BackgroundOrganised cricket has been taking place in South Africa since the British first introduced the sport in the 1880s. England were the first tour side to visit South Africa in 1888-89, playing its first Test match at and becoming the third Test playing nation. Since 1890, various national bodies have formed and governed cricket in South Africa along separate racial lines. Regularly playing against England, Australia and New Zealand through to the 1960s, in 1970 the imposed an international ban on South Africa in response to its policy of and its refusal to field non whites and play non white teams. When the ban was applied, South Africa was arguably the best team in the world and cut short the Test careers of hugely talented players, some of whom later emigrated and played for other nations. During South Africa’s expulsion from international cricket, a number of different organisations ran domestic cricket depending on the various racial groups. The South African Cricket Association (SACA) administered white players, with the South African Cricket Board of Control (SACBOC) and the South African African Board (SAACB) administrating the different non-white racial groups. The effect of the cricketing boycott had a significant impact on the domestic game. Standards, attendances and participation were all falling, and the game had been revolutionised by the and World Series, in which South African cricket was being deprived of these financial rewards. By 1976, in a dramatic turn away from government policy, the three organisations agreed to establish one single board to govern South African cricket and that all future cricket would be played on an integrated and purely meritocracy basis regardless of race or colour. Termed ‘normal’ cricket, it was hoped this would enable re-admission to the ICC, however, the new South African Cricket Union (SACU) was rejected by many non-white players who saw it as a feeble gesture within the wider context of apartheid. The South African Cricket Board (SACB) was organised to administer cricket for those non-whites that refused to join the SACU. As South African cricket continued to be excluded, ‘Rebel Tours’ (unofficial international teams coming to South Africa to play), were organised by the SACU during the 1980s. Despite intense disapproval by international cricket boards, national governments and the ICC, seven tours were staged in South Africa between 1982 and 1990. Players joining ‘rebel tours’ ran considerable risks to their own careers and reputations. Many faced ostracization when they returned home, as well as facing a cricketing ban. In an era when cricketers were not paid large amounts of money, as an incentive the SACU offered substantial sums to entice rebel teams to play. Teams from England, Australia, the West Indies and Sri Lanka played 19 Tests and numerous One Day Internationals between them against the Springboks. In June 1991, the United Cricket Board of South (UCB) was established following the unity process and the amalgamation of the SACU and the SACB, finally bringing to an end to racial segregation within South African cricket. In July, South Africa was readmitted as a full member of the ICC, playing its first sanctioned international match since 1970 against India in November and their first Test match against the West Indies in April 1992. In 2002, Cricket South Africa (CSA) was formed and operated in conjunction with the UCB. CSA was responsible for and administered the professional game, and the UCB oversaw amateur cricket in South Africa. In 2008, CSA and the UCB merged, reportedly for tax reasons, with CSA becoming the sole governing body for both professionals and amateurs.
CurrentIn recent years, Cricket South Africa has been rocked by significant amounts of turmoil and disorganisation that has caused notable reputational harm, both at home and abroad. In 2012 Gerald Majola, CEO of CSA since 2000, was suspended and later dismissed following a scandal into unauthorised bonuses. An internal investigation had initially exonerated Majola of any wrongdoing, however a government inquiry later found that he, and several other staff members, had failed to declare a collective US$671,428 in bonuses after the South African hosting of the 2009 IPL and Champions Trophy. Both CSA President Mtytzeli Nyoka and his acting replacement, AK Khan, resigned in the aftermath of the scandal. The government inquiry subsequently recommended that CSA should be restructured. Haroon Lorgrat, CEO since 2013, 'mutually agreed to part ways with immediate effect' from CSA in September 2017 after his position became untenable following allegations that he had deliberately withheld critical financial information from the board of directors. Lorgat had been embattled with the CSA board over the financial expenditure of the now abandoned Global League T20. With tournament outlay totalling US$330,000 between May 2016 and April 2017 alone, the league had yet to secure a broadcaster and title sponsor a month before the competition was due to begin in November 2017. Under Thanang Moroe, CEO from 2017 to 2020, Cricket South Africa spiralled down into numerous crises. A series of high-profile controversies and disagreements with the South African Cricketers Association relating to league restructuring, broadcasting rights, and various administration issues overtook CSA. In December 2019 Moroe was suspended, and later dismissed, following an independent forensic report that had uncovered multiple incidents of financial dishonesty where board money had been paid to private companies for a service that was never delivered. Throughout this time, CSA had refused to publish the final non-redacted ''Funduszi Report'' that had investigated alleged wrongdoing and negligence dating back to 2016 within the organisation. As a consequence, in October 2020 the entire Board of Directors resigned with immediate effect. The South African Sports Confederation and Olympic Committee (Sascoc) announced that they had suspended Cricket South Africa due to ‘maladministration and malpractices’, and had taken over cricketing operations in the country. The acting CEO since July 2020, Kugandrie Govender, (the first woman in the position) herself was suspended four months later, pending the outcome of a hearing into allegations of misconduct during her time as Chief Commercial Officer, as well as acting CEO. In January 2021, Cricket South Africa appointed Pholetsi Moseki, the former CFO, as acting CEO - the third CEO since the beginning of 2020. In April, the interim board and the Members Council reached an agreement over organisational reforms at the eleventh hour after the South African Government threatened to defund the organisation and remove recognition for all the country's national teams - effectively ending organised cricket in the country. The had also announced that it could suspend South Africa due to government interference in the sport, which is against ICC rules. has twice been suspended for political intervention by the ICC, most recently in 2019. In June 2021, a new Board of Directors was appointed. With the majority for the first time being made up of independents (i.e, outside CSA current administrative or operational circles), it is being heralded as a new era for the organisation both domestically and internationally, with the return of administrative professionalism and long-term stability to the sport.
StructureCSA is currently governed by two internal organisation structures with a joint purpose of delivering responsible administration of the game, as well as to nurture sustainable growth and business investment for South African cricket. The Board of Directors of CSA is generally composed of 12 directors that are elected to serve a three year term, each director however is eligible to have that term extended by another three years. The Board currently contains seven non-independent directors - those involved in cricket - and five independent directors that are employed to bring outside experience on legal, accounting and business matters to CSA. Strategic direction, formulation of policy and management of daily operations is the primary responsibility of the Board of Directors, and is performed through the governance framework of CSA committees and internal control procedures. The Members Council is the highest authority within CSA, and is currently composed of 14 Presidents of the affiliated Provincial cricket unions. Two Provincial Presidents are also themselves elected as President and Vice-President of CSA. All major decisions taken by the Board of Directors must be debated and ratified by the Members Council. Throughout, close consultation is kept with the South African Cricketers Association (SACA), who represent the interests and welfare of the players. CSA’s current interim Board of Directors, chaired by Zak Yacoob, has been in place since the mass resignation of all Board Directors in October 2020 following the decision by the suspension of CSA in the wake of repeated allegations of serious misconduct and malpractices. With their tenure lasting until February 2021, it has been announced by the interim Board that they are proposing an end to the current arrangement of two separate structures within CSA, and that the Board of Directors be made the sole seat of authority going forward. To ensure the independence of the CSA organisation, it has also recommended that more independent directors join the board. Currently, seven Provincial Presidents are non-independent directors on the board, as well as serving on the Members Council, potentially leading to large scale conflict of interests with CSA decision making.
TransformationCSA maintain that their continued vision is to ensure that cricket is supported by the majority of South Africans, and that the game is available to all. Although a previous racial quota was repealed in 2007, since 2016 ‘transformation’ targets, although highly controversial, have been set by CSA in order to ensure that more South Africans of colour achieve greater representation at the national level. The percentage of black African players required in a team currently stands at 25%, up from 18% the previous season. In 2021-22, this will increase to 27% and in 2022-23, it will sit at 33%. Overall, the numbers of players of colour required will increase to 63% by 2022-23, from the current 58%. National teams must field six players of colour, of which at least two must be black African. These quotas however are for an average across the course of a season and are not enforced for individual matches. A further memorandum had stated from August 2020 that white consultants would no longer be appointed by CSA unless a person of colour could not be found during the recruitment process. In January 2021, it was announced by the interim board that all previous transformation targets adopted by CSA, including the affirmative action against hiring white consultants, would be suspended for the foreseeable future.
National Teams - The Proteas
Men'sTest: Having hosted and played their first international first-class game against England in 1888-89, South Africa developed into a competitive team by the start of the 20th century. Arguably the best team in the world when the ICC imposed an international ban on South Africa in 1970, since readmittance in 1991 South Africa have reasserted themselves as a strong team. Although at times holding the number one position in the international rankings, they have only had one success in an ICC organised tournament, the 1998 Champions Trophy. ODI: Playing their first One Day International against India soon after readmittance in 1991, South Africa have reached the ODI World Cup Semi-Finals four times, most recently in 2015, but never progressed further. T20I: South Africa played their first T20I against New Zealand in 2005. Much like the other national squads, the T20I teams fortunes have varied and have been close to silverware. Appearing in 7 T20 World Cups, the Proteas have been semi-finalists twice, most recently in 2014.
Women’sTest: Making their debut in 1960 against England, the women’s team did not play any international fixtures between 1972 and 1997. Despite being the oldest form of women’s cricket in South Africa, the Proteas have played just 12 Test matches, with the most recent being in 2014 and winning only one. With a win rate of only 8%, T20 has taken on a far more prominent and financially rewarding role, almost ending women's Test cricket as a viable entity. ODI: The women’s team played their first One Day International against Ireland in 1997, and have a current win rate of roughly 50% over nearly 200 matches. Playing in six Women’s World Cups, the Proteas have been semi-finalists twice, in 2000 and 2017, although never progressing further. T20I: The Proteas’ first T20I was in 2007 against Australia, and have since played over 100 matches. Competing in 6 Women’s T20 World Cups, South Africa have been semi-finalists in 2014 and in 2020.
Domestic CompetitionsCSA organises and oversees a range of domestic competitions within the country. From the 1892-93 season, first-class domestic cricket in South Africa emerged into the familiar province-based champion season. This competition format, with occasional changes and additions, survived until the 2004/05 season when the domestic structure was remodelled across all three formats to introduce six, entirely professional, franchise teams. In 2021, Cricket South Africa announced a return to the traditional province based domestic structure. 15 first-class teams now play in two divisions, determined by promotion and relegation. Eight teams make up the first division, with 16 contracted players each, and seven teams the second division, with 11 contracted players each. CSA believes that the new format will provide more opportunities for players to compete at a high standard just below international cricket, in turn providing a wider talent pool for the national selectors. It is hoped that wider selection of teams at the highest domestic level will help increase playing opportunities of all races, particularly those currently underrepresented. South Africa's major domestic competitions are the CSA 4-Day Series (four day competition) and the ( one-day competition). Division 1 will take part in the Mzanzi Super League (T20 competition), whilst Division 2 compete in a separate T20 tournament. For women, CSA Provincial Cricket is currently the top level of cricket in South Africa, however it remains semi-professional. Since 2019, South African women have played in the Women's T20 Super League. Further developing the women’s game at a high level, CSA have said that the competition will allow top performing players from across the under-19s and provincial cricket to continue and improve domestic standards, as well as ultimately strengthening the national limited over sides.
Development, Youth and Grass RootsCricket South Africa offers numerous programmes that cover all aspects of the development of the amateur and professional game, for both men and women. From school projects, to introduction of hard ball cricket, through the semi-professional and fully professional franchise system, and then the pinnacle of international cricket. As the majority of South African schools do not have the necessary support infrastructure in place, CSA provides regional and district programmes, often via their Performance Centres. KFC Mini-Cricket is usually the first introduction to cricket that South African boys and girls enjoy. Starting at the ages of four to thirteen, more than 126,000 school children have participated in the programme, while the number of coaches and schools participating has increased to nearly 14,000 and 7,000 respectively. National inter-provincial tournaments are played at under-13, under-15, under-17 and under-19 levels for boys, and at under-15 and under-19 levels for girls. Through the Talent Acceleration Programme, the best players can be identified, particularly disadvantaged cricketers, without any bias against their background or circumstance. Numerous initiatives are available that provide financial support for deprived young cricketers, through the Sunfoil Education Trust (SET), the Momentum Bursary Trust, and the SASCOC Bursary Programme. From Youth to International progression, CSA nourishes talent through multiple Provincial and Regional Academies, as well the National Academy and the High Performance Centre.
Finances and SponsorshipIn the preceding years before Covid-19, CSA had reported a declared loss of R200m for the 2018-19 financial year, and profit of R50m for 2019-20. Due to the pandemic, as well as organisational instability, CSA forecasted major losses of R654m (£32m) by the end of its four year in 2022 due to the effect on hosting tours, introducing the Mzanzi Super League, and restructuring the domestic game. Whilst the SA Cricketers Association puts that figure closer to R1bn (£50m), CSA now project a revised figure of R400 (£19m) due to tours going ahead and new sponsorship agreements. So far, CSA has not undertaken any job or pay cuts and has reported cash reserves of R800m (£39m). Although facing a tough financial period and COVID consequences, CSA have agreed a major broadcast deal with '' '' in November 2020 for a reported R1.5bn (£72m) over the next four years to 2024. Another arrangement with South African broadcaster '' SuperSport'' is set to be negotiated before April 2021, alongside potential new sponsorship deals and existing television rights. In September 2020, the financial services giant confirmed that it would not seek to renew its sponsorship agreement with CSA, affecting the ODIs, the franchise one-day cup, the national club champions, the under-13, under-15 and under-17 competitions and initiatives. Momentum will however continue to sponsor the national women’s team under 2023, but have stated they will continue to advise CSA to resolve its administrative plight as a matter of urgency. Momentum is the not the only major sponsor to separate from CSA since the start of its instability crisis in December 2019. have opted not to continue their support for the national Test team, as well as the CSA development programmes. The sunflower oil producer Sunfoil, who had sponsored the first-class four day competition, similarly decided not to renew their sponsorship in 2019.
See also* *
References;Sources * ''Wisden Cricketers Almanack''