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The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()
' (, , )
' ()
' ().
was a
composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by Sir John H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, sometimes ...
ruled by one king, originated by the
dynastic union A dynastic union is a type of federation with only two different states that are governed under the same dynasty, with their boundaries, their laws, and their interests remaining distinct from each other. It differs from a personal union in that ...
of the
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
and the
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroling ...
and ended as a consequence of the
Spanish War of Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintain ...
. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a
thalassocracy A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa, , , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power), somet ...
controlling a large portion of present-day eastern
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, parts of what is now
southern France Southern France, also known as the South of France or colloquially in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Répub ...
, and a Mediterranean empire which included the
Balearic Islands The Balearic Islands ( , also , ; ca, Illes Balears ; es, Islas Baleares ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea contai ...

Balearic Islands
,
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
,
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the Mediterranean islands#By area, second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the Regions of Italy, 20 regions of Italy. It is located west of the Italian Penin ...

Sardinia
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of ...

Malta
,
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregionA macroregion is a geopolitical subdivisi ...
(from 1442) and parts of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
(until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each ''Corts'' or ''Cortes'', particularly the Kingdom of Aragon, the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...
, the Kingdom of Majorca, and the
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
. The larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon with the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of and upon the accession of the then Castilian king, ...

Crown of Castile
by the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with th ...
, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains", led to what would become the Monarchy of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
, as a composite monarchy under Habsburg monarchs. The Crown remained until it was abolished by the
Nueva Planta decrees The Nueva Planta decrees ( es, link=no, Decretos de Nueva Planta, ca, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements ...
issued by King
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of
Archduke Charles Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen (german: link=no, Erzherzog Karl Ludwig Johann Joseph Lorenz von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian field-mars ...
(as Charles III of Aragon) in the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain Charles II of Spain (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as The ...
.


Context

Formally, the political center of the Crown of Aragon was
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province Zaragoza (), also called Saragossa in English language, English,''Encyclopædia Britannica''Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)/ref> is a Provinces of Spain, ...

Zaragoza
, where kings were crowned at
La Seo Cathedral The Cathedral of the Savior ( es, Catedral del Salvador) or La Seo de Zaragoza is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman ...
. The 'de facto' capital and leading cultural, administrative and economic centre of the Crown of Aragon was
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
, followed by
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
. Finally,
Palma Palma or La Palma means Arecaceae, palm in a number of languages and may also refer to: Geography Africa *Palma, Mozambique, city **Palma District *La Palma, one of the Canary Islands, Spain **La Palma (DO), a ''Denominación de Origen'' for wines ...

Palma
(
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
) was an additional important city and seaport. The Crown of Aragon eventually included the
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
, the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...
(until the 12th century the
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroling ...
and others), the
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
, the
Kingdom of Majorca The Kingdom of Majorca ( ca, Regne de Mallorca, ; es, Reino de Mallorca; la, Regnum Maioricae; french: Royaume de Majorque) was a realm on the east coast of Spain, including Mediterranean islands, and founded by James I of Aragon, also known as ...
, the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of ...

Malta
, the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
and
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
. For brief periods the Crown of Aragon also controlled
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental coun ...

Montpellier
,
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
,
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, and the twin
Duchy of Athens The Duchy of Athens (Greek language, Greek: Δουκᾶτον Ἀθηνῶν, ''Doukaton Athinon''; Catalan language, Catalan: ''Ducat d'Atenes'') was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during ...
and
Neopatras Ypati ( el, Υπάτη) is a village and a former municipalities of Greece, municipality in Phthiotis, central peninsular Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Lamia (city), Lamia, of which it is a muni ...

Neopatras
in
Latin Greece The ''Frankokratia'' ( el, Φραγκοκρατία, sometimes Anglicization, anglicized as Francocracy, "rule of the Franks"), also known as ''Latinokratia'' ( el, Λατινοκρατία, "rule of the Latins (Middle Ages), Latins") and, ...
. The countries that are today known as Spain and Portugal spent the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
after 722 in an intermittent struggle called the ''
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
''. This struggle pitted the northern Christian kingdoms against the Islamic
taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, ا ...
petty kingdom A petty kingdom is a kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category i ...
s of in the south, and against each other. In the Late Middle Ages, the expansion of the Aragonese Crown southwards met with the
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
army advancing eastward toward the
region of Murcia The Region of Murcia (, ; es, Región de Murcia ), is an of Spain located in the southeast part of the , on the coast. The region is centered on a historical region of the same name in what is now southeastern Spain. It is heir to the ancien ...
. Subsequently, the Aragonese Crown focused on the Mediterranean, governing as far afield as Greece and the
Barbary Coast The terms Barbary Coast, Barbary, Berbery or Berber Coast were used in English-language sources (similarly to equivalent terms in other languages) from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa Nort ...
, whereas Portugal, which completed its ''Reconquista'' in 1249, would focus on the Atlantic Ocean. Mercenaries from the territories in the Crown, known as ''
Almogavars Almogavars ( es, almogávares, an, almugávares, ca, almogàvers and pt, almogávares) is the name of a class of light infantry soldier from the Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Coro ...
'' participated in the creation of this Mediterranean "empire", and later found employment in countries all across southern Europe. The Crown of Aragon has been considered an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, with
thalassocratic A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa () , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power) is a s ...
power to setting rules over the entire sea, (as documented, for instance, in the ''Llibre del Consolat del Mar'' or '' Book of the Consulate of the Sea'', written in
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
, is one of the oldest compilations of
maritime law Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by ...
s in the world). The Crown of Aragon was indeed, at its height, one of the major powers in Europe. However, the different territories were only connected through the person of the monarch, an aspect of empire seen as early as
Achaemenid Persia The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of ...
. A modern historian, Juan de Contreras y Lopez de Ayala, Marqués de Lozoya described the Crown of Aragon as being more like a
confederacy Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...
than a centralised kingdom, let alone an empire. Nor did official documents ever refer to it as an empire (''Imperium'' or any cognate word); instead, it was considered a dynastic union of autonomous kingdoms.


Origin

The Crown of Aragon originated in 1137, when the
Kingdom of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon ( an, Reino d'Aragón, ca, Regne d'Aragó, la, Regnum Aragoniae, es, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study ...
and the
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroling ...
(along with the
County of Provence A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...

County of Provence
,
Girona Girona (, ; es, Gerona ) is a city in northern Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of S ...
,
Cerdanya Cerdanya () or often La Cerdanya ( la, Ceretani or ''Ceritania''; french: Cerdagne; es, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in tim ...
,
Osona Osona () is a Comarques of Catalonia, ''comarca'' situated in Catalonia, Spain, Northeast Spain. Its capital is Vic. Its population in 2001 was 129,543. Osona covers roughly the same area as the historic Catalan county of Osona. The name Osona com ...
and other territories) merged by
dynastic union A dynastic union is a type of federation with only two different states that are governed under the same dynasty, with their boundaries, their laws, and their interests remaining distinct from each other. It differs from a personal union in that ...
Thomas N. Bisson, ''The Medieval Crown of Aragon: a short history'', 1986, chapter II. The age of the Early Count-Kings (1137–1213) (The Principate of Ramon Berenguer IV 1137–1162), page 31 upon the marriage of
Petronilla of Aragon Petronilla (29 June/11 August 1136 – 15 October 1173), whose name is also spelled Petronila or Petronella ( Aragonese ''Peyronela'' or ''Payronella'', and ca, Peronella), was the queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father, Ramiro ...
and
Raymond Berenguer IV of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer IV (; c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called ''the Saint'', was the count of Barcelona who brought about the union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Arago ...
; their individual titles combined in the person of their son
Alfonso II of Aragon Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995)«Los "condes-reyes" de Barcelona y la "adquisición" del reino de Aragón por la dinastía bellónida» p. 630-631; in ''Hidalguía''. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hij ...
, who ascended to the throne in 1162. This union respected the existing institutions and parliaments of both territories. The combined state was initially known as ''Regno, Dominio et Corona Aragonum et Catalonie'', and later as ''Corona Regum Aragoniae'', ''Corona Aragonum'' or simply ''Aragon''. Petronilla's father King Ramiro, "The Monk" (reigned 1134–1137) who was raised in the Monastery of Saint Pons de Thomières, Viscounty of Béziers as a
Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a Christian monasticism, monastic Religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Be ...
monk was the youngest of three brothers. His brothers
Peter IPeter I may refer to: Religious hierarchs * Saint Peter (c. 1 AD – c. 64–88 AD), a.k.a. Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, apostle of Jesus * Pope Peter I of Alexandria (died 311), revered as a saint * Peter I of Armenia (died 1058), Catholicos o ...
(reigned 1094–1104) and Alfonso I ''El Batallador'' (The Battler, reigned 1104–1134) had bravely fought against Castile for hegemony in the Iberian peninsula. Upon the death of Alfonso I, the Aragonese nobility that campaigned close to him feared being overwhelmed by the influence of Castile. And so, Ramiro was forced to leave his monastic life and proclaim himself King of Aragon. He married Agnes, sister of the
Duke of Aquitaine The Duke of Aquitaine ( oc, Duc d'Aquitània, french: Duc d'Aquitaine, ) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ...
and betrothed his only daughter
Petronilla of Aragon Petronilla (29 June/11 August 1136 – 15 October 1173), whose name is also spelled Petronila or Petronella ( Aragonese ''Peyronela'' or ''Payronella'', and ca, Peronella), was the queen of Aragon from the abdication of her father, Ramiro ...
to Raymond Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. The wedding agreement provided Berenguer with the title of ''Princeps Aragonum'' and ''Dominator Aragonensis'' (Ruler of the Kingdom and Commander of the Aragonese Military) but the title of King of Aragon was reserved for Ramiro II and Berenguer's future sons. Raymond Berenguer IV, the first ruler of the united dynasty, called himself Count of Barcelona and "Prince of Aragon".


Expansion

Alfonso II inherited two realms and with them, two different expansion processes. The
House of Jiménez A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electrical, and heating, ventilation, and air con ...
looked south in a battle against Castile for the control of the middle valley of the Ebro in the Iberian peninsula. The
House of Barcelona The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410. They descend from the Bellonids, the descendants of Wifred the Hairy. They ...
looked north to its origins,
Occitania Occitania ( oc, Occitània, , or ) is the historical region in Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe where Occitan language, Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as ...

Occitania
, where through family ties it had significant influence, especially in
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
,
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
and
Foix Foix (; oc, Fois ; ca, Foix ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstr ...

Foix
, towards the south along the
Mediterranean coast The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
and towards the
Mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ...
. Soon, Alfonso II of Aragon and Barcelona committed to conquering
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
as the Aragonese nobility demanded. Like his father, he gave priority to the expansion and consolidation of the
House of Barcelona The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410. They descend from the Bellonids, the descendants of Wifred the Hairy. They ...
's influence in Occitania. Alfonso II signed the treaties of Cazorla, a multilateral treaty between
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
,
Aragón Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises thr ...
, León,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, and Castile to redefine the frontiers and zones of expansion of each kingdom. Alfonso II assured
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
by renouncing the Aragonese rights of annexing
Murcia Murcia (, , ) is a city in south-eastern Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map ...

Murcia
in exchange for securing the Aragonese frontier with Castile. This action should be seen as result of the aforementioned priority given over the Occitan and Catalan dominions of the Crown of Aragon.Bisson T. N. chapter II. The age of the Early Count-Kings (1137–1213) (Dynastic Policy 1162–1213), page 36 From the 9th century, the
dukes of Aquitaine The Duke of Aquitaine ( oc, Duc d'Aquitània, french: Duc d'Aquitaine, ) was the ruler of the Duchy of Aquitaine, ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of List of Frankish kings, Frankish, Li ...
, the
kings of Navarre This is a list of the kings and queens of kingdom of Pamplona, Pamplona, later kingdom of Navarre, Navarre. Pamplona was the primary name of the kingdom until its union with Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon (1076–1134). However, the territorial desig ...
, the
counts of Foix The Count of Foix ruled the independent County of Foix, in what is now southern France, during the Middle Ages. The House of Foix eventually extended its power across the Pyrenees mountain range, moving their court to Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, ...
, the
counts of Toulouse The Count of Toulouse ( oc, comte de Tolosa, french: comte de Toulouse) was the ruler of Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the I ...
and the
counts of Barcelona The Count of Barcelona ( ca, Comte de Barcelona, es, Conde de Barcelona, french: Comte de Barcelone, ) was the ruler of the County of Barcelona and, by extension, the Principality of Catalonia for much of Catalan history, from the 9th century un ...
were rivals in their attempts at controlling the various counties of the
Hispanic Marches The Hispanic Marches or Spanish Marches ( es, Marca Hispánica, ca, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese language, Aragonese and oc, Marca Hispanica, eu, Hispaniako Marka, french: Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, were a militar ...
and '' pays'' of
Occitania Occitania ( oc, Occitània, , or ) is the historical region in Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe where Occitan language, Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as ...

Occitania
. And the
House of Barcelona The House of Barcelona was a medieval dynasty that ruled the County of Barcelona continuously from 878 and the Crown of Aragon from 1137 (as kings from 1162) until 1410. They descend from the Bellonids, the descendants of Wifred the Hairy. They ...
succeeded in extending its influence to the area that is now south of France through strong family ties, in the areas of the
County of Provence A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...

County of Provence
,
County of Toulouse The County of Toulouse ( oc, Comtat de Tolosa) was a territory in southern France consisting of the city of Toulouse and its environs, ruled by the Count of Toulouse from the late 9th century until the late 13th century. The territory is the ...
and
County of Foix The County of Foix (french: Comté de Foix, ; oc, Comtat de Fois) was an independent medieval fief in southern France, and later a province of France, whose territory corresponded roughly the eastern part of the modern ''département'' of Arièg ...

County of Foix
. The rebellion of the
Cathars Catharism (; from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
or Albigensians, who rejected the authority and teachings of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, led to the loss of these possessions in southern France. Pope Innocent III called upon
Philip II of France Philip II (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), byname Philip Augustus (french: Philippe Auguste), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: l ...

Philip II of France
to suppress the Albigensians—the
Albigensian Crusade The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229; , ) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III ( la, Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (angl ...
, which led to bringing Occitania firmly under the control of the King of France, and the
Capetian dynasty The Capetian dynasty (), also known as the House of France The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a num ...
from northern France.
Peter II of Aragon Peter II the Catholic (; ) (July 1178 – 12 September 1213) was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1196 to 1213. Background Peter was born in Huesca, the son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Sancha ...

Peter II of Aragon
returned from the
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab ( ar, معركة العقاب), took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * an ...

Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
in autumn 1212 to find that
Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester {{Infobox noble , name = Simon de Montfort , title = 5th Earl of Leicester , image = File:Simon4demontfort.gif , caption = Seal of Simon de Montfort, depicting him riding a horse and blowing a hu ...
, had conquered
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
, exiling Count
Raymond VI of Toulouse Raymond VI ( oc, Ramon; October 27, 1156 – August 2, 1222) was Count of Toulouse The Count of Toulouse ( oc, comte de Tolosa, french: comte de Toulouse) was the ruler of county of Toulouse, Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries. Origin ...

Raymond VI of Toulouse
, who was Peter's brother-in-law and vassal. Peter's army crossed the
Pyrenees The Pyrenees (; es, Pirineos ; french: Pyrénées ; ca, Pirineus ; eu, Pirinioak ; oc, Pirenèus ; an, Pirineus) is a mountain range straddling the border of France and Spain. It extends nearly from its union with the Cantabrian Mountains to ...

Pyrenees
and arrived at
Muret Muret (; in Gascon Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are ...

Muret
where they were joined by Raymond of Foix and Raymond of Toulouse's forces, in September 1213 to confront Montfort's army. The
Battle of Muret The Battle of Muret (Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are ...

Battle of Muret
began on 12 September 1213. The Catalan, Aragonese and Occitan forces were disorganised and disintegrated under the assault of Montfort's squadrons. Peter himself was caught in the thick of fighting, and died as a result of a foolhardy act of bravado. Thus, the nobility of Toulouse, Foix and other vassals of the Crown of Aragon were defeated. The conflict concluded with the Treaty of Meaux-Paris in 1229, in which the Crown of Aragon agreed to renounce its rights over the south of
Occitania Occitania ( oc, Occitània, , or ) is the historical region in Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe where Occitan language, Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as ...

Occitania
with the integration of these territories into the dominions of the
King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful ...
. King
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...
(13th century) returned to an era of expansion to the South, by conquering and incorporating
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
,
Ibiza Ibiza ( ca, Eivissa, #Names, see below) is a Spanish island in the Mediterranean Sea off the eastern coast of Spain. It is from the city of Valencia. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...

Ibiza
, and a good share of the
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
into the Crown. With the
Treaty of Corbeil (1258) The Treaty of Corbeil was an agreement signed on 11 May 1258, in Corbeil (today Corbeil-Essonnes Corbeil-Essonnes () on the River Seine is a Communes of France, commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the Kilometre Z ...
, which was based upon the principle of natural frontiers, the Capetians were recognized as heirs of the
Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
, and the Capetian king
Louis IX Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis or Louis the Saint, was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France ruled from the establishment of the West Francia, Kingdom of the West Franks in 843 ...

Louis IX
renounced any claim of feudal overlordship over Catalonia. The general principle was clear, Catalan influence north of the Pyrenees, beyond the
Roussillon File:wine600.jpg, 200px, Grape pickers near Maury, Pyrénées-Orientales, Maury Roussillon ( , , ; ca, Rosselló ; oc, Rosselhon ) is a historical province of France that largely corresponded to the County of Roussillon and French Cerdagn ...
,
Vallespir Vallespir () is a historical Catalan comarca in Northern Catalonia, part of the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales. The capital of the comarca is Ceret, and it borders Conflent, Rosselló, Alt Empordà, Garrotxa and Ripollès. It ...
,
Conflent Conflent () is a historical Catalan comarca of Northern Catalonia Northern Catalonia, ; french: Catalogne (du) Nord ; oc, Catalonha (del) Nòrd; es, Cataluña (del) Norte) French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan language, Cat ...
and
Capcir right Capcir (; ) is a historical Catalan comarca of Northern Catalonia, now part of the French department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and ...
, was to cease. James I had realized that wasting his forces and distracting his energies in attempts to keep a footing in France would only end in disaster. In January 1266, James I besieged and captured Murcia, then settled his own men, mostly Catalans, there; and handed Murcia over to Castile with the treaty of Cazorla.Bisson 1986:67 The
Kingdom of Majorca The Kingdom of Majorca ( ca, Regne de Mallorca, ; es, Reino de Mallorca; la, Regnum Maioricae; french: Royaume de Majorque) was a realm on the east coast of Spain, including Mediterranean islands, and founded by James I of Aragon, also known as ...
, including the Balearic Islands, and the counties of
Cerdanya Cerdanya () or often La Cerdanya ( la, Ceretani or ''Ceritania''; french: Cerdagne; es, Cerdaña), is a natural comarca and historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in tim ...

Cerdanya
and and the city of
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental coun ...

Montpellier
, was held independently from 1276 to 1279 by
James II of Majorca James II ( ca, Jaume) (31 May 1243 – 29 May 1311) was King of Majorca and Lord of Montpellier from 1276 until his death. He was the second son of James I of Aragon James I the Conqueror ( ca, Jaume el Conqueridor; 2 February 1208  ...
and as a vassal of the Crown of Aragon after that date until 1349, becoming a full member of the Crown of Aragon from 1349. Valencia was finally made a new kingdom with its own institutions and not an extension of
Aragón Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises thr ...
as the Aragonese noblemen had intended since even before the creation of the Crown of Aragon. The
Kingdom of Valencia The Kingdom of Valencia ( ca-valencia, Regne de València, ; es, Reino de Valencia; la, Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ...
became the third member of the crown together with Aragon and Catalonia. The Kingdom of Majorca had an independent status with its own kings until 1349. In 1282, the
Sicilians Sicilians or the Sicilian people are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a stron ...
rose up against the second dynasty of the Angevins on the
Sicilian Vespers The Sicilian Vespers ( it, Vespri siciliani; scn, Vespiri siciliani) was a successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I of Naples, Charles I, who had ruled the Kin ...
and massacred the garrison soldiers throughout the island. responded to their call, and landed in
Trapani Trapani ( , ; scn, Tràpani ; lat, Drepanum; grc, Δρέπανον) is a city and municipality (''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...

Trapani
to an enthusiastic welcome five months later. This caused
Pope Martin IV Pope Martin IV ( la, Martinus IV; c. 1210/1220 – 6 March 1285), born Simon de Brion, was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by numb ...

Pope Martin IV
to excommunicate the king, place Sicily under interdiction, and offer the kingdom of Aragon to a son of
Philip III of France Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (french: le Hardi), was king of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume ...

Philip III of France
.Bisson 1986:87–88 When Peter III refused to impose the ''Charters of Aragon'' in Valencia, the nobles and towns united in
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province Zaragoza (), also called Saragossa in English language, English,''Encyclopædia Britannica''Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)/ref> is a Provinces of Spain, ...

Zaragoza
to demand a confirmation of their privileges, which the king had to accept in 1283. Thus began the Union of Aragon, which developed the power of the ''Justícia'' to mediate between the king and the Aragonese bourgeois. When James II of Aragon completed the conquest of the kingdom of Valencia, the Crown of Aragon established itself as one of the major powers in Europe. In 1297, to solve the dispute between the Anjevins and the Aragonese over Sicily, Pope Boniface VIII created ''ex novo'' a Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica and entrusted it as a fief to the Aragonese King James II of Aragon, James II, ignoring already existing, indigenous states.The ''Giudicati'', the city of Sassari, and the Republic of Genoa, Genoese and Republic of Pisa, Pisan local possessions. In 1324, James II finally started to seize the Pisan territories in the former states of Giudicato of Cagliari, Cagliari and Giudicato of Gallura, Gallura. In 1347 Aragon made war on the Genoese Doria (family), Doria and Malaspina family, Malaspina houses, which controlled most of the lands of the former Giudicato of Logudoro, Logudoro state in north-western Sardinia, and added them to its direct domains. The Giudicato of Arborea, the only remaining independent Sardinian state, proved far more difficult to subdue. The rulers of Arborea developed the ambition to unite all of Sardinia under their rule and create a single Sardinian state, and at a certain point (1368–1388, 1392–1409) almost managed to drive the Aragonese out. The war between Arborea and Aragon was fought on and off for more than 100 years; this situation lasted until 1409, when the army of Arborea suffered a heavy defeat by the Aragonese army in the Battle of Sanluri; the capital Oristano was lost in 1410. After some years during which Arborean rulers failed to organise a successful resurgence, they sold their remaining rights for 100,000 gold florins, and by 1420 the Aragonese Kingdom of Sardinia finally extended throughout the island. The subduing of Sardinia having taken a century,
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, which had never been wrested from the Genoese, was dropped from the formal title of the Kingdom. Through the marriage of Peter IV of Aragon, Peter IV to Maria, Queen of Sicily, Maria of Sicily (1381), the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
, as well as the Duchy of Athens, duchies of Athens and Neopatria, were finally implemented more firmly into the Crown. The Greek possessions were permanently lost to Nerio I Acciaioli in 1388 and Sicily was dissociated in the hands of Martin I of Sicily, Martin I from 1395 to 1409, but the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
was added finally in 1442 by the conquest led by Alfonso V of Aragon, Alfonso V. The King's possessions outside of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands were ruled by proxy through local elites as
petty kingdom A petty kingdom is a kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category i ...
s, rather than subjected directly to a centralised government. They were more an economic part of the Crown of Aragon than a political one. The fact that the King was keen on settling new kingdoms instead of merely expanding the existing kingdoms was a part of a power struggle that pitted the interests of the king against those of the existing nobility. This process was also under way in most of the European states that successfully effected the transition to the Early Modern state. Thus, the new territories gained from the Moors—namely Valencia and Majorca—were given ''fuero, furs'' as an instrument of self-government in order to limit the power of nobility in these new acquisitions and, at the same time, increase their allegiance to the monarchy itself. The trend in the neighbouring kingdom of Castile was quite similar, both kingdoms giving impetus to the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
by granting different grades of self-government either to cities or territories, instead of placing the new territories under the direct rule of nobility.


Union with Castile

In 1410, King Martin I of Aragon, Martin I died without living descendants or heirs. As a result, by the Pact of Caspe, Ferdinand of Antequera from the Castilian dynasty of House of Trastámara, Trastámara, received the Crown of Aragon as Ferdinand I of Aragon. Later, his grandson King Ferdinand II of Aragon recovered the northern Catalan counties—Roussillon and Cerdagne—which had been lost to France as well as the kingdom of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
, which had recently joined the Crown of Aragon but had been lost after internal dynastic disputes. In 1469, Ferdinand married Isabella I of Castile, Infanta Isabella of Castile, half-sister of King Henry IV of Castile, who became Queen of Castile and León after Henry's death in 1474. Their marriage was a dynastic union which became the constituent event for the dawn of the Kingdom of Spain. At that point both the Crown of Castile, Castile and the Crown of Aragon remained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, parliaments and laws. The process of territorial consolidation was completed when King Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I, known as Emperor Charles V, in 1516 united all the kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula, save the Kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarve, under one monarch—his co-monarch and mother Queen Joanna of Castile, Joanna I in confinement—thereby furthering the creation of the Spanish state, albeit a decentralised one.


Dissolution

The literary evocation of past splendour recalls correctly the great age of the 13th and 14th centuries, when Majorca, Valencia and Sicily were conquered, the population growth could be handled without social conflict, and the urban prosperity, which peaked in 1345, created the institutional and cultural achievements of the Crown.Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 188-189 The Aragonese crown's wealth and power stagnated and its authority was steadily transferred to the new Spanish crown after that date—the demographic growth was partially offset by the Alhambra Decree, expulsion of the Jews from Spain (1492), Forced conversions of Muslims in Spain, Muslims (1502) and the expulsion of the Moriscos (1609). It was unable to prevent the loss of Roussillon in 1659, the loss of Minorca and its Italian domains in 1707–1716, and the imposition of French language on Roussillon (1700) and Castilian as the language of government in all the old Aragonese Crown lands in Spain (1707–1716). The Crown of Aragon and its institutions were abolished in 1716 only after the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain Charles II of Spain (6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as The ...
(1701–1714) by the
Nueva Planta decrees The Nueva Planta decrees ( es, link=no, Decretos de Nueva Planta, ca, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements ...
, issued by Philip V of Spain. The old regime was swept away, the administration was subsumed into the Castilian administration, the lands of the Crown were united formally with those of Castile to legally form a single state, the kingdom of Spain, as it moved towards a centralized government under the new House of Bourbon, Bourbon dynasty.Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 189


Nationalist revisionism

Some of the Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain, nationalist movements in Spain consider the former kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon to be the foundation of their nations, the Catalan nationalist movement being the most prominent. Spanish nationalism, on the other hand, tends to place more importance on the later dynastic union with the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of and upon the accession of the then Castilian king, ...

Crown of Castile
, considering it the origin of one Spanish nation. The reprisals inflicted on the territories that had fought against
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
in the War of the Spanish Succession, War of Succession is given by some Valencian nationalists and Catalan nationalism, Catalan nationalists as an argument against the centralism of Spanish nationalism and in favor of federalism, confederation, or even independence. Some Catalans associated their ancient privileges with their Generalitat of Catalonia, Generalitat and resistance to Castile.Bisson T. N. Epilogue, page 188 Because restoration of ''fueros'' was one of its tenets, Carlism won support in the lands of the Crown of Aragon during the 19th century. The Romanticism of the 19th century Catalan Renaixença movement evoked a "Pyrenean realm" that corresponded more to the vision of 13th century troubadours than to the historical reality of the Crown. This vision survives today as "a nostalgic programme of politicised culture". Thus, the history of the Crown of Aragon remains a politically loaded topic in modern Spain, especially when it comes to asserting the level of independence enjoyed by constituents of the Crown, like the County of Barcelona, which is sometimes used to justify the level of autonomy (or independence) that should be enjoyed by contemporary Catalonia and other territories.


Pennon

The origin of Coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon is the familiar coat of the Counts of Barcelona and Kings of Aragon. The Pennon was used exclusively by the monarchs of the Crown and was expressive of their sovereignty. James III of Majorca, vassal of the Kingdom of Aragon, used a coat of arms with four bars, as seen on the Leges palatinae miniatures.


Institutions

Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia each had a legislative body, known as the ''Cortes'' in Aragon or ''Corts'' in Catalonia and Valencia. A ''Diputación del General'' or ''Diputació del General'' was established in each, becoming known as a ''Generalidad'' in Aragon and ''Generalitat'' in Catalonia and Valencia.


Capital

The house of the Crown was the Cathedral of the Savior of Zaragoza from Peter II (12th century). The parliament used to gather at Monzón (13th to 16th centuries), the remaining meetings took place at Fraga,
Zaragoza Zaragoza, also known in English as Saragossa, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province Zaragoza (), also called Saragossa in English language, English,''Encyclopædia Britannica''Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)/ref> is a Provinces of Spain, ...

Zaragoza
, Calatayud and Tarazona. The councillor headquarters were located at
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
(13th to 16th centuries) and Naples during the kingdom of Alfonso V. On the other hand, the General Archive of the Crown of Aragon, which was the official repository of royal documentation of the Crown since the reign of Alfonso II (12th century), was located in the Monastery of Santa María de Sigena until the year 1301 and then moved to Barcelona. In the early 15th century the de facto capital was Valencia, until Alfonso V of Aragon, Alfonso V came to the throne. During the 15-16th century the Crown's ''de facto'' capital was Naples: after Alfonso V of Aragon, Ferdinand II of Aragon settled the capital in Naples. Alfonso, in particular, wanted to transform Naples into a real Mediterranean capital, lavishing huge sums to embellish it further.History books (Donzelli), ''Medieval Historic'', Rome 1998, Later the courts were itinerant until Philip II of Spain. The Spanish historian Domingo Buesa Conde has argued that Zaragoza ought to be considered the permanent political capital, but not the economic or administrative one, due to the obligation for kings to be crowned at the Cathedral of the Savior of Zaragoza.Domingo J. Buesa Conde, in ''El rey de Aragón'' (Zaragoza, CAI, 2000:57–59. ) postulates that the Crown of Aragon's political capital of Zaragoza, though it was not the economic one, nor the administrative one, due to the court being itinerative in the 14th century, took its start from the decrees of Peter IV of Aragon establishing his coronation there.: "''Pedro IV parte (...) de la aceptación de la capital del Ebro como "cabeza del Reino". [...] por eso hizo saber a sus súbditos que ''Mandamos que este sacrosanto sacramento de la unción sea recibido de manos del metropolitano en la ciudad de Zaragoza'' al tiempo que recordaba: "...y como quiera que los reyes de Aragón están obligados a recibir la unción en la ciudad de Zaragoza, que es la cabeza del Reino de Aragón, el cual reino es nuestra principal designación—esto es, apellido—y título, consideramos conveniente y razonable que, del mismo modo, en ella reciban los reyes de Aragón el honor de la coronación y las demás insignias reales, igual que vimos a los emperadores recibir la corona en la ciudad de Roma, cabeza de su imperio. ''Zaragoza, antigua capital del reino de Aragón, se ha convertido en la capital política de la Corona (...)".


Composition

The crown was made up of the following territories (which are nowadays parts of the modern countries of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, France, Italy,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed ...

Greece
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of ...

Malta
, and Andorra). Sort by "Earliest annexion" to see the states in the chronological order they were joined to the crown.


Coat of arms of the kings of the Crown of Aragon

File:Arms of Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona (Golden escarbuncle variant).svg, Coat of arms from Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona to
Alfonso II of Aragon Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995)«Los "condes-reyes" de Barcelona y la "adquisición" del reino de Aragón por la dinastía bellónida» p. 630-631; in ''Hidalguía''. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hij ...
File:Royal arms of Aragon.svg, Coat of arms from
Alfonso II of Aragon Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157Benito Vicente de Cuéllar (1995)«Los "condes-reyes" de Barcelona y la "adquisición" del reino de Aragón por la dinastía bellónida» p. 630-631; in ''Hidalguía''. XLIII (252) pp. 619–632."Alfonso II el Casto, hij ...
to
Peter II of Aragon Peter II the Catholic (; ) (July 1178 – 12 September 1213) was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1196 to 1213. Background Peter was born in Huesca, the son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Sancha ...

Peter II of Aragon
File:Royal arms of Aragon (Crowned).svg, Coat of arms from
Peter II of Aragon Peter II the Catholic (; ) (July 1178 – 12 September 1213) was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1196 to 1213. Background Peter was born in Huesca, the son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile, Queen of Aragon, Sancha ...

Peter II of Aragon
to Peter IV of Aragon File:Arms of Aragonese Monarchs (13th-15 centuries).svg, Coat of arms from Peter IV of Aragon to Ferdinand II of Aragon


See also

* List of Aragonese monarchs * List of Sicilian monarchs * Prince of Girona * Catalan Company, Great Catalan Company


Notes


References


Bibliography

*


External links


Archive of the Crown of Aragon, pl. del Rei, Barcelona.


{{coord missing, Europe Crown of Aragon, Former countries on the Iberian Peninsula Former monarchies of Europe, Aragon Medieval Spain Spanish monarchy Former confederations 1162 establishments in Europe States and territories disestablished in 1714 1714 disestablishments in Spain History of Catalonia 12th-century establishments in Spain Former countries in Europe