 1912 by Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. This was the first major text on Cubism, predating ''The Cubist Pai ...
'', written during the assemblage of the "Maison Cubiste", wrote about the autonomous nature of art, stressing the point that decorative considerations should not govern the spirit of art. Decorative work, to them, was the "antithesis of the picture". "The true picture" wrote Metzinger and Gleizes, "bears its ''raison d'être'' within itself. It can be moved from a church to a drawing-room, from a museum to a study. Essentially independent, necessarily complete, it need not immediately satisfy the mind: on the contrary, it should lead it, little by little, towards the fictitious depths in which the coordinative light resides. It does not harmonize with this or that ensemble; it harmonizes with things in general, with the universe: it is an organism...". ''La Maison Cubiste'' was a fully furnished model house, with a facade, a staircase, wrought iron banisters, and two rooms: a living room—the ''Salon Bourgeois'', where paintings by Marcel Duchamp, Metzinger (''Woman with a Fan''), Gleizes, Laurencin and Léger were hung, and a bedroom. It was an example of ''L'art décoratif'', a home within which Cubist art could be displayed in the comfort and style of modern, bourgeois life. Spectators at the Salon d'Automne passed through the plaster facade, designed by Duchamp-Villon, to the two furnished rooms. This architectural installation was subsequently exhibited at the 1913
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
, New York, Chicago and Boston, listed in the catalogue of the New York exhibit as Raymond Duchamp-Villon, number 609, and entitled ''"Facade architectural, plaster"'' (''Façade architecturale''). The furnishings, wallpaper, upholstery and carpets of the interior were designed by André Mare, and were early examples of the influence of cubism on what would become
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before . Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, s, an ...
. They were composed of very brightly colored roses and other floral patterns in stylized geometric forms. Mare called the living room in which Cubist paintings were hung the ''Salon Bourgeois''. Léger described this name as 'perfect'. In a letter to Mare prior to the exhibition Léger wrote: "Your idea is absolutely splendid for us, really splendid. People will see Cubism in its domestic setting, which is very important. "Mare's ensembles were accepted as frames for Cubist works because they allowed paintings and sculptures their independence", Christopher Green wrote, "creating a play of contrasts, hence the involvement not only of Gleizes and Metzinger themselves, but of Marie Laurencin, the Duchamp brothers (Raymond Duchamp-Villon designed the facade) and Mare's old friends Léger and Roger La Fresnaye". In 1927, Cubists
Joseph Csaky Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are p ...
,
Jacques Lipchitz Jacques Lipchitz (26 May 1973) was a Cubism, Cubist sculptor. Lipchitz retained highly figurative and legible components in his work leading up to 1915–16, after which naturalist and descriptive elements were muted, dominated by a synthetic style ...
, Louis Marcoussis,
Henri Laurens File:Henri Laurens, Céline Arnauld, Tournevire, 1919.jpg, upHenri Laurens, ''Céline Arnauld'', reproduced in ''Tournevire'', Edition de L'Esprit Nouveau, 1919 Henri Laurens (February 18, 1885 – May 5, 1954) was a French sculpture, sculptor ...

Henri Laurens
, the sculptor Gustave Miklos, and others collaborated in the decoration of a Studio House, rue Saint-James, Neuilly-sur-Seine, designed by the architect Paul Ruaud and owned by the French fashion designer Jacques Doucet (fashion designer), Jacques Doucet, also a collector of Post-Impressionist and Cubist paintings (including ''
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (''The Young Ladies of Avignon'', originally titled ''The Brothel of Avignon'') is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. The work, part of the permanent collection of the Museum of ...
'', which he bought directly from Picasso's studio). Laurens designed the fountain, Csaky designed Doucet's staircase, Lipchitz made the fireplace mantel, and Marcoussis made a Cubist rug.


Czech Cubist architecture

The original Cubist architecture is very rare. Cubism was applied to architecture only in Bohemia (today Czech Republic) and especially in its capital, Prague. Czech architects were the first and only ones to ever design original Cubist buildings. Cubist architecture flourished for the most part between 1910 and 1914, but the Cubist or Cubism-influenced buildings were also built after World War I. After the war, the architectural style called ''Rondo-Cubism'' was developed in Prague fusing the Cubist architecture with round shapes. In their theoretical rules, the Cubist architects expressed the requirement of dynamism, which would surmount the matter and calm contained in it, through a creative idea, so that the result would evoke feelings of dynamism and expressive plasticity in the viewer. This should be achieved by shapes derived from pyramids, cubes and prisms, by arrangements and compositions of oblique surfaces, mainly triangular, sculpted facades in protruding crystal-like units, reminiscent of the so-called diamond cut, or even cavernous that are reminiscent of the late Gothic architecture. In this way, the entire surfaces of the facades including even the gables and dormers are sculpted. The grilles as well as other architectural ornaments attain a three-dimensional form. Thus, new forms of windows and doors were also created, e. g. hexagonal windows. Czech Cubist architects also designed Cubist furniture. The leading Cubist architects were Pavel Janák, Josef Gočár, Vlastislav Hofman, Emil Králíček and Josef Chochol. They worked mostly in Prague but also in other Bohemian towns. The best-known Cubist building is the House of the Black Madonna in the Old Town of Prague built in 1912 by Josef Gočár with the only Cubist café in the world, Grand Café Orient. Vlastislav Hofman built the entrance pavilions of Ďáblice cemetery, Ďáblice Cemetery in 1912–1914, Josef Chochol designed several residential houses under Vyšehrad. A Cubist streetlamp has also been preserved near the Wenceslas Square, designed by Emil Králíček in 1912, who also built the Diamond House in the New Town of Prague around 1913.


Cubism in other fields

The influence of cubism extended to other artistic fields, outside painting and sculpture. In literature, the written works of
Gertrude Stein Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the Allegheny West (Pittsburgh), Allegheny West neighborhood and raised in Oakland, Califor ...

Gertrude Stein
employ repetition and repetitive phrases as building blocks in both passages and whole chapters. Most of Stein's important works utilize this technique, including the novel ''The Making of Americans'' (1906–08). Not only were they the first important patrons of Cubism, Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo Stein, Leo were also important influences on Cubism as well. In turn, Picasso was an important influence on Stein's writing. In the field of American fiction, William Faulkner's 1930 novel ''As I Lay Dying (novel), As I Lay Dying'' can be read as an interaction with the cubist mode. The novel features narratives of the diverse experiences of 15 characters which, when taken together, produce a single cohesive body. The poets generally associated with Cubism are
Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written ...

Guillaume Apollinaire
, Blaise Cendrars, Jean Cocteau, Max Jacob,
André Salmon André Salmon (4 October 1881, Paris – 12 March 1969, Sanary-sur-Mer) was a French poet, art critic and writer. He was one of the early defenders of Cubism, with Guillaume Apollinaire and Maurice Raynal. Biography André Salmon was born in Par ...
and Pierre Reverdy. As American poet Kenneth Rexroth explains, Cubism in poetry "is the conscious, deliberate dissociation and recombination of elements into a new artistic entity made self-sufficient by its rigorous architecture. This is quite different from the free association of the Surrealists and the combination of unconscious utterance and political nihilism of Dada." Nonetheless, the Cubist poets' influence on both Cubism and the later movements of
Dada : left, ''Le saint des saints c'est de moi qu'il s'agit dans ce portrait'', 1 July 1915; center, ''Portrait d'une jeune fille americaine dans l'état de nudité'', 5 July 1915; right, ''J'ai vu et c'est de toi qu'il s'agit, De Zayas! De Zayas! Je ...

Dada
and Surrealism was profound; Louis Aragon, founding member of Surrealism, said that for Breton, Soupault, Éluard and himself, Reverdy was "our immediate elder, the exemplary poet." Though not as well remembered as the Cubist painters, these poets continue to influence and inspire; American poets John Ashbery and Ron Padgett have recently produced new translations of Pierre Reverdy, Reverdy's work. Wallace Stevens' "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird" is also said to demonstrate how cubism's multiple perspectives can be translated into poetry.
John Berger John Peter Berger (; 5 November 1926 – 2 January 2017) was an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet. His novel ''G. (novel), G.'' won the 1972 Booker Prize, and his essay on art criticism ''Ways of Seeing'', written as an accompanimen ...
said: "It is almost impossible to exaggerate the importance of Cubism. It was a revolution in the visual arts as great as that which took place in the early Renaissance. Its effects on later art, on film, and on architecture are already so numerous that we hardly notice them."Berger, John. (1965). The Success and Failure of Picasso. Penguin Books, Ltd. p. 73. .


Gallery

File:Georges Braque, 1909-10, La guitare (Mandora, La Mandore), oil on canvas, 71.1 x 55.9 cm, Tate Modern, London.jpg,
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, 1909–10, ''La guitare (Mandora, La Mandore)'', oil on canvas, 71.1 x 55.9 cm, Tate Modern, London File:Albert Gleizes, 1910, Femme aux Phlox, oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, exhibited Armory Show, New York, 1913, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston..jpg,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1910, ''La Femme aux Phlox, La Femme aux Phlox (Woman with Phlox)'', oil on canvas, 81 x 100 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Exhibited in Room 41,
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
1911,
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
1913 File:Violin and Candlestick.jpg,
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, 1910, ''Violin and Candlestick'', oil on canvas, 60.96 x 50.17 cm, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art File:Jean Metzinger, 1910-11, Deux Nus (Two Nudes, Two Women), oil on canvas, 92 x 66 cm, Gothenburg Museum of Art, Sweden.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1910–11, ''Deux Nus'' (''Two Nudes'', ''Two Women''), oil on canvas, 92 x 66 cm, Gothenburg Museum of Art, Sweden. Exhibited at the first Cubist manifestation, Room 41 of the 1911
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
, Paris File:Robert Delaunay, 1910, La ville no. 2, oil on canvas, 146 x 114 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.jpg,
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
, 1910–11, ''La ville no. 2'', oil on canvas, 146 x 114 cm, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris File:Henri Le Fauconnier, 1910-11, L'Abondance (Abundance), oil on canvas, 191 x 123 cm (75.25 x 48.5 in.), Gemeentemuseum Den Haag.jpg,
Henri Le Fauconnier Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubism, Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le ...
, 1910–11, ''L'Abondance (Abundance)'', oil on canvas, 191 x 123 cm, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag File:Marcel Duchamp, 1911, La sonate (Sonata), oil on canvas, 145.1 x 113.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, 1911, ''La sonate (Sonata)'', oil on canvas, 145.1 x 113.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art File:Pablo Picasso, 1911, La Femme au Violon, oil on canvas, private collection, on long-term loan to Bavarian State Painting Collections, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich.jpg, Pablo Picasso, 1911, ''La Femme au Violon'', oil on canvas, private collection, on long-term loan to Bavarian State Painting Collections, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich File:Fernand Léger, 1911-1912, Les Fumeurs (The Smokers), oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.5 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York..jpg,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
, 1911–1912, ''Les Fumeurs (The Smokers)'', oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.5 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York File:Georges Braque, 1911-12, Man with a Guitar (Figure, L’homme à la guitare), oil on canvas, 116.2 x 80.9 cm (45.75 x 31.9 in), Museum of Modern Art, New York.jpg,
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, 1911–12, ''Man with a Guitar (Figure, L’homme à la guitare)'', oil on canvas, 116.2 x 80.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art File:Jacques Villon, 1912, Girl at the Piano, oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.4 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York...jpg,
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
, 1912, ''Girl at the Piano (Fillette au piano)'', oil on canvas, 129.2 x 96.4 cm, oval, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Exhibited at the 1913
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
File:Francis Picabia, 1912, La Source, The Spring, oil on canvas, 249.6 x 249.3 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Exhibited, 1912 Salon d'Automne, Paris.jpg,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wi ...

Francis Picabia
, 1912, ''La Source'' (''The Spring''), oil on canvas, 249.6 x 249.3 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York File:Fernand Léger, 1912-13, Nude Model in the Studio (Le modèle nu dans l'atelier), oil on burlap, 128.6 x 95.9 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim.jpg,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
, 1912–13, ''Nude Model in the Studio (Le modèle nu dans l'atelier)'', oil on burlap, 128.6 x 95.9 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York File:Albert Gleizes, 1912-13, Les Joueurs de football (Football Players), oil on canvas, 225.4 x 183 cm, National Gallery of Art.jpg,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1912–13, ''Les Joueurs de football, Les Joueurs de football (Football Players)'', oil on canvas, 225.4 x 183 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. File:Jean Metzinger, 1912-1913, L'Oiseau bleu, (The Blue Bird) oil on canvas, 230 x 196 cm, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris..jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1912–1913, ''L'Oiseau bleu (Metzinger), L'Oiseau bleu (The Blue Bird)'', oil on canvas, 230 x 196 cm, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants, 1913 File:Femme en chemise assise dans un fauteuil.jpg,
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
, 1913–14, ''Femme assise dans un fauteuil (Eva), Woman in an Armchair'', oil on canvas, 149.9 x 99.4 cm, Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection File:Juan Gris, 1915, Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux (Still Life with Checked Tablecloth), oil on canvas, 116.5 x 89.3 cm.jpg,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, 1915, ''Nature morte à la nappe à carreaux (Still Life with Checked Tablecloth)'', oil and graphite on canvas, 116.5 x 89.2 cm,
Metropolitan Museum of Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also ...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
, Leonard Lauder, Leonard A. Lauder collection File:RamónGómezdelaSerna.JPG,
Diego Rivera Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (; December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), was a prominent Mexican painter. His large fresco Fresco (plural ''fre ...

Diego Rivera
, 1915, ''Portrait of Ramón Gómez de la Serna'', 109.6 × 90.2 cm. MALBA, Latin American Art Museum of Buenos Aires File:Jean Metzinger, 1916, Femme au miroir (Femme à sa toilette, Lady at her Dressing Table), oil on canvas, 92.4 x 65.1 cm, private collection.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, April 1916, ''Femme au miroir, Femme au miroir (Femme à sa toilette, Lady at her Dressing Table)'', oil on canvas, 92.4 x 65.1 cm, private collection File:Portrait of Josette 1916 Juan Gris.jpg,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, October 1916, ''Portrait of Josette'', oil on canvas, 116 x 73 cm, Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid File:Pablo Picasso, 1918, Arlequin au violon (Harlequin with Violin), oil on canvas, 142 x 100.3 cm, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio.jpeg, Pablo Picasso, 1918, ''Arlequin au violon (Harlequin with Violin)'', oil on canvas, 142 x 100.3 cm, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio File:Gino Severini, 1919, Bohémien Jouant de L'Accordéon (The Accordion Player).jpg,
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1919, ''Bohémien Jouant de L'Accordéon (The Accordion Player)'', Museo del Novecento, Milan File:Albert Gleizes, 1920, Femme au gant noir (Woman with Black Glove), oil on canvas, 126 x 100 cm. Private collection.jpg,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1920, ''Woman with Black Glove, Femme au gant noir (Woman with Black Glove)'', oil on canvas, 126 x 100 cm, National Gallery of Australia


Press articles and reviews

File:Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Jean Metzinger, El Correo Catalán, 25 April 1912.jpg, Paintings by
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1910–11, ''Paysage, Landscape'';
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
(drawing);
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, c.1911, ''Nature morte (Metzinger), Nature morte, Compotier et cruche décorée de cerfs''. Published on the front page of ''El Correo Catalán'', 25 April 1912 File:Alexander Archipenko, Jean Metzinger, Au Salon des Indépendants, Le Petit Comtois, 13 March 1914.jpg, (center)
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, c.1913, ''Le Fumeur, Le Fumeur (Man with Pipe)'', Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh; (left)
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American a ...
, 1914, ''Danseuse du Médrano (Médrano II)'', (right) Archipenko, 1913, ''Pierrot-carrousel'', Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Published in ''Le Petit Comtois'', 13 March 1914 File:Fernand Léger, Jean Metzinger, Alexander Archipenko, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, n. 1529, 13 October 1912.jpg, Paintings by
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
, 1912, ''La Femme en Bleu, Woman in Blue'', Kunstmuseum Basel;
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1912, ''Dancer in a café'', Albright-Knox Art Gallery; and sculpture by
Alexander Archipenko Alexander Porfyrovych Archipenko (also referred to as Olexandr, Oleksandr, or Aleksandr; uk, Олександр Порфирович Архипенко, Romanized: Olexandr Porfyrovych Arkhypenko; February 25, 1964) was a Ukrainian and American a ...
, 1912, ''La Vie Familiale, Family Life'' (destroyed). Published in ''Les Annales politiques et littéraires'', n. 1529, 13 October 1912 File:Gino Severini, La Danse du Pan-Pan, L’autobus, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, 14 March 1920.jpg, Paintings by
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''La Danse du Pan-Pan'', and Severini, 1913, ''L’autobus''. Published in "Les Annales politiques et littéraires", ''Le Paradoxe Cubiste'', 14 March 1920 File:Gino Severini, Albert Gleizes, Luigi Russolo, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, n. 1916, 14 March 1920.jpg, Paintings by
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''Souvenirs de Voyage'';
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1912, ''Man on a Balcony, Man on a Balcony, L’Homme au balcon''; Severini, 1912–13, ''Portrait de Mlle Jeanne Paul-Fort''; Luigi Russolo, 1911–12, ''La Révolte''. Published in "Les Annales politiques et littéraires", ''Le Paradoxe Cubiste'' (continued), n. 1916, 14 March 1920 File:Henri Le Fauconnier (L'Abondance), Jean Metzinger, (Le Goûter), Robert Delaunay (La Tour Eiffel), La Veu de Catalunya, 1 February 1912.jpg, Paintings by
Henri Le Fauconnier Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier (July 5, 1881 – December 25, 1946) was a French Cubism, Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le ...
, 1910–11, ''L'Abondance'', Haags Gemeentemuseum;
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1911, ''Le goûter (Tea Time)'', Philadelphia Museum of Art;
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
, 1910–11, ''La Tour Eiffel''. Published in ''La Veu de Catalunya'', 1 February 1912 File:Jean Metzinger, Gino Severini, Albert Gleizes, Les Annales politiques et littéraires, Sommaire du n. 1536, décembre 1912.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1910–11, ''Paysage'' (whereabouts unknown);
Gino Severini Gino Severini (7 April 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Paris and Rome. He was associated with neo-classicism and the " return to or ...

Gino Severini
, 1911, ''La danseuse obsedante'';
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1912, ''Man on a Balcony, l'Homme au Balcon, Man on a Balcony (Portrait of Dr. Théo Morinaud)''. Published in "Les Annales politiques et littéraires", ''Sommaire'' du n. 1536, décembre 1912 File:Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin, August Agero, Veu de Catalunya, 25 April 1912.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, c.1911, ''Nature morte (Metzinger), Nature morte, Compotier et cruche décorée de cerfs'';
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, 1911,
Study for Man in a Café
'; Marie Laurencin, c.1911, ''Testa ab plechs''; August Agero, sculpture, ''Bust'';
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, 1912, ''Guitar and Glasses'', or ''Banjo and Glasses''. Published in ''Veu de Catalunya'', 25 April 1912 File:Jean Metzinger, Le Goûter (Tea Time), published in Le Journal, 30 September 1911.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1911, ''Le goûter (Tea Time)'', Philadelphia Museum of Art. Published in ''Le Journal'', 30 September 1911 File:Juan Gris, August Agero, Jean Metzinger, Marie Laurencin, Albert Gleizes, La Publicidad, 26 April 1912.jpg, Paintings by
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
, ''Bodegón''; August Agero (sculpture);
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, 1910–11, ''Deux Nus, Deux Nus, Two Nudes'', Gothenburg Museum of Art; Marie Laurencin (acrylic);
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, 1911, '':File:Albert Gleizes, 1911, Paysage (Landscape), oil on canvas, 71 x 91.5 cm. Reproduced frontispiece catalogue Galeries Dalmau, Barcelona, 1912.jpg, Paysage, Landscape''. Published in ''La Publicidad'', 26 April 1912 File:Umberto Boccioni (La rue entre dans la maison), Luigi Russolo (Souvenir d’une nuit), Les Annales politiques et littéraires, 1 December 1912.jpg, Umberto Boccioni, 1911, ''La rue entre dans la maison''; Luigi Russolo, 1911, ''Souvenir d’une nuit''. Published in ''Les Annales politiques et littéraires'', 1 December 1912 File:Francis Picabia paintings published in New York Tribune, 9 March 1913.jpg,
Francis Picabia Francis Picabia (: born Francis-Marie Martinez de Picabia; 22January 1879 – 30November 1953) was a French avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wi ...

Francis Picabia
, paintings published in the ''New York Tribune'', 9 March 1913. Picabia held his first one-man show in New York, ''Exhibition of New York studies by Francis Picabia'', at 291 (art gallery), 291 art gallery (formerly ''Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession''), March 17 - April 5, 1913 File:Joseph Csaky, Robert Delaunay, Henry Ottmann, The Sun (New York), 15 March 1914.jpg,
Joseph Csaky Joseph Csaky (also written Josef Csàky, Csáky József, József Csáky and Joseph Alexandre Czaky) (18 March 1888 – 1 May 1971) was a Hungarian avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are p ...
, ''Head'', 1913, plaster lost;
Robert Delaunay Robert Delaunay (12 April 1885 – 25 October 1941) was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, co-founded the Orphism (art), Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His later works wer ...
, ''Hommage à Blériot'', 1914 (Kunstmuseum Basel); Henri Ottmann, ''The Hat Seller'', published in ''The Sun'', New York, 15 March 1914 File:Albert Gleizes, Jean Crotti, Marcel Duchamp, The Sun, New York, 2 January 1916.jpg,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
, (left) in front of his painting ''Jazz''; Jean Crotti (center) studying his ''Femme à la toque rouge'';
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
(right) at his drawing board, in front of
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
's ''Portrait de M. J. B. peintre'', ''The Sun'', New York, 2 January 1916 File:Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Crotti, Hugo Robus, Stanton MacDonald-Wright, Frances Simpson Stevens, Every Week, No. 14, April 2, 1917.jpg, Albert Gleizes (with ''Chal Post'', 1915);
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
(with his brother
Jacques Villon Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 – June 9, 1963), also known as Gaston Duchamp, was a French Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or w ...
's ''Portrait de M. J. B. peintre (Jacques Bon)'' 1914); Jean Crotti; Hugo Robus; Stanton Macdonald-Wright; and Frances Simpson Stevens (center), ''Every Week'', Vol. 4, No. 14, April 2, 1917, p. 14 File:Jean Metzinger, 1916, Femme au miroir (Femme à sa toilette, Lady at her Dressing Table), published in The Sun, New York, 28 April 1918.jpg,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
, April 1916, ''Femme au miroir, Femme au miroir (Femme à sa toilette, Lady at her Dressing Table)'', ''The Sun'', New York, Sunday 28 April 1918


See also

* Fourth dimension in art * Precisionism * Proto-Cubism * Rayonism *
Section d'Or , 1911, '' La Chasse (the Hunt)'', oil on canvas, 123.2 x 99 cm. Published in '' L'Intransigeant'', 10 October 1911, ''The Cubist Painters, Aesthetic Meditations, Les Peintres Cubistes'' 1913, by G. Apollinaire, and Au Salon d'Automne', Revue d'Eur ...


References


Further reading

* Alfred H. Barr, Jr., ''Cubism and Abstract Art,'' New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936. * * * Paolo Vincenzo Genovese, ''Cubismo in architettura'', Mancosu Editore, Roma, 2010. In Italian. * John Golding, ''Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907-1914,'' New York: Wittenborn, 1959. * John Richardson (art historian), Richardson, John. ''A Life Of Picasso, The Cubist Rebel 1907–1916.'' New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. * Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten, ''A Cubism Reader, Documents and Criticism, 1906–1914'', The University of Chicago Press, 2008 * Christopher Green, ''Cubism and its Enemies, Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–28'', Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1987 * Mikhail Lifshitz
''The Crisis of Ugliness: From Cubism to Pop-Art''
Translated and with an Introduction by David Riff. Leiden: BRILL, 2018 (originally published in Russian by Iskusstvo, 1968) * Daniel Robbins, ''Sources of Cubism and Futurism'', Art Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4, (Winter 1981) * Cécile Debray, Françoise Lucbert, ''La Section d'or, 1912-1920-1925'', Musées de Châteauroux, Musée Fabre, exhibition catalogue, Éditions Cercle d'art, Paris, 2000 * Ian Johnston, ''s:Preliminary Notes on Cubist Architecture in Prague, Preliminary Notes on Cubist Architecture in Prague'', 2004


External links


Cubism, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art''Cubism'', Agence Photographique de la Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées (RMN)Cubism, Guggenheim Collection OnlineIndex of Historic Collectors and Dealers of Cubism, Leonard A. Lauder Research Center for Modern Art, Metropolitan Museum of ArtElizabeth Carlson, ''Cubist Fashion: Mainstreaming Modernism after the Armory''
Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring 2014), pp. 1–28. {{Authority control (arts) Cubism, Art movements Modern art Abstract art Cubes 20th century in art 20th century in the arts Art movements in Europe French artist groups and collectives