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The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, , to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
with the marriage of the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
up to the
promulgation Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statutory A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, State (polity), state, or country by way ...
of the
Nueva Planta decrees The Nueva Planta decrees ( es, link=no, Decretos de Nueva Planta, ca, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements ...
by
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
in 1715. In 1492, the voyage of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
and the discovery of the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
were major events in the history of Castile. The
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, in ...
, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The discovery of the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
, the
Conquest of Mexico The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico or the Spanish-Aztec War (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain ...
, the Conquest of Peru, the Conquest of New Granada as well as the Conquest of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
all helped shape The Crown of Castile into a global empire in the 16th Century. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon,
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...

Majorca
,
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
, and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, and Count of
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
,
Roussillon File:wine600.jpg, 200px, Grape pickers near Maury, Pyrénées-Orientales, Maury Roussillon ( , , ; ca, Rosselló ; oc, Rosselhon ) is a historical province of France that largely corresponded to the County of Roussillon and French Cerdagn ...

Roussillon
and
Cerdagne Cerdanya () or often La Cerdanya ( la, Ceretani or ''Ceritania''; french: Cerdagne; es, Cerdaña), is a and of the eastern divided between and . Historically it was one of the . Cerdanya has a land area of , divided almost evenly between Spa ...
, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, won the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
and imposed unification policies over the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the
Nueva Planta decrees The Nueva Planta decrees ( es, link=no, Decretos de Nueva Planta, ca, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements ...
did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians.


History


Preceding events


Two kingdoms: León and Castile


=Towards unification

= The Kingdom of León arose out of the
Kingdom of Asturias The Kingdom of Asturias ( la, Asturum Regnum; ast, Reinu d'Asturies) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous commun ...
. The Kingdom of Castile appeared initially as a county of the Kingdom of León. From the second half of the 10th century to the first half of the 11th century it changed hands between León and the Kingdom of Navarre. In the 11th century, it became a kingdom in its own right. The two kingdoms had been united twice previously: *From 1037 until 1065 under
Ferdinand I of León Ferdinand I ( 1015 – 24 December 1065), called the Great (''el Magno''), was the Count of Castile from his uncle's death in 1029 and the King of León after defeating his brother-in-law in 1037. According to tradition, he was the first to have h ...

Ferdinand I of León
. Upon his death his kingdoms passed to his sons, León to
Alfonso VI Alphons (Latinized ''Alphonsus'', ''Adelphonsus'', or ''Adefonsus'') is a male given name recorded from the 8th century (Alfonso I of Asturias, r. 739-757) in the Christian successor states of the Visigothic kingdom in the Iberian peninsula. In ...

Alfonso VI
, Castile to , and Galicia to García. *From 1072 until 1157 under Alfonso VI (died 1109),
UrracaUrraca (also spelled ''Hurraca'', ''Urracha'' and ''Hurracka'' in medieval Latin) is a female given name, first name. In Spanish language, Spanish, the name means magpie, derived perhaps from Latin ''furax'', meaning "thievish", in reference to the ...

Urraca
(died 1126), and
Alfonso VII Alphons (Latinized ''Alphonsus'', ''Adelphonsus'', or ''Adefonsus'') is a male given name recorded from the 8th century ( Alfonso I of Asturias, r. 739-757) in the Christian successor states of the Visigothic kingdom in the Iberian peninsula. ...

Alfonso VII
. From 1111 until 1126 Galicia was separate from the union under Alfonso VII. In 1157 the kingdoms were divided between Alfonso's sons, with Ferdinand II receiving León and Castile.


=Occupation of western Navarre

= From 1199 to 1201 under
Alfonso VIII Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (''El Noble'') or the one of Las Navas (''el de las Navas''), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and Kingdom of Toledo, King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in ...
the Castilian king's armies invaded the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
, annexing thereafter
Álava Álava ( in Spanish language, Spanish) or Araba ( in Basque language, Basque, dialectal: ), officially Araba/Álava, is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Cou ...

Álava
,
Durangaldea Durangaldea (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Duranguesado'') is a comarcas of Spain, comarca of Biscay located in the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country, Spain. It is one of the seven ''eskualdeak/comarcas'' or regions that compose ...
and
Gipuzkoa Gipuzkoa (, , ; es, Guipúzcoa ; french: Guipuscoa) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), autonomous community of the Basque Country. Its capital city is San Sebasti ...

Gipuzkoa
, including
San Sebastián San Sebastian, also known as Donostia-San Sebastián (official names in both local languages: ''Donostia'' () and ''San Sebastián'' ()) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geograp ...

San Sebastián
and Vitoria (Gasteiz). However, these western Basque territories saw their Navarrese charters confirmed under Castilian rule.


Crown of Castile from the rule of Ferdinand III until the ascension of Charles I


Union of the two kingdoms under Ferdinand III

received the Kingdom of Castile from his mother, Queen
Berengaria of Castile Berengaria ( Castilian: ''Berenguela''; nicknamed the Great (Castilian: la Grande); 1179 or 1180 – 8 November 1246) was queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II Ne ...

Berengaria of Castile
granddaughter of Sancho III in 1217, and the Kingdom of León from his father
Alfonso IX of León Alfonso IX (15 August 117123 or 24 September 1230) was king of León In the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias (850–866), the kingdom began to be known as that of León. In 910, an independent Kingdom of León was founded when the king of ...

Alfonso IX of León
son of Ferdinand II in 1230. From then on the two kingdoms were united under the name of the Kingdom of León and Castile, or simply as the Crown of Castile. Ferdinand III later conquered the Guadalquivir Valley, while his son Alfonso X conquered the
Kingdom of Murcia The Kingdom of Murcia ( es, Reino de Murcia) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the ...
from , further extending the area of the Crown of Castile. Given this, the kings of the Crown of Castile traditionally styled themselves "King of Castile, León,
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
,
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
,
Murcia Murcia (, , ) is a city in south-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Murcia
, Jaén, Córdoba,
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
, and Lord of
Biscay Biscay (; eu, Bizkaia ; es, Vizcaya ) is a Provinces of Spain, province of Spain, lying on the south shore of the Bay of Biscay, eponymous bay. The name also refers to a historical territory of the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque ...
and ", among other possessions they later gained. The heir to the throne has been titled
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title A substantive title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...
since the 14th century.


Union of the ''Cortes'' and the legal code

Almost immediately after the union of the two kingdoms under Ferdinand III, the parliaments of Castile and León were united. It was divided into three estates, which corresponded with the nobility, the church and the cities, and included representation from Castile, León,
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...

Galicia
,
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
, and the Basque Provinces. Initially the number of cities represented in the Cortes varied over the next century, until
John IJohn I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem) * John Chrysostom (349 – c. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople * John of Antioch (died 441) * Pope John I Pope John I ( la, Ioannes I; died 18 May 526) was the bishop of Rome A bish ...
permanently set those that would be allowed to send representatives (''procuradores''):
Burgos Burgos ( , , ) is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is the capital and most populated municipality of the province of Burgos. It is situated in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, on the confluence of t ...

Burgos
,
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
, León, Sevilla, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Zamora,
Segovia Segovia (, also , ) is a city in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It is the capital and most populated municipality of the Province of Segovia. Segovia is in the Inner Plateau, near the norther ...

Segovia
, Ávila,
Salamanca Salamanca ( , ) is a city situated in western Spain and is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León. The city lies on several rolling hills by the Tormes River. It ...

Salamanca
,
Cuenca Cuenca may refer to: People * Cuenca (surname) Places Ecuador * Cuenca Canton, in the Azuay Province ** Cuenca, Ecuador, capital of Cuenca Canton and Azuay Province ** Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cuenca Peru * Cuenca District, Huarochirí * ...

Cuenca
, Toro,
Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary seat of government of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people (2013 est.), Population figures from 1 January 2013. ma ...

Valladolid
,
Soria Soria () is a municipality and a Spanish city, located on the Douro river in the east of the autonomous community of Castile and León and capital of the province of Soria. Its population is 38,881 ( INE, 2017), 43.7% of the provincial populat ...
,
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
and
Guadalajara Guadalajara ( , ) is a metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international ...
(with Granada added after its conquest in 1492). Under
Alfonso X Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, es, el Sabio; 23 November 1221 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile, Kingdom of León, León and Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. During the April 1257 Imperial election, ...

Alfonso X
, most sessions of the Cortes of both kingdoms were held jointly. The Cortes of 1258 in Valladolid comprised representatives of Castile, Extremadura and León ("''de Castiella e de Estremadura e de tierra de León''") and those of Seville in 1261 of Castile, León and all other kingdoms ("''de Castiella e de León e de todos los otros nuestros Regnos''"). Subsequent Cortes were celebrated separately, for example in 1301 that of Castile in Burgos and that of León in Zamora, but the representatives demanded that the parliaments be reunited from then on. Although the individual kingdoms and cities initially retained their individual historical rights-including the Old
Fuero confirming the ''fueros'' of Biscay at Guernica (town), Guernica in 1476 ''Fuero'' (), ''Fur'' (), ''Foro'' () or ''Foru'' () is a Spain, Spanish legal term and concept. The word comes from Latin ''Forum (Roman), forum'', an open space used as a ...
of Castile (Viejo Fuero de Castilla) and the different ''fueros'' of the municipal councils of Castile, León, Extremadura and Andalucía-a unified legal code for the entire new kingdom was created in the
Siete Partidas. The ''Siete Partidas'' (, "Seven-Part Code") or simply ''Partidas'' was a Crown of Castile, Castilian statutory code first compiled during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, es, el Sabio; 23 November 1221 4 ...
(c. 1265), the Ordenamiento de Alcalá (1248) and the Leyes de Toro (1505). These laws continued to be in force until 1889, when a new Spanish civil code, the Código Civil Español, was enacted.


Spanish languages and universities

In the 13th century there were many languages spoken in the Kingdoms of León and Castile among them
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
, Leonese,
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to th ...
and
Galician-Portuguese Galician-Portuguese ( gl, galego-portugués or ', pt, galego-português or ), also known as Old Portuguese or as Medieval Galician when referring to the history of each modern language, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle A ...
. But, as the century progressed, Castilian gained increasing prominence as the language of culture and communication- one example of this is the ''
Cantar de Mio Cid ''El Cantar de mio Cid'', literally "The Song of my Cid" (or ''El Poema de mio Cid''), also known in English as ''The Poem of the Cid'', is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem An epic poem is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily invol ...
''. In the last years of the reign of , Castilian began to be used for some important documents, such as the
Visigothic Code The cover of an edition of the Liber Iudiciorum from 1600. The Visigothic Code ( la, Forum Iudicum, Liber Iudiciorum; es, Libro de los Jueces, Book of the Judges), also called ''Lex Visigothorum'' (English: Law of the Visigoths), is a set of laws f ...
, the basis of the legal code for Christians living in Muslim Cordova, but it was during the reign of
Alfonso X Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, es, el Sabio; 23 November 1221 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile, Kingdom of León, León and Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. During the April 1257 Imperial election, ...

Alfonso X
that it became the official language. Henceforth all public documents were written in Castilian, likewise all translations of
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
legal and government documents were made into Castilian instead of Latin. Some scholars think that the substitution of Castilian for Latin was due to the strength of the new language, whereas others consider that it was due to the influence of Hebrew-speaking intellectuals who were hostile towards Latin, the language of the Christian Church. In 1492, under the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
, the first edition of the ''
Grammar of the Castilian Language In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...
'' by
Antonio de Nebrija Antonio de Nebrija (14445 July 1522) was the most influential Spanish humanist Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge ...

Antonio de Nebrija
was published. Castilian was eventually carried to the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
in the 16th century by the
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
s. Because of Castilian's importance in the land ruled by the
Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...
, the language is also known as Spanish. Furthermore, in the 13th century many universities were founded where instruction was in Castilian, such as the Leonese
University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca ( es, Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level ...

University of Salamanca
, the Castilian ''Estudio General'' of Palencia and the
University of Valladolid The University of Valladolid is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational governme ...
, which were among the first universities in Europe.


Ascension of the Trastámara dynasty

On the death of
Alfonso XI Alfonso XI (13 August 131126 March 1350), called the Avenger (''el Justiciero''), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, seve ...

Alfonso XI
a dynastic conflict started between his sons, the ''Infantes'' Peter (Pedro) and
Henry Henry may refer to: People *Henry (given name) Henry is a masculine given name derived from Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century ...

Henry
, Count of Trastámara, which became entangled in the
Hundred Years' War The Hundred Years’ War (french: link=yes, La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of armed conflicts between the kingdoms of and during the . It originated from disputed claims to the between the English and the French roy ...
(between England and France). Alfonso XI had married Maria of Portugal with whom he had his heir, the ''Infante'' Peter. However, the King also had many illegitimate children with
Eleanor of Guzman Eleanor () is a feminine given name, originally from an Old French respelling of the Old Provençal dialect, Provençal name ''Aliénor''. It is the name of a number of women of the high nobility in western Europe during the High Middle Ages. The ...
, among them the above-mentioned Henry, who disputed Peter's right to the throne once the latter became king. In the resulting struggle, in which both brothers claimed to be king, Pedro allied himself with , "the Black Prince". In 1367, the Black Prince defeated Henry II's allies at the
Battle of Nájera The Battle of Nájera, also known as the Battle of Navarrete, was fought on 3 April 1367 near Nájera, in the province of La Rioja (autonomous community), La Rioja, Crown of Castile, Castile. It was an episode of the first Castilian Civil War wh ...
, restoring Pedro's control of the kingdom. The Black Prince, seeing that the king would not reimburse his expenses, left Castile. Henry, who had fled to France, took advantage of the opportunity and recommenced the fight. Henry finally was victorious in 1369 in the
Battle of Montiel The Battle of Montiel was a battle fought on 14 March 1369 between the Franco-Castilian forces supporting Henry of Trastámara and the Grenadian-Castilian forces supporting the reigning Peter of Castile Peter ( es, Pedro; 30 August 133423 Mar ...

Battle of Montiel
, in which he had Peter killed. In 1371 the brother of the Black Prince,
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster John of Gaunt (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English prince, military leader, and statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edwar ...
, married
Constance Constance may refer to: Places *Konstanz Konstanz (, , locally: ; also written as Constance in English) is a with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of in the south of . The city houses the and was the residence o ...
, Peter's daughter. In 1386, he claimed the Crown of Castile in the name of his wife, the legitimate heir according to the Cortes de Seville of 1361. He arrived in
A Coruña A Coruña (; Spanish language, Spanish: ''La Coruña'', Help:IPA/Spanish, a koˈɾuɲa historical English language, English: Corunna or The Groyne) is a city and municipality of Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated ...

A Coruña
with an army and took the city. He then moved on to occupy
Santiago de Compostela Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the S ...

Santiago de Compostela
,
Pontevedra Pontevedra (, ) is a Spanish city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. It is the capital of both the ''Pontevedra (comarca), Comarca'' (County) and Province of Pontevedra, and of the Rias Baixas in Galicia, Spain, Galicia. It is also the ...

Pontevedra
and Vigo. He asked
John IJohn I may refer to: People * John I (bishop of Jerusalem) * John Chrysostom (349 – c. 407), Patriarch of Constantinople * John of Antioch (died 441) * Pope John I Pope John I ( la, Ioannes I; died 18 May 526) was the bishop of Rome A bish ...
, Henry II's son, to give up the throne in favor of Constance. John declined but proposed that his son, the ''Infante'' Henry III of Castile, Henry, marry John of Gaunt's daughter Catherine of Lancaster, Catherine. The proposal was accepted, and the title
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title A substantive title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify ...
was created for Henry and Catherine. This ended the dynastic conflict, strengthened the House of Trastámara's position and created peace between England and Castile.


Relations with the Crown of Aragon during the 14th century

During the reign of Henry III of Castile, Henry III royal power was restored, overshadowing the much powerful Castilian nobility. In his later years Henry delegated some of his power to his brother Ferdinand I of Aragon, Ferdinand I of Antequera, who would be regent, along with his wife Catherine of Lancaster, during the childhood of his son John II of Castile, John II. After the Compromise of Caspe in 1412, Ferdinand left Castile to become King of
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_n ...
. Upon the death of his mother, John II at the age of 14, took to the throne and married his cousin Maria of Aragon, Queen of Castile, Maria of Aragon. The young king entrusted his government to regent Álvaro de Luna, the most influential person in court and allied with the lesser nobility, the cities, the clergy, and the Jews. This brought together the mutual dislikes of the king shared by the greater Castilian nobility and the Aragonese ''Infantes'', sons of Ferdinand I of Antequera, who sought to control the Castilian crown. This eventually led to war in 1429 and 1430 between the two kingdoms. Álvaro de Luna, 1st Duke of Trujillo, Álvaro de Luna won the war and expelled the Aragonese ''Infantes'' from Castile.


Second Conflict of Succession

Henry IV of Castile, Henry IV unsuccessfully tried to re-establish the peace with the nobility that his father, John II, had shattered. When his second wife, Joan of Portugal, gave birth to Joanna La Beltraneja, Infanta Joanna, it was claimed that she was the result of an affair of the Queen with Beltrán de la Cueva, one of the King's chief ministers. The King, besieged by riots and the demands of the nobles, had to sign a treaty in which he named as his successor his half-brother Alfonso, Prince of Asturias (1453-1468), Alfonso, leaving Infanta Joanna out of the line of succession. After the death of Alfonso in an accident, Henry IV signed the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando with his half-sister Isabella I of Castile, Isabella I in which he named her heiress in return for her marrying a prince chosen by him.


Catholic Monarchs: Union with the Crown of Aragon

In October 1469 Isabella I of Castile, Isabella I and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Ferdinand II, heir to the throne of Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon, married in secret in the ''Palacio de los Vivero'' in Castilian
Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary seat of government of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people (2013 est.), Population figures from 1 January 2013. ma ...

Valladolid
. The consequence was a dynastic union of the Crown of Castile and the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
in 1479 when Ferdinand ascended to the Aragonese throne. This union however was not effective until the reign of his grandson Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). Ferdinand and Isabella were related and had married without papal approval. Although Isabella wanted to marry Ferdinand, she refused to proceed with the marriage until she received a Papal dispensation. Consequently, Ferdinand's father forged a papal dispensation for the two to marry. Isabella believed that the dispensation was authentic and the marriage went ahead. A genuine papal dispensation arrived afterwards. Later Pope Alexander VI bestowed upon them the title of ''Catholic Monarchs, 'los Reyes Católicos''' ('the Catholic Monarchs'). Henry IV of Castile, Henry IV, half brother of Isabella, considered the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella as breaking the Treaty of the Bulls of Guisando, under which Isabella would ascend to the Castilian throne on his death only if her suitor was approved by him. Henry wanted to ally Castile with Portugal or France rather than Aragon. He therefore decided to name his daughter Joanna La Beltraneja, Infanta Joanna as heiress to the throne rather than Isabella I. When he died in 1474 the War of the Castilian Succession broke out over who would ascend to the throne. It lasted until 1479 when Isabella and her supporters came out victorious. After Isabella's victory in the civil war and Ferdinand's ascension to the Aragonese throne the two crowns were united under the same monarchs. However, this was a personal union and both kingdoms remained administratively separate to some extent, each maintaining largely its own laws; both parliaments remained separate, the only common institution would be the Spanish Inquisition, Inquisition. Despite their titles of "Monarchs of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Sicily" Ferdinand and Isabella reigned over their respective territories, although they also took decisions together. Its central position, larger territorial area (three times greater than that of Aragon) and larger population (4.3 million as opposed to the 1 million in Aragon) led to Castile becoming the dominating partner in the union. As a result of the ''Reconquista'' (Reconquest) the Castilian aristocracy had become very powerful. The monarchs needed to assert their authority over the nobility and the clergy. With this end in mind they founded a law enforcement body, the ''Consejo de la Hermandad'', more commonly known as the ''Hermandad, Santa Hermandad'' (the Holy Brotherhood), which was staffed and funded by the municipalities. They also took further measures against the nobility, destroying feudal castles, prohibiting private wars and reducing the power of the ''Adelantados'' (a governor-like military office in regions recently conquered). The monarchy incorporated military orders under the ''Consejo de las Órdenes'' in 1495, reinforced royal judicial power over the feudal one and transformed the ''Audiencia Real, Audiencias'' into the supreme judicial bodies. The crown also sought to better control the cities, and so in 1480 in the Cortes of Toledo it created the ''corregidores'', representatives of the crown, which supervised the city councils. In religion, they reformed religious orders and sought unity of the various sections of the church. They pressured Jews to convert to Catholicism, in some cases persecuted by the Inquisition. Finally in 1492, the monarchs decided that those who would not convert would be expelled. It is estimated that between 50,000 and 70,000 people were expelled from Castile. From 1502 onwards, they began to convert the Muslim population. Between 1478 and 1497 the monarchs' forces conquered the three Canary Islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma and Tenerife. On 2 January 1492 the monarchs entered Granada's Alhambra marking the completion and end of the ''Reconquista''. Also in 1492, the
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
maritime expedition claimed the newly found lands in Spanish colonization of the Americas#Christopher Columbus, the Americas for the Crown of Castile and began the New World conquests. In 1497 Castile conquered Melilla on the north coast of North Africa. After Castile's conquest of the Kingdom of Granada, its politics turned towards the Mediterranean, and Castile militarily helped Aragon in its problems with France, culminating in the reconquest of Naples for the Crown of Aragon in 1504. Later that same year, Isabella died, on November 26.


Period of regency – Joanna I

Upon Isabella I's death 1504, the crown passed to her daughter Joanna of Castile, Joanna, who was married to Philip I of Castile, Philip of Austria (nicknamed 'Philip the Handsome'). But Isabella knew of her daughter's possible mental health incapacities (''and so nicknamed 'Juana la Loca' or 'Joanna the Mad' '') and named Ferdinand as regent in the case that Joanna "didn't want to or couldn't fulfil her duties". In the 'Salamanca Agreement' of 1505, it was decided that the government would be shared by Philip I, Ferdinand V and Joanna. However, poor relations between Phillip, who was supported by the Castilian nobility, and Ferdinand resulted in Ferdinand renouncing his regent's powers in Castile in order to avoid an armed conflict. Through the ''Concordia de Villafáfila'' of 1506, Ferdinand returned to Aragon and Phillip was recognized as King of Castile, with Joanna a co-monarch. In the Treaty of Villafáfila in 1506 King Ferdinand the Catholic renounced not only the government of Castile in favour of his son-in-law Philip I of Castile but also the lordship of the Indies, withholding a half of the income of the kingdoms of the Indies. Joanna of Castile and Philip immediately added to their titles the kingdoms of Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea. Phillip died and Ferdinand returned in 1507 once again to be regent for Joanna. Her isolated confinement-imprisonment in the Santa Clara Convent at Tordesillas, to last over fifty years until death, began with her father's orders in 1510. In 1512 a joint Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre, Castilian-Aragonese force invaded Navarre and most of the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
south of the Pyrenees was annexed to Castile.


Crown of Castile within Habsburg Spain


Charles I

Charles I of Spain, Charles I received the Crown of Castile, the Crown of Aragon and the empire through a combination of dynastic marriages and premature deaths: *when his father Philip I of Castile, Philip I died in 1506, he became Sovereignty, sovereign of the Netherlands; *upon the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandfather, in 1516 he gained the rule of Aragon and Castile (with the Americas), in co-regency title with his mother Joanna of Castile, Queen Joanna. He maintained her confinement-imprisonment, so she was Queen of Aragon and of Castile in title only. *upon the death of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian, his paternal grandfather, in 1519, Charles was elected Holy Roman Emperor as a consequence of which he is better-known as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Charles I was not well received in Castile. This was partly because he was a foreign-born king (born in Ghent), and even before his arrival in Castile he had granted important positions to Flanders, Flemish citizens and had used Castilian money to fund his court. The Castilian nobility and the cities were on the verge of an uprising to defend their rights. Many Castilians favoured the king's younger brother Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand, who grew up in Castile, and in fact the Council of Castile opposed the idea of Charles as King of Castile. In 1518 the Castilian parliament in
Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary seat of government of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people (2013 est.), Population figures from 1 January 2013. ma ...

Valladolid
named the Wallonian Jean de Sauvage as its president. This caused angry protests in the parliament, which rejected the presence of foreigners in its deliberations. Despite threats, the parliament led by Juan de Zumel representing
Burgos Burgos ( , , ) is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is the capital and most populated municipality of the province of Burgos. It is situated in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, on the confluence of t ...

Burgos
, resisted and forced the king to respect the laws of Castile, remove all foreigners from important governmental posts, and learn to speak
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
. After taking his oath, Charles received a subsidy of 600,000 ducats. Charles was conscious of the fact that he had options to become emperor and needed to impose his authority over Castile to gain access to its riches for his imperial goals. The riches from the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
came through Castile which was one of the more dynamic, rich, and advanced territories in Europe in the 16th century. It started to realise that it could become immersed within an empire. This, added to the broken promise of Charles, only increased hostility towards the king. In 1520 in
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
Parliament rejected a further subsidy for the king. Parliament in
Santiago de Compostela Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the S ...

Santiago de Compostela
reached the same decision. Finally, when Parliament was held in
A Coruña A Coruña (; Spanish language, Spanish: ''La Coruña'', Help:IPA/Spanish, a koˈɾuɲa historical English language, English: Corunna or The Groyne) is a city and municipality of Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated ...

A Coruña
, many members were bribed and others denied entry, with the result that the subsidy was approved. Those members who voted in favour were attacked by the Castilian people and their houses were burned. Parliament was not the only opposition which Charles would come up against. When he left Castile in 1520, the Castilian War of the Communities broke out. ''Los comuneros'' were defeated one year later (1521). After their defeat, Parliament was reduced to a merely consultative body.


Imperial policies of Philip II

Philip II of Spain, Philip II continued the politics of Charles I, but unlike his father he made Castile the core of the Spanish Empire, centralising all administration in
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
. The other Spanish regions maintained certain degree of autonomy, being governed by a Viceroy. In fact, since the reign of Charles I the financial burden of the empire had fallen mainly on Castile, but under Philip II the cost quadrupled. During his reign, as well as increasing existing taxes he created some new ones, among them the ''excusado'' in 1567. That same year Philip ordered the proclamation of the ''La Pragmática''; an act whereby all Moriscos had to abandon all Moorish traditions and become true Catholics. This edict limited religious, linguistic and cultural freedom of the Morisco population and provoked the Morisco Revolt (1568–1571), which was put down by John of Austria. Castile entered a phase of recession in 1575; Spain as a whole followed, which provoked the suspension of wages (the third of his reign). In 1590 the ''Cortes'' approved the ''millones''; a new tax on food. This exhausted Castilian cities and hindered the economy. In 1596, pay was once again suspended.


Later Habsburgs

In the previous kingdoms, positions in national institutions were filled by educated gentlemen. Philip II's administrators would normally come from either the University of Alcalá or the
University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca ( es, Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level ...

University of Salamanca
. After Philip III of Spain, Philip III the nobility once again asserted their right to govern the country. In order to show that there was a new order ruling there was a cleansing of the blood of Spain. Religious persecution led Philip to declare the expulsion of the Moriscos in 1609. Faced with the collapse of the Exchequer, in order to maintain the hegemony of Philip IV's Spanish Empire, the Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Count-Duke of Olivares, the king's favourite (valido) from 1621 to 1643, tried to introduce a series of reforms. Among these was the ''Unión de Armas'', the creation of a new army of 140,000 reservists. Every territory within the kingdom contributed citizens proportionally in order to maintain the force. His aims of union did not work and the Spanish Crown continued as a confederation of kingdoms. Luis Méndez de Haro took over from Olivares as favourite Philip IV between 1659 and 1665. This was in order to alleviate interior conflicts sparked off by his predecessor (revolts in Portugal, Reapers' War, Catalonia and Andalusia) and achieve peace in Europe. Upon the death of Philip IV in 1665, and with the incapacity of Charles II of Spain, Charles II to govern, Spain suffered an economic slowdown and battles for power between the different 'favourites'. The death of Charles II in 1700 without descendants provoked the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
. After the war, all the territories were unified as a single country under the Crown of Spain.


Spanish territorial divisions within the Crown of Castile


In Spain

*Kingdom of Castille/Reino de Castilla *Kingdom of León/Reino de León *Asturias, Principality of Asturias/Principado de Asturias *Kingdom of Galicia/Reino de Galicia *Biscay, Lordship of Biscay/Señorío de Vizcaya *Gipuzkoa, Province of Gipuzkoa/Provincia de Guipúzcoa *Álava, Province of Álava/Provincia de Álava *Extremadura *Kingdom of Toledo/Reino de Toledo *
Kingdom of Murcia The Kingdom of Murcia ( es, Reino de Murcia) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the ...
/Reino de Murcia *Kingdom of Córdoba/Reino de Córdoba *Kingdom of Jaén/Reino de Jaén *Kingdom of Seville/Reino de Sevilla *Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile), Kingdom of Granada/Reino de Granada (after 1492) *
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
/Reino de Navarra (after 1512)


Overseas (before 1715)

*Canary Islands, Kingdom of the Canaries/Reino de Canarias * Columbian Viceroyalty, Viceroyalty of the Indies/Virreinato de las Indias (1492-1535) North – ''Septentrional'' *Viceroyalty of New Spain/Virreinato de la Nueva España (after 1535) **Kingdom of Mexico/Reino de México (administered by the Royal Audience of Mexico, presided directly by the Vice-roy of New Spain) **Nueva Galicia, New Kingdom of Galicia/Nuevo Reino de Galicia **Captaincy General of Guatemala or Kingdom of Guatemala/Capitanía General de Guatemala or Reino de Guatemala **Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain, Kingdom of New Biscay/Reino de Nueva Vizcaya **New Kingdom of León/Nuevo Reino de Léon **Santa Fe de Nuevo México, Santa Fe of New Mexico/Santa Fe de Nuevo México **Nueva Extremadura, New Extremadura/Nueva Extremadura **New Navarre, Province of New Navarre/Provincia de Nueva Navarra **The Californias, Province of the Californias/Provincia de Las Californias **Province of Venezuela, Provincia de Venezuela/Provincia de Venezuela **Captaincy General of the Philippines/Capitanía General de las Filipinas **Captaincy General of Cuba/Capitanía General de Cuba **Captaincy General of Puerto Rico/Capitanía General de Puerto Rico **Captaincy General of Santo Domingo/Capitanía General de Santo Domingo **Captaincy General of Yucatán/Capitanía General de Yucatán South – ''Meridional'' *Viceroyalty of Peru/Virreinato del Perú (after 1542) **Province of Tierra Firme/Provincia de Tierra Firme (administered by the Royal Audiencia of Panama [1st one, 1538–43], [2nd one, 1564–1751]) **New Kingdom of Granada/Nuevo Reino de Granada (administered by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá) **Kingdom of Quito or Presidency of Quito/Reino de Quito or Presidencia de Quito (administered by the Royal Audiencia of Quito) **Kingdom of Peru/Reino de Peru (administered by the Royal Audiencia of Lima, presided directly by the Vice-roy of Peru) **Province of Charcas/Provincia de Charcas (administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas) **Captaincy General of Chile/Capitanía General de Chile (unofficially referred as Kingdom of Chile/Reino de Chile) **Governorate of the Río de la Plata/Gobernácion del Río de la Plata (administered by the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires) (1661–72) In the viceroyalties the viceroy, whose term etymologically means "in the place of the king", concentrated all public power. They was freely appointed and removed by the Monarch, when the sovereign wanted he/she could remove the viceroy of the office. In New Spain and Peru they played the role of sovereign, but in reality they only obeyed the orders of the Monarch of the Crown of Castile.


See also

*Heraldry of Castile *Heraldry of León *List of Castilian Monarchs


Notes

, gl, Coroa de Castela, Leonese: ''Corona de Castiella'', eu, Gaztelako Koroa, la, Corona Castellae.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Crown Of Castile Kingdom of Castile, * History of Castile Former monarchies of Europe States and territories established in 1230 States and territories disestablished in 1715 Former countries in Europe 1715 disestablishments in Europe 1230 establishments in Europe ga:Coróin na Caistíle