The Cross of Military Merit ( es|Cruces del Mérito Militar) is Spain
's military awards
for gallantry or merit in war or peace. Awarded to members of the Spanish Armed Forces
, Guardia Civil
History and attribution
Established on 3 August 1864 by Queen Isabella II
as the Order of Military Merit ( es|Orden del Mérito Militar), it has been amended many times (in 1918, 1926, 1931, 1938, 1942, 1976, 1995, 2003 and 2007). During the Spanish Civil War
it was recognized by both sides of the conflict. Awarded originally in four classes, in 1995, in 1995 it lost the rank of an order of merit, and the classes were reduced to two and the number of categories extended to four.
According to the current regulations the decoration is conferred in the following classes:
* Grand Cross - to generals, admirals or civilian personnel of equivalent rank;
* Cross - to other officers, non-commissioned ranks or equivalent civilian personnel.
The categories are as follows:
* with Red Decoration (''con distintivo rojo'') - for courage, actions, deeds or service during an armed conflict or military operations that involve or may involve the use of armed force and may require significant military or command skills; since 2007 it can be awarded to for acts of gallantry while on an overseas mission and to soldiers fallen during such a mission;
* with Blue Decoration (''con distintivo azul'') - for actions, events or extraordinary services including operations resulting from a mandate of the United Nations or of other international organizations;
* with Yellow Decoration (''con distintivo amarillo'') - for actions, deeds or service that involve high personal risk and in cases of serious injury or death resulting from such actions or service;
* with White Decoration (''con distintivo blanco'') - for actions, deeds or distinguished service during missions or ordinary or extraordinary service in the armed forces or in connection with defense of the country.
Multiple awards of each class and each category to the same individual are possible.
Insignia and ribbons
The decoration has the form of a Greek cross
with the arms enameled red in the ''Red Decoration'' category and white in the remaining categories. The ''Blue Decoration'' and ''Yellow Decoration'' badges have additional narrow bars in blue or yellow across the lower and lateral arms. The upper arm is surmounted by a Spanish royal crown and has a tablet to engrave the date of bestowal. The round central shield of the obverse bears the coat of arms of Castile
(until 2003 only alternate coats of arms of Castile and León); in the middle there is a blue oval shield (escutcheon
) of the House of Bourbon-Anjou
. On the reverse there are letters "MM" (''Mérito Militar'') on red background. The cross is worn on a ribbon on the left side of chest. Each subsequent award is denoted by a bar with the date of bestowal on the ribbon.
The Grand Cross has the same form as the cross described above but is worn on a sash over the right shoulder.
The star added to the class of Grand Cross is gilt, eight-pointed, with the cross superimposed on it; currently between the arms of the cross there are alternate towers (Castile) and lions (León).
* Cross of Naval Merit (Spain)
* Cross of Aeronautical Merit (Spain)
* Juan L. Calvó Pascual, ''Cruces y medallas 1807/1987'', Monte Cotiño 1987.
''Real Decreto 1040/2003''
of 1 August 2003 about military decorations.
''Real Decreto 970/2007''
of 13 July 2007 amending the Real Decreto 1040/2003.
by Antonio Prieto Barrio (in Spanish).
by Megan Robertson.
Real decreto instituyendo la Orden del Mérito militar para recompensar servicios militares prestados por los Generales, Jefes y Oficiales del ejército.
Gaceta de Madrid núm. 221, de 08/08/1864, página 1.
Category:Military awards and decorations of Spain
Category:Awards established in 1864
Category:1864 establishments in Spain