The counterculture of the 1960s was an
anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society. The term was first used in the modern sense in 1958, by the British magazine '' New Statesman' ...
cultural phenomenon that developed throughout much of the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s. The aggregate movement gained momentum as the U.S. Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and, with the expansion of the
American Government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Co ...
's extensive military intervention in Vietnam, would later become
revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term ''revolutionary'' refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. D ...
to some. As the 1960s progressed, widespread social tensions also developed concerning other issues, and tended to flow along generational lines regarding
human sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning ...
women's rights Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supp ...
, traditional modes of authority, rights of the non-white people, end of the racial segregation regimes based on the idea that defends the racial superiority of the white European race, experimentation with
psychoactive drug A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, psychoactive agent, or psychotropic drug, is a chemical substance that changes nervous system function and results in alterations in perception, mood (psychology), mood, consciousness, cognition, or beha ...
s, and differing interpretations of the ''
American Dream The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It ...
''. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the 1960s. As the era unfolded, what emerged were new cultural forms and a dynamic
subculture A subculture is a group of people within a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, ...

that celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of
Bohemianism Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary, or spiritual pursuits. In this context, bohemians may be wanderers, ad ...
, and the rise of the
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition ...

and other
alternative lifestyle An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle perceived to be outside the cultural norm. The phrase may be used by someone to describe their own lifestyle or someone else's. Description of a related set of activities as an alternative lifestyle is a de ...
s. This embrace of
creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, suc ...

is particularly notable in the works of musical acts such as
the Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

the Beatles
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
, as well as of
New Hollywood The New Hollywood, also referred to as the American New Wave or sometimes called the Hollywood Renaissance, refers to a movement in American film history from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prom ...
filmmakers, whose works became far less restricted by
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...

. Within and across many disciplines, many other creative artists, authors, and thinkers helped define the counterculture movement. Everyday
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and body posture. The term i ...
experienced a decline of the
suit A suit or lounge suit is a set of clothes comprising a suit jacket and trousers of identical textiles worn with a collared dress shirt, necktie, and dress shoes. It is considered informal wear in Western dress codes. The lounge suit originated ...

and especially of the wearing of
hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safet ...

s; styles based around
jeans Jeans are a type of pants Trousers (British English), slacks, or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending ...

, for both men and women, became an important fashion movement that has continued up to the present day. Several factors distinguished the counterculture of the 1960s from the
anti-authoritarian Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to , which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to " and to authoritarian government. Anti ...
movements of previous eras. The
post-World War II baby boomThe middle of the 20th century The 20th (twentieth) century began on January 1, 1901 ( MCMI), and ended on December 31, 2000 ( MM). It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. The 20th century was dominated by significant events t ...
generated an unprecedented number of potentially disaffected youth as prospective participants in a rethinking of the direction of the United States and other democratic societies.
Post-war In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, co ...
affluence allowed much of the counterculture generation to move beyond the provision of the material necessities of life that had preoccupied their Depression-era parents. The era was also notable in that a significant portion of the array of behaviors and "causes" within the larger movement were quickly assimilated within mainstream society, particularly in the US, even though counterculture participants numbered in the clear minority within their respective national populations. In general, the counterculture era commenced in earnest with the
assassination of John F. Kennedy Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of stateb ...
in November 1963; became absorbed into the
popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and ...
with the termination of U.S. combat military involvement in Southeast Asia; and ultimately concluded with the end of the
draft Draft, The Draft, or Draught may refer to: Watercraft dimensions * Draft (hull), the distance from waterline to keel of a vessel * Draft (sail), degree of curvature in a sail * Air draft, distance from waterline to the highest point on a vessel ...
in 1973 and the
resignation Resignation is the formal act of leaving or quitting one's office or position. A resignation can occur when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down, but leaving a position upon the expiration of a term, or choos ...
of President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
in August 1974.


Post-war geopolitics

Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
capitalist state The capitalist state is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...
s involved
espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret Secrecy is the practice of hiding information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both it ...

and preparation for war between powerful nations, along with political and military interference by powerful states in the internal affairs of less powerful nations. Poor outcomes from some of these activities set the stage for disillusionment with, and distrust of, post-war governments. Examples included harsh responses from
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
(USSR) towards popular
anti-communist Anti-communism is a political movement and ideology opposed to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet U ...

uprisings, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Prague Spring#REDIRECT Prague Spring The Prague Spring ( cs, Pražské jaro, sk, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ( Czech and sk, Česk ...
in 1968; and the botched U.S.
Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (; sometimes called ''invasión de playa Girón'' or ''batalla de Girón'', after the Playa Girón) was a failed landing operation Allied invasion of Sicily, 1943 A landing operation is a military A military ...
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

in 1961. In the US, President
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American military officer An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term " ...
's initial deception over the nature of the 1960 U-2 incident resulted in the government being caught in a blatant lie at the highest levels, and contributed to a backdrop of growing distrust of authority among many who came of age during the period. The
Partial Test Ban Treaty The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (also ...
divided the establishment within the US along political and military lines. Internal political disagreements concerning treaty obligations in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
SEATO The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was ...
), especially in
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

, and debate as to how other communist
insurgencies An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).Oxford English Dictionary second edition 1989 "insurgent B. n. One who rises in revolt ...
should be challenged, also created a rift of dissent within the establishment. In the UK, the
Profumo affair The Profumo affair was a major scandal in twentieth-century Politics of the United Kingdom, British politics. John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative Party (United Kingdom), Conservative government, had a ...
also involved establishment leaders being caught in deception, leading to disillusionment and serving as a catalyst for liberal activism. The
Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 ( es, Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis (), or the Missile Scare, was a 1-month, 4 day (16 October – 20 November 1962) confrontation between the United States ...
, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962, was largely fomented by duplicitous speech and actions on the part of the Soviet Union. The assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in November 1963, and the attendant
theories A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or researc ...
concerning the event, led to further diminished trust in government, including among younger people.

Social issues and calls to action

Many social issues fueled the growth of the larger counterculture movement. One was a nonviolent movement in the United States seeking to resolve constitutional
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
illegalities, especially regarding general
racial segregation Racial segregation is the systematic separation of people into race (human classification), racial or other Ethnicity, ethnic groups in daily life. Racial segregation can amount to the international crime of apartheid and a crimes against hum ...
, longstanding
disfranchisementDisfranchisement, also called disenfranchisement, or voter disqualification is the revocation of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or a practice that has the effect of preventing a person exercising the right to vote. Disf ...
of Black people in the South by white-dominated
state government A state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
, and ongoing
racial discrimination Racial discrimination is any discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discrim ...
in jobs, housing, and access to public places in both the North and the South. On college and university campuses, student activists fought for the right to exercise their basic constitutional rights, especially
freedom of speech Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philoso ...

freedom of speech
freedom of assembly Janitorial workers striking in front of the MTV building in Santa Monica, California">Santa Monica Santa Monica () is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, i ...
. Many counterculture activists became aware of the plight of the poor, and
community organizer Community organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest. Unlike those who promote more-consensual community building, community organizers ge ...
s fought for the funding of
anti-poverty programs Poverty reduction, poverty relief, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty. Measures, like those promoted by Henry George in his economics class ...
, particularly in the South and within
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism A euphemism () is an innocuous word or expression used in place of one that is deemed Profanity, offensive or suggests something unpleasant. Some euphemi ...

inner city
areas in the United States.
Environmentalism Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical real ...
grew from a greater understanding of the ongoing damage caused by
industrialization Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is b ...
, resultant
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...

, and the misguided use of chemicals such as
pesticides Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pest (organism), pests. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, pi ...
in well-meaning efforts to improve the quality of life for the rapidly growing population. Authors such as
Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservation movement, conservationist whose influential book ''Silent Spring'' (1962) and other writings are credited with advancing the g ...
played key roles in developing a new awareness among the
global population upright=1.3, Population growth graph In demographics, the world population is the total number of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, ...

global population
of the fragility of our planet, despite resistance from elements of the establishment in many countries. The need to address minority rights of women, gay people, the disabled, and many other neglected constituencies within the larger population came to the forefront as an increasing number of primarily younger people broke free from the constraints of 1950s orthodoxy and struggled to create a more inclusive and tolerant social landscape. The availability of new and more effective forms of
birth control Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woma ...
was a key underpinning of the
sexual revolution The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States from the 1960s to the 1980s ...
. The notion of "recreational sex" without the threat of unwanted pregnancy radically changed the social dynamic and permitted both women and men much greater freedom in the selection of sexual lifestyles outside the confines of traditional marriage. With this change in attitude, by the 1990s the ratio of children born out of wedlock rose from 5% to 25% for Whites and from 25% to 66% for African-Americans.

Emergent media


For those born after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the emergence of television as a source of entertainment and information—as well as the associated massive expansion of
consumerism Consumerism is a and economic order that encourages the acquisition of in ever-increasing amounts. With the , but particularly in the 20th century, led to —the of goods would grow beyond consumer , and so manufacturers turned to and to ...
afforded by post-war affluence and encouraged by TV
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

—were key components in creating disillusionment for some younger people and in the formulation of new social behaviours, even as ad agencies heavily courted the "hip" youth market. In the US, nearly real-time TV news coverage of the
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
era's 1963
Birmingham Campaign The Birmingham campaign, also known as the Birmingham movement or Birmingham confrontation, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Am ...
, the "Bloody Sunday" event of the 1965
Selma to Montgomery marches The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, Alabama, Dallas County, in the Black Belt (region ...

Selma to Montgomery marches
, and graphic news footage from Vietnam brought horrifying, moving images of the bloody reality of armed conflict into living rooms for the first time.

New cinema

The breakdown of enforcement of the US
Hays Code The Motion Picture Production Code was a set of industry guidelines for the self-censorship Self-censorship is the act of censorship, censoring or Classified Information, classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference ...
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments ...

in motion picture production, the use of new forms of artistic expression in European and Asian cinema, and the advent of modern production values heralded a new era of
art-house An art film is typically an independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. It is "intended to be a serious, artistic work, often experimental and not designed for mass appeal", "made primarily for aesthetic reason ...
pornographic Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal Sexual arousal (also sexual excitement) is typically the arousal Arousal is the physiological and psychologic ...
, and mainstream film production, distribution, and exhibition. The end of censorship resulted in a complete reformation of the western film industry. With new-found artistic freedom, a generation of exceptionally talented
New Wave New Wave may refer to: Music * New wave music, a genre of popular music that originated in the 1970s Albums * ''New Wave'' (Against Me! album) or the title song, 2007 * ''New Wave'' (The Auteurs album), 1993 * New Wave (Dizzy Gillespie album ...
film makers working across all genres brought realistic depictions of previously prohibited subject matter to neighborhood theater screens for the first time, even as
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of An ...

film studios were still considered a part of the establishment by some elements of the counterculture. Successful 60s new films of the New Hollywood were ''
Bonnie and Clyde Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow (March 24, 1909May 23, 1934) were an Crime in the United States, American criminal couple who traveled the Central United States with Barrow Gang, their gang during ...
'', ''
The Graduate ''The Graduate'' is a 1967 American romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, ...
'', ''
The Wild Bunch ''The Wild Bunch'' is a 1969 American Revisionist Western film directed by Sam Peckinpah and starring William Holden, Ernest Borgnine, Robert Ryan, Edmond O'Brien, Ben Johnson and Warren Oates Warren Mercer Oates (July 5, 1928 – Ap ...
'', and
Peter Fonda Peter Henry Fonda (February 23, 1940 – August 16, 2019) was an American actor, director, and screenwriter. He was the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress ...
's ''
Easy Rider ''Easy Rider'' is a 1969 American independent road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form ...

New radio

By the later 1960s, previously under-regarded
FM radio FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting Image:Long wave radio station 002 Motala Sweden.JPG, Long wave radio broadcasting station, Motala, Sweden Image:Tyholt taarnet.jpg, upBroadcasting tower in Trondheim, Norway Radio broadcastin ...
AM radio AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it ...
as the focal point for the ongoing explosion of
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and st ...

rock and roll
music, and became the nexus of youth-oriented news and advertising for the counterculture generation.

Changing lifestyles

Commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, politica ...

collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective. Collectives can differ from cooperative A cooperative (also known as co-operative, c ...
s, and
intentional communities An intentional community is a voluntary residential community A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residency (domicile), residents, as opposed to commerce, commercial businesses a ...
regained popularity during this era. Early communities such as the
Hog Farm The Hog Farm is an organization considered America's longest running hippie A hippie (sometimes misspelled as hippy) is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ ...
, Quarry Hill, and Drop City in the US were established as straightforward back to the land movement, agrarian attempts to return to the land and live free of interference from outside influences. As the era progressed, many people established and populated new communities in response to not only disillusionment with standard community forms, but also dissatisfaction with certain elements of the counterculture itself. Some of these self-sustaining communities have been credited with the birth and propagation of the international Green Politics, Green Movement. The emergence of an interest in expanded spiritual consciousness, yoga, occult practices and increased Human Potential Movement, human potential helped to shift views on organized religion during the era. In 1957, 69% of US residents polled by The Gallup Organization, Gallup said religion was increasing in influence. By the late 1960s, polls indicated less than 20% still held that belief. The "Generation Gap", or the inevitable perceived divide in worldview between the old and young, was perhaps never greater than during the counterculture era. A large measure of the generational chasm of the 1960s and early 1970s was born of rapidly evolving fashion and hairstyle trends that were readily adopted by the young, but often misunderstood and ridiculed by the old. These included the wearing of very long hair by men, the wearing of natural or "Afro" hairstyles by Black people, the donning of revealing clothing by women in public, and the mainstreaming of the psychedelic clothing and regalia of the short-lived hippie culture. Ultimately, practical and comfortable casual apparel, namely updated forms of T-shirts (often tie-dyed, or emblazoned with political or advertising statements), and Levi's, Levi Strauss-branded blue denim jeans became the enduring uniform of the generation, as daily wearing of
suit A suit or lounge suit is a set of clothes comprising a suit jacket and trousers of identical textiles worn with a collared dress shirt, necktie, and dress shoes. It is considered informal wear in Western dress codes. The lounge suit originated ...

s along with traditional Western dress codes declined in use. The fashion dominance of the counterculture effectively ended with the rise of the Disco and Punk Rock eras in the later 1970s, even as the global popularity of T-shirts, denim jeans, and casual clothing in general have continued to grow.

Emergent middle-class drug culture

In the western world, the ongoing criminal legal status of the recreational drug industry was instrumental in the formation of an anti-establishment social dynamic by some of those coming of age during the counterculture era. The explosion of marijuana use during the era, in large part by students on fast-expanding college campuses, created an attendant need for increasing numbers of people to conduct their personal affairs in secret in the procurement and use of banned substances. The Legal history of cannabis in the United States, classification of marijuana as a narcotic, and the attachment of severe criminal penalties for its use, drove the act of smoking marijuana, and experimentation with substances in general, deep underground. Many began to live largely clandestine lives because of their choice to use such drugs and substances, fearing retribution from their governments.

Law enforcement

The confrontations between college students (and other activists) and law enforcement officials became one of the hallmarks of the era. Many younger people began to show deep distrust of police, and terms such as "List of police-related slang terms, fuzz" and "pig" as derogatory epithets for police reappeared, and became key words within the counterculture lexicon. The distrust of police was based not only on fear of police brutality during political protests, but also on generalized police corruption – especially police manufacture of false evidence, and outright entrapment, in drug cases. In the US, the social tension between elements of the counterculture and law enforcement reached the breaking point in many notable cases, including: the Columbia University protests of 1968 in New York City, the 1968 Democratic National Convention protest activity, 1968 Democratic National Convention protests in Chicago, the arrest and imprisonment of John Sinclair (poet), John Sinclair in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Kent State shootings at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, where National Guardsman acted as surrogates for police. Police malfeasance was also an ongoing issue in the UK during the era.

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, and the protracted national divide between supporters and opponents of the war, were arguably the most important factors contributing to the rise of the larger counterculture movement. The widely accepted assertion that anti-war opinion was held only among the young is a myth, but enormous war protests consisting of thousands of mostly younger people in every major US city, and elsewhere across the Western world, effectively united millions against the war, and against the war policy that prevailed under five US congresses and during two presidential administrations.


Western Europe

The counterculture movement took hold in Western Europe, with London, Amsterdam, Paris, Rome and Milan, Copenhagen and West Berlin rivaling San Francisco and New York as counterculture centers. The UK Underground was a movement linked to the growing subculture in the US and associated with the hippie phenomenon, generating its own magazines and newspapers, fashion, music groups, and clubs. Underground figure Barry Miles said, "The underground was a catch-all sobriquet for a community of like-minded anti-establishment, anti-war, pro-rock'n'roll individuals, most of whom had a common interest in recreational drugs. They saw peace, exploring a widened area of consciousness, love and sexual experimentation as more worthy of their attention than entering the rat race. The straight, consumerist lifestyle was not to their liking, but they did not object to others living it. But at that time the middle classes still felt they had the right to impose their values on everyone else, which resulted in conflict." In the Netherlands, Provo (movement), Provo was a counterculture movement that focused on "provocative direct action ('pranks' and 'happenings') to arouse society from political and social indifference". In France, the May 1968 in France, General Strike centered in Paris in May 1968 united French students, and nearly toppled the government. Kommune 1 or K1 was a commune in West Germany known for its bizarre staged events that fluctuated between satire and Agent provocateur, provocation. These events served as inspiration for the "Sponti" movement and other leftist groups. In the late summer of 1968, the commune moved into a deserted factory on Stephanstraße in order to reorient. This second phase of Kommune 1 was characterized by sex, music and drugs. Soon, the commune was receiving visitors from all over the world, including Jimi Hendrix.

In Eastern Europe

''Mánička'' is a Czech language, Czech term used for young people with long hair, usually males, in
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

through the 1960s and 1970s. Long hair for males during this time was considered an expression of political and social attitudes in History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989), communist Czechoslovakia. From the mid-1960s, the long-haired and "untidy" persons (so called ''máničky'' or ''vlasatci'' (in English: wikt:Mops, Mops) were banned from entering pubs, cinema halls, theatres and using public transportation in several Czech cities and towns.#Pokorná, Pokorná (2010) In 1964, the public transportation regulations in Most (Most District), Most and Litvínov excluded long-haired ''máničky'' as displeasure-evoking persons. Two years later, the municipal council in Poděbrady banned ''máničky'' from entering cultural institutions in the town. In August 1966, ''Rudé právo'' informed that ''máničky'' in Prague were banned from visiting restaurants of the I. and II. price category. In 1966, during a big campaign coordinated by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, around 4,000 young males were forced to cut their hair, often in the cells with the assistance of the state police. On August 19, 1966, during a "safety intervention" organized by the state police, 140 long-haired people were arrested. As a response, the "community of long-haired" organized a protest in Prague. More than 100 people cheered slogans such as "Give us back our hair!" or "Away with hairdressers!". The state police arrested the organizers and several participants of the meeting. Some of them were given prison sentences. According to the newspaper ''Mladá fronta Dnes'', the Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior in 1966 even compiled a detailed map of the frequency of occurrence of long-haired males in Czechoslovakia. In August 1969, during the first anniversary of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia, the long-haired youth were one of the most active voices in the state protesting against the occupation. Youth protesters have been labeled as "vagabonds" and "slackers" by the official Normalization (Czechoslovakia), normalized press.

In Australia

''Oz (magazine), Oz'' magazine was first published as a satirical humour magazine between 1963 and 1969 in Sydney, Australia, and, in its second and better known incarnation, became a "psychedelic hippy" magazine from 1967 to 1973 in London. Strongly identified as part of the underground press, it was the subject of two celebrated obscenity trials, one in Australia in 1964 and the other in the United Kingdom in 1971. ''The Digger (alternative magazine), The Digger'' was published monthly between 1972 and 1975 and served as a national outlet for many movements within Australia's counterculture with notable contributors—including second-wave feminists Anne Summers and Helen Garner, Californian cartoonist Ron Cobb's observations during a year-long stay in the country, Aboriginal activist Cheryl Buchanan, radical scientist Alan Roberts on global warming—and ongoing coverage of cultural trailblazers such as the Australian Performing Group (aka Pram Factory), and emerging Australian filmmakers. ''The Digger'' was produced by an evolving collective, many of whom had previously produced counterculture newspapers ''Revolution'' and ''High Times'', and all three of these magazines were co-founded by publisher/editor Phillip Frazer who launched Australia's legendary pop music paper ''Go-Set'' in 1966, when he was himself a teenager.

Latin America

In Mexico, rock music was tied into the youth revolt of the 1960s. Mexico City, as well as northern cities such as Monterrey, Nuevo Laredo, Ciudad Juárez, and Tijuana, were exposed to US music. Many Mexican rock stars became involved in the counterculture. The three-day Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro, held in 1971, was organized in the valley of Avándaro near the city of Toluca, a town neighboring Mexico City, and became known as "The Mexican Woodstock". Nudity, drug use, and the presence of the US flag scandalized conservative Mexican society to such an extent that the government clamped down on rock and roll performances for the rest of the decade. The festival, marketed as proof of Mexico's modernization, was never expected to attract the masses it did, and the government had to evacuate stranded attendees en masse at the end. This occurred during the era of President of Mexico, President Luis Echeverría, an extremely repressive era in Mexican history. Anything that could be connected to the counterculture or student protests was prohibited from being broadcast on public airwaves, with the government fearing a repeat of the Tlatelolco massacre, student protests of 1968. Few bands survived the prohibition; though the ones that did, like Three Souls in My Mind (now El Tri), remained popular due in part to their adoption of Spanish for their lyrics, but mostly as a result of a dedicated underground following. While Mexican rock groups were eventually able to perform publicly by the mid-1980s, the ban prohibiting tours of Mexico by foreign acts lasted until 1989. The Cordobazo was a civil uprising in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, in the end of May 1969, during the military dictatorship of General Juan Carlos Onganía, which occurred a few days after the ''Rosariazo'', and a year after the French May '68. Contrary to previous protests, the Cordobazo did not correspond to previous struggles, headed by Marxist workers' leaders, but associated students and workers in the same struggle against the Military dictatorship, military government.Carmen Bernand, « D'une rive à l'autre », ''Nuevo Mundo Mundos Nuevos, Materiales de seminarios'', 2008 (Latin-Americanist Review
published by the EHESS), Put on line on June 15, 2008. URL : Accessed on July 28, 2008.

Social and political movements

Ethnic movements

The Civil Rights Movement, a key element of the larger counterculture movement, involved the use of applied nonviolence to assure that equal rights guaranteed under the US Constitution, U.S. Constitution would apply to all citizens. Many states illegally denied many of these rights to African-Americans, and this was partially successfully addressed in the early and mid-1960s in several major nonviolent movements. The Chicano Movement of the 1960s, also called the Chicano civil rights movement, was a civil rights movement extending the Mexican-American civil rights movement of the 1960s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment. The American Indian Movement (or AIM) is a Native Americans in the United States, Native American Grassroots, grassroots movement that was founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A.I.M. was initially formed in urban areas to address systemic issues of poverty and police brutality against Native Americans. A.I.M. soon widened its focus from urban issues to include many Indigenous Tribal issues that Native American groups have faced due to settler colonialism of the Americas, such as treaty rights, high rates of unemployment, education, cultural continuity, and preservation of Indigenous cultures. The Asian American movement was a sociopolitical movement in which the widespread grassroots effort of Asian Americans affected racial, social and political change in the U.S, reaching its peak in the late 1960s to mid-1970s. During this period Asian Americans promoted antiwar and Anti-imperialism, anti-imperialist activism, directly opposing what was viewed as an unjust Vietnam war. The American Asian Movement (AAM) differs from previous Asian-American activism due to its emphasis on Pan-Asianism and its solidarity with U.S. and international Third-Worldism, Third World movements. "Its founding principle of coalition politics emphasizes solidarity among Asians of all ethnicities, multiracial solidarity among Asian Americans as well as with African Americans, African, Latino-American, Latino, and Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans in the United States, and Transnationalism, transnational solidarity with peoples around the globe impacted by U.S. militarism." The Nuyorican Movement is a cultural and intellectual movement involving poets, writers, musicians and artists who are Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican or of Puerto-Rican descent, who live in or near New York City, and either call themselves or are known as Nuyoricans. It originated in the late 1960s and early 1970s in neighborhoods such as Loisaida, East Harlem, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, Williamsburg, and the South Bronx as a means to validate Puerto Rican experience in the United States, particularly for poor and working-class people who suffered from marginalization, ostracism, and discrimination. Young Cuban exiles in the United States would develop interests in Cuban identity, and politics. This younger generation had experienced the United States during the rising Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, anti-war movement,
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
, and Second-wave feminism, feminist movement of the 1960s, causing them to be influenced by radicals that encouraged political introspection, and social justice. Figures like Fidel Castro and Che Guevara were also heavily praised among American student radicals at the time. These factors helped push some young Cubans into advocating for different degrees of rapprochement with Cuba. Those most likely to become more radical were Cubans who were more culturally isolated from being outside the Cuban enclave of Miami.

Free Speech

Much of the 1960s counterculture originated on college campuses. The 1964 Free Speech Movement at the University of California, Berkeley, which had its roots in the Civil Rights Movement of the southern United States, was one early example. At Berkeley a group of students began to identify themselves as having interests as a class that were at odds with the interests and practices of the University and its corporate sponsors. Other rebellious young people, who were not students, also contributed to the Free Speech Movement.

New Left

The ''New Left'' is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s in the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
. They differed from earlier leftist movements that had been more oriented towards labour movement, labour activism, and instead adopted social activism. The American "New Left" is associated with college campus mass protests and radical leftist movements. The British "New Left" was an intellectually driven movement that attempted to correct the perceived errors of "Old Left" parties in the post–World War II period. The movements began to wind down in the 1970s, when activists either committed themselves to party projects, developed social justice organizations, moved into identity politics or alternative lifestyles, or became politically inactive. The emergence of the New Left in the 1950s and 1960s led to a revival of interest in libertarian socialism. The New Left's critique of the Old Left's authoritarianism was associated with a strong interest in personal liberty, autonomy (see the thinking of Cornelius Castoriadis) and led to a rediscovery of older socialist traditions, such as left communism, council communism, and the Industrial Workers of the World. The New Left also led to a revival of anarchism. Journals like ''Radical America'' and ''Black Mask (anarchists), Black Mask'' in America, ''Solidarity (UK), Solidarity'', ''Big Flame (political group), Big Flame'' and ''Democracy & Nature'', succeeded by ''The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy'', in the UK, introduced a range of left libertarian ideas to a new generation. Social ecology (theory), Social ecology, autonomism and, more recently, participatory economics (parecon), and Inclusive Democracy emerged from this. A surge of popular interest in anarchism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s. Anarchism was influential in the counterculture of the 1960s and anarchists actively participated in the Protests of 1968, late 60s students and workers revolts. During the IX Congress of the Italian Anarchist Federation in Carrara in 1965, a group decided to split off from this organization and created the ''Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica''. In the 70s, it was mostly composed of "veteran individualist anarchists with a anarcho-pacifism, pacifism orientation, anarcho-naturism, naturism, etc, ..."."Los anarco-individualistas, G.I.A ... Una escisión de la FAI producida en el IX Congreso (Carrara, 1965) se pr odujo cuando un sector de anarquistas de tendencia humanista rechazan la interpretación que ellos juzgan disciplinaria del ''pacto asociativo" clásico, y crean los GIA (Gruppi di Iniziativa Anarchica) . Esta pequeña federación de grupos, hoy nutrida sobre todo de veteranos anarco-individualistas de orientación pacifista, naturista, etcétera defiende la autonomía personal y rechaza a rajatabla toda forma de intervención en los procesos del sistema, como sería por ejemplo el sindicalismo. Su portavoz es L'Internazionale con sede en Ancona. La escisión de los GIA prefiguraba, en sentido contrario, el gran debate que pronto había de comenzar en el seno del movimiento
"El movimiento libertario en Italia" by ''Bicicleta. REVISTA DE COMUNICACIONES LIBERTARIAS'' Year 1 No. Noviembre, 1 1977
In 1968, in Carrara, Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of Anarchist Federation (France), France, the Federazione Anarchica Italiana, Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile. During the events of May 68 the anarchist groups active in France were Fédération Anarchiste, Fédération anarchiste, Mouvement communiste libertaire, Union fédérale des anarchistes, Alliance ouvrière anarchiste, Union des groupes anarchistes communistes, Noir et Rouge, Confédération nationale du travail, Union anarcho-syndicaliste, Organisation révolutionnaire anarchiste, ''Cahiers socialistes libertaires'', ''À contre-courant'', ''La Révolution prolétarienne'', and the publications close to Émile Armand. The New Left in the United States also included anarchist, countercultural and
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition ...

-related radical groups such as the Yippies who were led by Abbie Hoffman, Diggers (theater), The Diggers and Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers. By late 1966, Diggers (theater), the Diggers opened free stores which simply gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art.. The Diggers took their name from the original Diggers, English Diggers led by Gerrard Winstanley and sought to create a mini-society free of money and capitalism. On the other hand, the Yippies employed theatrical gestures, such as advancing a pig ("Pigasus (politics), Pigasus the Immortal") as a candidate for President in 1968, to mock the social status quo. They have been described as a highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchistAbbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, page 128. Perigee Books, 1980. youth movement of "symbolic politics". Since they were well known for street theater and politically themed pranks, many of the "old school" political left either ignored or denounced them. According to ABC News, "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the 'Groucho Marx, Groucho Marxism, Marxists'."


In Trafalgar Square, London in 1958, in an act of civil disobedience, 60,000–100,000 protesters made up of students and pacifists converged in what was to become the "Anti-nuclear movement, ban the Bomb" demonstrations. Opposition to the Vietnam War began in 1964 on United States college campuses. Student activism became a dominant theme among the baby boomers, growing to include many other demographic groups. Exemptions and deferments for the middle and upper classes resulted in the induction of a disproportionate number of poor, working-class, and minority registrants. Countercultural books such as MacBird by Barbara Garson and much of the counterculture music encouraged a spirit of non-conformism and anti-establishmentarianism. By 1968, the year after a large march National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, to the United Nations in New York City and a large protest at the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, Pentagon were undertaken, a majority of people in the country opposed the war.


The application of nuclear technology, both as a source of energy and as an instrument of war, has been controversial.Robert Benford
The Anti-nuclear Movement (book review)
''American Journal of Sociology'', Vol. 89, No. 6, (May 1984), pp. 1456–1458.
Walker, J. Samuel (2004).
Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective
' (Berkeley: University of California Press), pp. 10–11.
Scientists and diplomats have debated the nuclear weapons policy since before the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945.Jerry Brown and Rinaldo Brutoco (1997). ''Profiles in Power: The Anti-nuclear Movement and the Dawn of the Solar Age'', Twayne Publishers, pp. 191–192. The public became concerned about nuclear weapons testing from about 1954, following extensive nuclear testing in the Pacific Ocean, Pacific. In 1961 and 1962, at the height of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, about 50,000 women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons. In 1963, many countries ratified the
Partial Test Ban Treaty The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (also ...
which prohibited atmospheric nuclear testing.Wolfgang Rudig (1990). ''Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy'', Longman, p. 54–55. Some local opposition to nuclear power emerged in the early 1960s, and in the late 1960s some members of the scientific community began to express their concerns.Wolfgang Rudig (1990). ''Anti-nuclear Movements: A World Survey of Opposition to Nuclear Energy'', Longman, p. 52. In the early 1970s, there were large protests about a proposed nuclear power plant in Wyhl, Germany. The project was cancelled in 1975 and anti-nuclear success at Wyhl inspired opposition to nuclear power in other parts of Europe and North America. Nuclear power became an issue of major public protest in the 1970s.Jim Falk (1982). ''Global Fission: The Battle Over Nuclear Power'', Oxford University Press, pp. 95–96.


The role of women as full-time homemakers in industrial society was challenged in 1963, when US feminist Betty Friedan published ''The Feminine Mystique'', giving momentum to the women's movement and influencing what many called Second-wave feminism. Other activists, such as Gloria Steinem and Angela Davis, either organized, influenced, or educated many of a younger generation of women to endorse and expand feminist thought. Feminism gained further currency within the protest movements of the late 1960s, as women in movements such as Students for a Democratic Society rebelled against the "support" role they believed they had been consigned to within the male-dominated New Left, as well as against perceived manifestations and statements of sexism within some radical groups. The 1970 pamphlet ''Women and Their Bodies'', soon expanded into the 1971 book ''Our Bodies, Ourselves'', was particularly influential in bringing about the new feminist consciousness.

Free school movement


The 1960s counterculture embraced a Back-to-the-land movement, back-to-the-land ethic, and communes of the era often relocated to the country from cities. Influential books of the 1960s included
Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservation movement, conservationist whose influential book ''Silent Spring'' (1962) and other writings are credited with advancing the g ...
's ''Silent Spring'' and Paul Ehrlich's ''The Population Bomb''. Counterculture environmentalists were quick to grasp the implications of Ehrlich's writings on Human overpopulation, overpopulation, the Hubbert "peak oil" prediction, and more general concerns over
pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural en ...

, litter, the environmental effects of the Vietnam War, automobile-dependent lifestyles, and nuclear power, nuclear energy. More broadly they saw that the dilemmas of energy and resource allocation would have implications for geo-politics, lifestyle, environment, and other dimensions of modern life. The "back to nature" theme was already prevalent in the counterculture by the time of the 1969 Woodstock festival, while the first Earth Day in 1970 was significant in bringing environmental concerns to the forefront of youth culture. At the start of the 1970s, counterculture-oriented publications like the ''Whole Earth Catalog'' and ''The Mother Earth News'' were popular, out of which emerged a back to the land movement. The 1960s and early 1970s counterculture were early adopters of practices such as recycling and organic farming long before they became mainstream. The counterculture interest in ecology progressed well into the 1970s: particularly influential were New Left eco-anarchist Murray Bookchin, Jerry Mander's criticism of the effects of television on society, Ernest Callenbach's novel ''Ecotopia'', Edward Abbey's fiction and non-fiction writings, and E.F. Schumacher's economics book ''Small Is Beautiful''.


The National Farmers Organization (NFO) is a Producerism, producerist movement founded in 1955. It became notorious for being associated with Property crime#Vandalism, property violence and Intimidation#United States, threats committed without official approval of the organization, from a 1964 incident when two members were crushed under the rear wheels of a cattle truck, for orchestrating the withholding of commodities, and for opposition to Agricultural cooperative, co-ops unwilling to withhold. During withholding protests, farmers would purposely destroy food or wastefully slaughter their animals in an attempt to raise prices and gain media exposure. The NFO failed to persuade the U.S. government to establish a Market Sharing Quota, quota system as is currently practiced today in the Dairy farming in Canada#Supply management, milk, cheese, eggs and poultry Supply management (Canada), supply management programs in Canada.

Gay liberation

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. This is frequently cited as the first instance in US history when people in the gay community fought back against a government-sponsored system that persecuted Gay minorities, and became the defining event that marked the start of the Gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.


Mod subculture

Mod is a subculture that began in London and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, and continues today on a smaller scale. Focused on music and fashion, the subculture has its roots in a small group of stylish London-based young men in the late 1950s who were termed ''modernists'' because they listened to modern jazz. Elements of the mod subculture include fashion (often tailor-made suits); music (including Soul music, soul, rhythm and blues, ska, jazz, and later splintering off into Rock music, rock and freakbeat after the peak Mod era); and motor scooters (usually Lambretta or Vespa). The original mod scene was associated with amphetamine-fuelled all-night dancing at clubs. During the early to mid 1960s, as mod grew and spread throughout the UK, certain elements of the mod scene became engaged in well-publicised Riot, clashes with members of rival subculture, Rocker (subculture), rockers. The mods and rockers conflict led sociologist Stanley Cohen (sociologist), Stanley Cohen to use the term "moral panic" in his study about the two youth subcultures, which examined media coverage of the mod and rocker riots in the 1960s. By 1965, conflicts between mods and rockers began to subside and mods increasingly gravitated towards pop art and Psychedelic rock, psychedelia. London became synonymous with fashion, music, and pop culture in these years, a period often referred to as "Swinging London". During this time, mod fashions spread to other countries and became popular in the United States and elsewhere—with mod now viewed less as an isolated subculture, but emblematic of the larger youth culture of the era.


After the January 14, 1967, Human Be-In in San Francisco organized by artist Michael Bowen (artist), Michael Bowen, the media's attention on culture was fully activated. In 1967, Scott McKenzie's rendition of the song "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair)" brought as many as 100,000 young people from all over the world to celebrate San Francisco's "Summer of Love". While the song had originally been written by John Phillips (musician), John Phillips of The Mamas & the Papas to promote the June 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, it became an instant hit worldwide (#4 in the United States, #1 in Europe) and quickly transcended its original purpose. San Francisco's flower children, also called "hippies" by local newspaper columnist Herb Caen, adopted new styles of dress, experimented with psychedelic drugs, lived communally and developed a vibrant music scene. When people returned home from "The Summer of Love" these styles and behaviors spread quickly from San Francisco and Berkeley to many US and Canadian cities and European capitals. Some hippies formed communes to live as far outside of the established system as possible. This aspect of the counterculture rejected active political engagement with the mainstream and, following the dictate of Timothy Leary to "Turn on, tune in, drop out", hoped to change society by dropping out of it. Looking back on his own life (as a Harvard professor) prior to 1960, Leary interpreted it to have been that of "an anonymous institutional employee who drove to work each morning in a long line of commuter cars and drove home each night and drank martinis ... like several million middle-class, liberal, intellectual robots." As members of the hippie movement grew older and moderated their lives and their views, and especially after US involvement in the Vietnam War ended in the mid-1970s, the counterculture was largely absorbed by the mainstream, leaving a lasting impact on philosophy, morality, music, art, alternative health and diet, lifestyle and fashion. In addition to a new style of clothing, philosophy, art, music and various views on anti-war, and anti-establishment, some hippies decided to turn away from modern society and re-settle on ranches, or communes. The very first of communes in the United States was a seven-acre land in Southern Colorado, named Drop City. According to Timothy Miller, Many of the inhabitants practiced acts like reusing trash and recycled materials to build geodesic domes for shelter and other various purposes; using various drugs like marijuana and LSD, and creating various pieces of Drop Art. After the initial success of Drop City, visitors would take the idea of communes and spread them. Another commune called "The Ranch" was very similar to the culture of Drop City, as well as new concepts like giving children of the commune extensive freedoms known as "children's rights".

Marijuana, LSD, and other recreational drugs

During the 1960s, this second group of casual lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) users evolved and expanded into a subculture that extolled the mystical and religious symbolism often engendered by the drug's powerful effects, and advocated its use as a method of raising consciousness. The personalities associated with the subculture, gurus such as Timothy Leary and psychedelic rock musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Pink Floyd, Jimi Hendrix, the Byrds, Janis Joplin, the Doors, and
the Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

the Beatles
, soon attracted a great deal of publicity, generating further interest in LSD. The popularization of LSD outside of the medical world was hastened when individuals such as Ken Kesey participated in drug trials and liked what they saw. Tom Wolfe wrote a widely read account of these early days of LSD's entrance into the non-academic world in his book ''The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test'', which documented the cross-country, acid-fueled voyage of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters on the psychedelic bus ''Furthur'' and the Pranksters' later "Acid Test" LSD parties. In 1965, Sandoz laboratories stopped its still legal shipments of LSD to the United States for research and psychiatric use, after a request from the US government concerned about its use. By April 1966, LSD use had become so widespread that ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine warned about its dangers. In December 1966, the exploitation film ''Hallucination Generation'' was released. This was followed by ''The Trip (1967 film), The Trip'' in 1967 and ''Psych-Out'' in 1968.

Psychedelic research and experimentation

As most research on psychedelics began in the 1940s and 50s, heavy experimentation made its effect in the 1960s during this era of change and movement. Researchers were gaining acknowledgment and popularity with their promotion of psychedelia. This really anchored the change that counterculture instigators and followers began. Most research was conducted at top collegiate institutes, such as Harvard University. Timothy Leary and his Harvard research team had hopes for potential changes in society. Their research began with psilocybin mushrooms and was called the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In one study known as the Concord Prison Experiment, Leary investigated the potential for psilocybin to reduce recidivism in criminals being released from prison. After the research sessions, Leary did a follow-up. He found that "75% of the turned on prisoners who were released had stayed out of jail."Lattin, Don. The Harvard Psychedelic Club: How Timothy Leary, Ram Dass, Huston Smith, and Andrew Weil Killed the Fifties and Ushered in a New Age for America. New York: HarperOne, 2010. Print. He believed he had solved the nation's crime problem. But with many officials skeptical, this breakthrough was not promoted. Because of the personal experiences with these drugs Leary and his many outstanding colleagues, Aldous Huxley (''The Doors of Perception'') and Alan Watts (''The Joyous Cosmology'') believed that these were the mechanisms that could bring peace to not only the nation but the world. As their research continued the media followed them and published their work and documented their behavior, the trend of this counterculture drug experimentation began. Leary made attempts to bring more organized awareness to people interested in the study of psychedelics. He confronted the Senate committee in Washington and recommended for colleges to authorize the conduction of laboratory courses in psychedelics. He noted that these courses would "end the indiscriminate use of LSD and would be the most popular and productive courses ever offered". Although these men were seeking an ultimate enlightenment, reality eventually proved that the potential they thought was there could not be reached, at least in this time. The change they sought for the world had not been permitted by the political systems of all the nations these men pursued their research in. Ram Dass states, "Tim and I actually had a chart on the wall about how soon everyone would be enlightened ... We found out that real change is harder. We downplayed the fact that the psychedelic experience isn't for everyone."

Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters

Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters helped shape the developing character of the 1960s counterculture when they embarked on a cross-country voyage during the summer of 1964 in a psychedelic school bus named ''Furthur (bus), Furthur''. Beginning in 1959, Kesey had volunteered as a research subject for medical trials financed by the CIA's ''Project MKULTRA, MK ULTRA'' project. These trials tested the effects of LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, and other psychedelic drugs. After the medical trials, Kesey continued experimenting on his own, and involved many close friends; collectively they became known as the "Merry Pranksters". The Pranksters visited Harvard LSD proponent Timothy Leary at his Millbrook, New York, retreat, and experimentation with LSD and other psychedelic drugs, primarily as a means for internal reflection and personal growth, became a constant during the Prankster trip. The Pranksters created a direct link between the 1950s Beat Generation and the 1960s psychedelic scene; the bus was driven by Beat icon Neal Cassady, Beat poet Allen Ginsberg was on board for a time, and they dropped in on Cassady's friend, Beat author Jack Kerouac – though Kerouac declined to participate in the Prankster scene. After the Pranksters returned to California, they popularized the use of LSD at so-called "Acid Tests", which initially were held at Kesey's home in La Honda, California, and then at many other West Coast venues. The cross country trip and Prankster experiments were documented in Tom Wolfe's ''The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test'', a masterpiece of New Journalism.

Other psychedelics

Experimentation with LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA, Cannabis (drug), marijuana, and other psychedelic drugs became a major component of 1960s counterculture, influencing philosophy, Psychedelic art, art, music and styles of dress. Jim DeRogatis wrote that peyote, a small cactus containing the psychedelic alkaloid mescaline, was widely available in Austin, Texas, a countercultural hub in the early 1960s.

Sexual revolution

The sexual revolution (also known as a time of "sexual liberation") was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the
Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe, Northern America, and Australasia.
from the 1960s to the 1980s. Birth control, Contraception and Combined oral contraceptive pill, the pill, public nudity, the normalization of premarital sex, homosexuality and alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of abortion all followed.

Alternative media

Underground newspapers sprang up in most cities and college towns, serving to define and communicate the range of phenomena that defined the counterculture: radical political opposition to "The Establishment", colorful experimental (and often explicitly drug-influenced) approaches to art, music and cinema, and uninhibited indulgence in sex and drugs as a symbol of freedom. The papers also often included comic strips, from which the underground comix were an outgrowth.

Alternative disc sports (Frisbee)

As numbers of young people became alienated from social norms, they resisted and looked for alternatives. The forms of escape and resistance manifest in many ways including social activism, alternative lifestyles, dress, music and alternative recreational activities, including that of throwing a Frisbee. From hippies tossing the Frisbee at festivals and concerts came today's popular disc sports. Disc sports such as Flying disc freestyle, disc freestyle, double disc court, Guts (flying disc game), disc guts, Ultimate (sport), Ultimate and disc golf became this sport's first events.

Avant-garde art and anti-art

The Situationist International was a restricted group of international revolutionaries founded in 1957, and which had its peak in its influence on the unprecedented general strike, general wildcat strikes of May 1968 in France. With their ideas rooted in Marxism and the 20th-century European artistic avant-gardes, they advocated experiences of life being alternative to those admitted by the capitalism, capitalist order, for the fulfillment of human primitive desires and the pursuing of a superior passional quality. For this purpose they suggested and experimented with the ''construction of situations'', namely the setting up of environments favorable for the fulfillment of such desires. Using methods drawn from the arts, they developed a series of experimental fields of study for the construction of such situations, like unitary urbanism and psychogeography. They fought against the main obstacle on the fulfillment of such superior passional living, identified by them in advanced capitalism. Their theoretical work peaked on the highly influential book ''The Society of the Spectacle'' by Guy Debord. Debord argued in 1967 that spectacular features like mass media and
advertising Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

have a central role in an advanced capitalist society, which is to show a fake reality in order to mask the real capitalist degradation of human life. Raoul Vaneigem wrote ''The Revolution of Everyday Life'' which takes the field of "everyday life" as the ground upon which communication and participation can occur, or, as is more commonly the case, be perverted and abstracted into pseudo-forms. Fluxus (a name taken from a Latin word meaning "to flow") is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. They have been active in Neo-Dada noise music, visual art, literature, urban planning, architecture, and design. Fluxus is often described as intermedia, a term coined by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins in a famous 1966 essay. Fluxus encouraged a "do-it-yourself" aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice. As Fluxus artist Robert Filliou wrote, however, Fluxus differed from Dada in its richer set of aspirations, and the positive social and communitarian aspirations of Fluxus far outweighed the anti-art tendency that also marked the group. In the 1960s, the Dada-influenced art group Black Mask (anarchists), Black Mask declared that revolutionary art should be "an integral part of life, as in primitive society, and not an appendage to wealth."Hinderer, Eve
Ben Morea: art and anarchism
Black Mask (anarchists), Black Mask disrupted cultural events in New York by giving made up flyers of art events to the homeless with the lure of free drinks.Stewart Home
"The Assault on Culture: Utopian currents from Lettrisme to Class War"
Introduction to the Lithuanian edition. (Ist edition Aporia Press and Unpopular Books, London 1988.) . "In the sixties Black Mask disrupted reified cultural events in New York by making up flyers giving the dates, times and location of art events and giving these out to the homeless with the lure of the free drink that was on offer to the bourgeoisie rather than the lumpen proletariat; I reused the ruse just as effectively in London in the 1990s to disrupt literary events."
After, the Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers, Motherfuckers grew out of a combination of Black Mask and another group called Angry Arts. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers (often referred to as simply "the Motherfuckers", or UAW/MF) was an anarchist affinity group based in New York City.


Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
's early career as a protest singer had been inspired by his hero Woody Guthrie, and his iconic lyrics and protest anthems helped propel the American folk music revival, Folk Revival of the 60's, which was arguably the first major sub-movement of the Counterculture. Although Dylan was first popular for his protest music. the song Mr. Tambourine Man saw a stylistic shift in Dylan's work, from topical to abstract and imaginative, included some of the first uses of surrealistic imagery in popular music and has been viewed as a call to drugs such as Lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD. The Beach Boys' 1966 album ''Pet Sounds'' served as a major source of inspiration for other contemporary acts, most notably directly inspiring the Beatles' ''Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band''. The single "Good Vibrations" soared to number one globally, completely changing the perception of what a record could be. It was during this period that the highly anticipated album ''Smile (The Beach Boys album), Smile'' was to be released. However, the project collapsed and The Beach Boys released a stripped down and reimagined version called ''Smiley Smile'', which failed to make a big commercial impact but was also highly influential, most notably on The Who's Pete Townshend. The Beatles went on to become the most prominent commercial exponents of the "psychedelic revolution" (e.g., ''Revolver (Beatles album), Revolver'', ''Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band'' and ''Magical Mystery Tour'') in the late 1960s. Detroit's MC5 also came out of the underground rock music scene of the late 1960s. They introduced a more aggressive evolution of garage rock which was often fused with sociopolitical and countercultural lyrics of the era, such as in the song "Motor City Is Burning" (a John Lee Hooker cover adapting the story of the Detroit Race Riot (1943), Detroit Race Riot of 1943 to the Detroit riot of 1967). MC5 had ties to radical leftist organizations such as "Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers" and John Sinclair (poet), John Sinclair's White Panther Party,. Another hotbed of the 1960s counterculture was Austin, Texas, with two of the era's legendary music venues-the Vulcan Gas Company and the Armadillo World Headquarters-and musical talent like Janis Joplin, the 13th Floor Elevators, Shiva's Headband, the Conqueroo, and, later, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Austin was also home to a large New Left activist movement, one of the earliest underground papers, The Rag, and cutting edge graphic artists like The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers creator Gilbert Shelton, underground comix pioneer Jaxon, Jack Jackson (Jaxon), and surrealist armadillo artist Jim Franklin (artist), Jim Franklin. The 1960s was also an era of rock festivals, which played an important role in spreading the counterculture across the US. The Monterey Pop Festival, which launched Hendrix's career in the US, was one of the first of these festivals. The 1969 Woodstock, Woodstock Festival in New York state became a symbol of the movement, although the 1970 Isle of Wight Festival drew a larger crowd. Some believe the era came to an abrupt end with the infamous Altamont Free Concert held by the Rolling Stones, in which heavy-handed security from the Hells Angels resulted in the stabbing of an audience member, apparently in self-defense, as the show descended into chaos. The 1960s saw the protest song gain a sense of political self-importance, with Phil Ochs's "I Ain't Marching Anymore" and Country Joe and the Fish's "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die-Rag" among the many anti-war anthems that were important to the era. Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Although the music produced by free jazz composers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop, and modal jazz, which had developed in the 1940s and 1950s. Each in their own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos. While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive", often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation. Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane. Other important pioneers included Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Joe Maneri and Sun Ra. Although today "free jazz" is the generally used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing". During its early and mid-60s heyday, much free jazz was released by established labels such as Prestige, Blue Note and Impulse, as well as independents such as ESP Disk and BYG Actuel. Free improvisation or ''free music'' is musical improvisation, improvised music without any rules beyond the logic or inclination of the musician(s) involved. The term can refer to both a technique (employed by any musician in any genre) and as a recognizable genre in its own right. Free improvisation, as a genre of music, developed in the U.S. and Europe in the mid to late 1960s, largely as an outgrowth of free jazz and contemporary music, modern classical musics. None of its primary exponents can be said to be famous within mainstream; however, in experimental circles, a number of free musicians are well known, including saxophonists Evan Parker, Anthony Braxton, Peter Brötzmann and John Zorn, drummer Christian Lillinger, trombonist George E. Lewis, guitarists Derek Bailey (guitarist), Derek Bailey, Henry Kaiser (musician), Henry Kaiser and Fred Frith and the improvising groups The Art Ensemble of Chicago and AMM (group), AMM. AllMusic Guide states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate". The term, "jazz-rock" (or "jazz/rock") is often used as a synonym for the term "Fusion jazz, jazz fusion". However, some make a distinction between the two terms. The Free Spirits have sometimes been cited as the earliest jazz-rock band. During the late 1960s, at the same time that jazz musicians were experimenting with rock rhythms and electric instruments, rock groups such as Cream (band), Cream and the Grateful Dead were "beginning to incorporate elements of jazz into their music" by "experimenting with extended free-form improvisation". Other "groups such as Blood, Sweat & Tears directly borrowed harmonic, melodic, rhythmic and instrumentational elements from the jazz tradition". The rock groups that drew on jazz ideas (like Soft Machine, Colosseum (band), Colosseum, Caravan (band), Caravan, Nucleus (band), Nucleus, Chicago (band), Chicago, Spirit (band), Spirit and Frank Zappa) turned the blend of the two styles with electric instruments.N. Tesser, ''The Playboy Guide to Jazz'', (Plume, 1998), , P. 178 Since rock often emphasized directness and simplicity over virtuosity, jazz-rock generally grew out of the most artistically ambitious rock subgenres of the late 1960s and early 70s: psychedelia, progressive rock, and the singer-songwriter movement. Miles Davis' ''Bitches Brew'' sessions, recorded in August 1969 and released the following year, mostly abandoned jazz's usual swing beat in favor of a rock music, rock-style Beat (music)#Backbeat, backbeat anchored by electric bass grooves. The recording "mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion." Davis also drew on the rock influence by playing his trumpet through electronic effects and pedals. While the album gave Davis a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created a great deal of consternation amongst some more conservative jazz critics.


(See also: List of films related to the hippie subculture) The counterculture was not only affected by cinema, but was also instrumental in the provision of era-relevant content and talent for the film industry. ''
Bonnie and Clyde Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow (March 24, 1909May 23, 1934) were an Crime in the United States, American criminal couple who traveled the Central United States with Barrow Gang, their gang during ...
'' struck a chord with the youth as "the alienation of the young in the 1960s was comparable to the director's image of the 1930s." Films of this time also focused on the changes happening in the world. A sign of this was the visibility that the hippie subculture gained in various mainstream and underground media. Hippie exploitation films are 1960s exploitation films about the hippie counterculture with stereotypical situations associated with the movement such as marijuana and LSD use, sex and wild psychedelic parties. Examples include ''The Love-ins'', ''Psych-Out'', ''The Trip (1967 film), The Trip'', and ''Wild in the Streets''. The musical play ''Hair (musical), Hair'' shocked stage audiences with full-frontal nudity. Dennis Hopper's "Road Trip" adventure ''
Easy Rider ''Easy Rider'' is a 1969 American independent road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form ...
'' (1969) became accepted as one of the landmark films of the era. ''Medium Cool'' portrayed the 1968 Democratic Convention alongside the 1968 Chicago police riots. Inaugurated by the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre, 1969 release of Andy Warhol ''Blue Movie'', the phenomenon of Erotic art, adult erotic films being publicly discussed by celebrities (like Johnny Carson and Bob Hope), and taken seriously by critics (like Roger Ebert), a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of ''The New York Times'', as "Golden Age of Porn#"Porno chic", porno chic", and later known as the Golden Age of Porn, began, for the first time, in modern American culture. According to award-winning author Toni Bentley, Radley Metzger 1976 film ''The Opening of Misty Beethoven'', based on the play ''Pygmalion (play), Pygmalion'' by George Bernard Shaw (and its derivative, ''My Fair Lady (film), My Fair Lady''), is considered the "crown jewel" of this 'Golden Age of Porn, Golden Age'. In France the french new wave, New Wave was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of Cinema of France, French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema. Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm and is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. The Left Bank, or ''Rive Gauche'', group is a contingent of filmmakers associated with the French New Wave, first identified as such by Richard Roud."The Left Bank Revisited: Marker, Resnais, Varda", ''Harvard Film Archive''

Access date: August 16, 2008.
The corresponding "right bank" group is constituted of the more famous and financially successful New Wave directors associated with ''Cahiers du cinéma'' (Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut, and Jean-Luc Godard). Left Bank directors include Chris Marker, Alain Resnais, and Agnès Varda. Roud described a distinctive "fondness for a kind of Bohemianism, Bohemian life and an impatience with the conformity of the Right Bank, a high degree of involvement in literature and the plastic arts, and a consequent interest in experimental filmmaking", as well as an identification with the political left wing, left. Other film "new waves" from around the world associated with the 1960s are New German Cinema, Czechoslovak New Wave, Brazilian Cinema Novo and Japanese New Wave. During the 1960s, the term "art film" began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., the term is often defined very broadly, to include foreign-language (non-English) auteur theory, "auteur" films, independent films, experimental films, documentaries and short films. In the 1960s "art film" became a euphemism in the U.S. for racy Italian and French B-movies. By the 1970s, the term was used to describe pornography, sexually explicit European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film ''I Am Curious (Yellow)''. The 1960s was an important period in art film; the release of a number of groundbreaking films giving rise to the European art cinema which had countercultural traits in filmmakers such as Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luis Buñuel and Bernardo Bertolucci.


Cultural historians—such as Theodore Roszak (scholar), Theodore Roszak in his 1986 essay "From Satori to Silicon Valley" and John Markoff in his book ''What the Dormouse Said'', have pointed out that many of the early pioneers of personal computing emerged from within the West Coast counterculture. Many early computing and networking pioneers, after discovering LSD and roaming the campuses of UC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 1960s and early 1970s, would emerge from this caste of social "misfits" to shape the modern world of technology, especially in Silicon Valley.

Religion, spirituality and the occult

Many hippies rejected mainstream organized religion in favor of a more personal spiritual experience, often drawing on indigenous and folk beliefs. If they adhered to mainstream faiths, hippies were likely to embrace Buddhism, Daoism, Hinduism, Unitarian Universalism and the restorationist Christianity of the Jesus Movement. Some hippies embraced neo-paganism, especially Wicca. Wicca is a witchcraft religion which became more prominent beginning in 1951, with the repeal of the 1735 Witchcraft Act, Witchcraft Act of 1735, after which Gerald Gardner (Wiccan), Gerald Gardner and then others such as Charles Cardell and Cecil Williamson began publicising their own versions of the Craft. Gardner and others never used the term "Wicca" as a religious identifier, simply referring to the "witch cult", "witchcraft", and the "Old Religion". However, Gardner did refer to witches as "the Wica". During the 1960s, the name of the religion normalised to "Wicca". Gardner's tradition, later termed Gardnerian Wicca, Gardnerianism, soon became the dominant form in England and spread to other parts of the British Isles. Following Gardner's death in 1964, the Craft continued to grow unabated despite sensationalism and negative portrayals in British tabloids, with new traditions being propagated by figures like Robert Cochrane (witch), Robert Cochrane, Sybil Leek and most importantly Alex Sanders (Wiccan), Alex Sanders, whose Alexandrian Wicca, which was predominantly based upon Gardnerian Wicca, albeit with an emphasis placed on ceremonial magic, spread quickly and gained much media attention. In his 1991 book, ''Hippies and American Values'', Timothy Miller described the hippie ethos as essentially a "religious movement" whose goal was to transcend the limitations of mainstream religious institutions. "Like many dissenting religions, the hippies were enormously hostile to the religious institutions of the dominant culture, and they tried to find new and adequate ways to do the tasks the dominant religions failed to perform." In his seminal, contemporaneous work, ''The Hippie Trip'', author Lewis Yablonsky notes that those who were most respected in hippie settings were the spiritual leaders, the so-called "high priests" who emerged during that era. One such hippie "high priest" was San Francisco State College instructor Stephen Gaskin. Beginning in 1966, Gaskin's "Monday Night Class" eventually outgrew the lecture hall, and attracted 1,500 hippie followers in an open discussion of spiritual values, drawing from Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu teachings. In 1970, Gaskin founded a Tennessee community called The Farm (Tennessee), The Farm, and he still lists his religion as "Hippie". Timothy Leary was an American psychology, psychologist and writer, known for his advocacy of psychedelic drugs. On September 19, 1966, Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, a religion declaring LSD as its holy sacrament, in part as an unsuccessful attempt to maintain legal status for the use of LSD and other psychedelics for the religion's adherents based on a "freedom of religion" argument. ''The Psychedelic Experience'' was the inspiration for John Lennon's song "Tomorrow Never Knows" in The Beatles' album ''Revolver (The Beatles album), Revolver''. He published a pamphlet in 1967 called ''Start Your Own Religion'' to encourage just that (see below under "writings") and was invited to attend the January 14, 1967 Human Be-In a gathering of 30,000
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s The counterculture of the 1960s was an anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition ...

s in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park In speaking to the group, he coined the famous phrase "Turn on, tune in, drop out". The ''Principia Discordia'' is the founding text of Discordianism written by Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) and Kerry Wendell Thornley (Lord Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst). It was originally published under the title "Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost" in a limited edition of five copies in 1965. The title, literally meaning "Discordant Principles", is in keeping with the tendency of Latin to prefer hypotactic grammatical arrangements. In English, one would expect the title to be "Principles of Discord".

Criticism and legacy

The lasting impact (including unintended consequences), creative output, and general legacy of the counterculture era continue to be actively discussed, debated, despised and celebrated. Even the notions of when the counterculture subsumed the Beat Generation, when it gave way to the successor generation, and what happened in between are open for debate. According to notable UK Underground and counterculture author Barry Miles, "It seemed to me that the Seventies was when most of the things that people attribute to the sixties really happened: this was the age of extremes, people took more drugs, had longer hair, weirder clothes, had more sex, protested more violently and encountered more opposition from the establishment. It was the era of sex and drugs and rock'n'roll, as Ian Dury said. The countercultural explosion of the 1960s really only involved a few thousand people in the UK and perhaps ten times that in the USA – largely because of opposition to the Vietnam war, whereas in the Seventies the ideas had spread out across the world. A Columbia University teaching unit on the counterculture era notes: "Although historians disagree over the influence of the counterculture on American politics and society, most describe the counterculture in similar terms. Virtually all authors—for example, on the right, Robert Bork in Slouching Towards Gomorrah, ''Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline'' (New York: Regan Books,1996) and, on the left, Todd Gitlin in ''The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage'' (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)—characterize the counterculture as self-indulgent, childish, irrational, narcissistic, and even dangerous. Even so, many liberal and leftist historians find constructive elements in it, while those on the right tend not to." Screen legend John Wayne equated aspects of 1960s social programs with the rise of the welfare state, "I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim." Former liberal Democrat Ronald Reagan, who later became a conservative Governor of California and 40th President of the US, remarked about one group of protesters carrying signs, "The last bunch of pickets were carrying signs that said 'Make love, not war.' The only trouble was they didn't look capable of doing either." The "generation gap" between the affluent young and their often poverty-scarred parents was a critical component of 1960s culture. In an interview with journalist Gloria Steinem during the 1968 US presidential campaign, soon-to-be First Lady Pat Nixon exposed the generational chasm in worldview between Steinem, 20 years her junior, and herself after Steinem probed Mrs. Nixon as to her youth, role models, and lifestyle. A hardscrabble child of the Great Depression, Pat Nixon told Steinem, "I never had time to think about things like that, who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work. I haven't just sat back and thought of myself or my ideas or what I wanted to do ... I've kept working. I don't have time to worry about who I admire or who I identify with. I never had it easy. I'm not at all like you ... all those people who had it easy." In economic terms, it has been contended that the counterculture really only amounted to creating new marketing segments for the "hip" crowd. Even before the counterculture movement reached its peak of influence, the concept of the adoption of socially-responsible policies by establishment corporations was discussed by economist and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel laureate Milton Friedman (1962): "Few trends could so thoroughly undermine the very foundation of our free society as the acceptance by corporate officials of a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible. This is a fundamentally subversive doctrine. If businessmen do have a social responsibility other than making maximum profits for stockholders, how are they to know what it is? Can self-selected private individuals decide what the social interest is?" In 2003, author and former Free Speech activist Greil Marcus was quoted, "What happened four decades ago is history. It's not just a blip in the history of trends. Whoever shows up at a march against war in Iraq, it always takes place with a memory of the efficacy and joy and gratification of similar protests that took place in years before ... It doesn't matter that there is no counterculture, because counterculture of the past gives people a sense that their own difference matters." When asked about the prospects of the counterculture movement moving forward in the digital age, former Grateful Dead lyricist and self-styled "cyberlibertarian" John Perry Barlow said, "I started out as a teenage beatnik and then became a hippie and then became a cyberpunk. And now I'm still a member of the counterculture, but I don't know what to call that. And I'd been inclined to think that that was a good thing, because once the counterculture in America gets a name then the media can coopt it, and the advertising industry can turn it into a marketing foil. But you know, right now I'm not sure that it is a good thing, because we don't have any flag to rally around. Without a name there may be no coherent movement." During the era, conservative students objected to the counterculture and found ways to celebrate their conservative ideals by reading books like J. Edgar Hoover's ''A Study of Communism'', joining student organizations like the College Republicans, and organizing Fraternities and sororities, Greek events which reinforced gender norms. Free speech advocate and social anthropologist Jentri Anders observed that a number of freedoms were endorsed within a countercultural community in which she lived and studied: "freedom to explore one's potential, freedom to create one's Self, freedom of personal expression, freedom from scheduling, freedom from rigidly defined roles and hierarchical statuses". Additionally, Anders believed some in the counterculture wished to modify children's education so that it didn't discourage, but rather encouraged, "aesthetic sense, love of nature, passion for music, desire for reflection, or strongly marked independence." In 2007, Merry Prankster Carolyn Adams, Carolyn "Mountain Girl" Garcia commented, "I see remnants of that movement everywhere. It's sort of like the nuts in Ben and Jerry's ice cream—it's so thoroughly mixed in, we sort of expect it. The nice thing is that eccentricity is no longer so foreign. We've embraced diversity in a lot of ways in this country. I do think it's done us a tremendous service." The 1990 Oscar-nominated documentary film ''Berkeley in the Sixties'' highlighted what Owen Gleiberman from ''Entertainment Weekly'' noted:

In popular culture

Films like ''Return of the Secaucus 7'' and ''The Big Chill (film), The Big Chill'' tackled life of the idealistic Boomers from the countercultural 60s to their older selfs in the 80s alongside the TV series ''thirtysomething''. That generation's nostalgia for said decade was also criticized as well.Dullea, Georgia (June 4, 1989)
"3 Men of the '80s Say No to Nostalgia"
''Orlando Sentinel''.
Panos Cosmatos, director of the 2010 film ''Beyond the Black Rainbow'', admits a dislike for Baby Boomers' New Age spiritual ideals, an issue he addresses in his film. The use of psychedelic drugs for mind-expansion purposes is also explored, although Cosmatos' take on it is "dark and disturbing", a "brand of psychedelia that stands in direct opposition to the flower child, Psilocybin mushroom, magic mushroom peace trip" wrote a reviewer describing one of the characters who happened to be a Boomer:

Key figures

The following people are well known for their involvement in 1960s era counterculture. Some are key incidental or contextual figures, such as Beat Generation figures who also participated directly in the later counterculture era. The primary area(s) of each figure's notability are indicated, per these figures' Wikipedia pages. This section is not intended be exhaustive, but rather a representative cross section of individuals active within the larger movement. Although many of the people listed are known for civil rights activism, some figures whose primary notability was within the realm of the Civil Rights Movement are listed elsewhere. This section is not intended to create associations between any of the listed figures beyond what is documented elsewhere. (see also: List of civil rights leaders; New Left#Key figures, Key figures of the New Left; Timeline of 1960s counterculture). * Miguel Algarín (born 1941) (poet, writer) * Muhammad Ali (1942–2016) (athlete, conscientious objector) * Saul Alinsky (1909–1972) (author, activist) * Ram Dass, Richard Alpert (professor, spiritual teacher) * Bill Ayers (born 1944) (activist, professor) * Joan Baez (born 1941) (musician, activist) * Dennis Banks (1937–2017) (activist, teacher, and author) * Sonny Barger (born 1938) (Hells Angel) * Syd Barrett (1946–2006) (musician) * Walter Bowart (1939–2007) (newspaper publisher) * Stewart Brand (born 1938) (environmentalist, author) * Lenny Bruce (1925–1966) (comedian, social critic) * William S. Burroughs (1914–1997) (author) * George Carlin (1937–2008) (comedian, social critic) *
Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservation movement, conservationist whose influential book ''Silent Spring'' (1962) and other writings are credited with advancing the g ...
(1907–1964) (author, environmentalist) * Neal Cassady (1926–1968) (Merry Prankster, literary inspiration) * Cesar Chavez (1927–1993) (labor leader, community organizer, and activist) * Cheech & Chong (comedians, social critics) * Jesús Colón (1901–1974) (writer) * Peter Coyote (born 1941) (Diggers (theater), Digger, actor) * David Crosby (born 1941) (musician) * Robert Crumb (born 1943) (underground comix artist) * David Dellinger (1915–2004) (pacifist, activist) * Angela Davis (born 1944) (communist, activist) * Rennie Davis (born 1941) (activist, community organizer) * Emile de Antonio (1919–1989) (documentary filmmaker) * Bernardine Dohrn (born 1942) (activist) *
Bob Dylan Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in for more than 50 years. Much of ...

Bob Dylan
(born 1941) (musician) * Daniel Ellsberg (born 1931) (whistleblower) * Sandra María Esteves (born 1948) (poet and graphic artist) * Bob Fass (1933–2021) (radio host) * Betty Friedan (1921–2006) (feminist, author) * Jane Fonda (born 1937) (actress, activist) *
Peter Fonda Peter Henry Fonda (February 23, 1940 – August 16, 2019) was an American actor, director, and screenwriter. He was the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress ...
(1940 – 2019) (actor, activist) * Jerry Garcia (1942–1995) (musician) * Stephen Gaskin (1935–2014) (author, activist, hippie) * Allen Ginsberg (1926–1997) (beat poet, activist) * Todd Gitlin (born 1943) (activist) * Dick Gregory (1932–2017) (comedian, social critic, author, activist) * Paul Goodman (writer), Paul Goodman (1911–1972) (novelist, playwright, poet) * Wavy Gravy (born 1936) (hippie, activist) * Bill Graham (promoter), Bill Graham (1931–1991) (concert promoter) * Germaine Greer (born 1939) (feminist, author) * Che Guevara (1928–1967) (Marxist guerilla, revolutionary symbol) * Alan Haber (born 1936) (activist) * Tom Hayden (1939–2016) (activist, politician) * Hugh Hefner (1926–2017) (publisher) * Chet Helms (1942–2005) (music manager, concert/event promoter) * Jimi Hendrix (1942–1970) (musician) * Abbie Hoffman (1936–1989) (Yippie, author) * John Hopkins (political activist), John 'Hoppy' Hopkins (1937–2015) (publisher, activist, photographer) * Dennis Hopper (1936–2010) (actor, director) * Dolores Huerta (born 1930) (labor leader and activist) * Yuji Ichioka (1936–2002) (historian and activist) * Janis Joplin (1943–1970) (musician) * Jack Kerouac (1922–1969) (author, early counterculture critic) * Ken Kesey (1935–2001) (author, Merry Prankster) * Yuri Kochiyama (1921–2014) (activist) * Paul Krassner (1932–2019) (author) * William Kunstler (1919–1995) (attorney, activist) * Timothy Leary (1920–1996) (professor, LSD advocate) * John Lennon (1940–1980) and Yoko Ono (born 1933) (musicians, artists, activists) * Norman Mailer (1923–2007) (journalist, author, activist) * Charles Manson (1934–2017) (conspirator to mass murder) * Eugene McCarthy (1916–2005) (anti-war politician) * Michael McClure (born 1932) (poet) * Terence McKenna (1946–2000) (author, Marijuana, Psilocybin, DMT advocate) * Russell Means (1939–2012) (activist, actor, writer and musician) * Jesús Papoleto Meléndez (born 1950) (poet, playwright, teacher, and activist) * Barry Miles (born 1943) (author, impresario) * Madalyn Murray O'Hair (1919–1995) (atheist, activist) * Jim Morrison (1943–1971) (singer, songwriter, poet) * Ralph Nader (born 1934) (consumer advocate, author) * Graham Nash (born 1942) (musician, activist) * Paul Newman (1925–2008) (actor, activist) * Jack Nicholson (born 1937) (screenwriter, actor) * Phil Ochs (1940–1976) (protest/topical singer) * Pedro Pietri (1944–2004) (poet and playwright) * Miguel Piñero (1946–1988) (playwright, actor) * Richard Pryor (1940–2005) (comedian, social critic) * Bimbo Rivas (1939–1992) (actor, community activist, director, playwright, poet, and teacher) * Jerry Rubin (1938–1994) (Yippie, activist) * Mark Rudd (born 1947) (activist) * Ed Sanders (born 1939) (musician, activist) * Mario Savio (1942–1996) (free speech/student rights activist) * John Searle (born 1932) (professor, free speech advocate) * Pete Seeger (1919–2014) (musician, activist) * John Sinclair (poet), John Sinclair (born 1941) (poet, activist) * Gary Snyder (born 1930) (poet, writer, environmentalist) * Smothers Brothers (musicians, TV performers, activists) * Owsley Stanley (1935–2011) (drug culture chemist) * Gloria Steinem (born 1934) (feminist, publisher) * Hunter S. Thompson (1937–2005) (journalist, author) * Kurt Vonnegut (1922–2007) (author, pacifist, humanist) * Andy Warhol (1928–1987) (artist) * Leonard Weinglass (1933–2011) (attorney) * Alan Watts (1915–1973) (philosopher) * Neil Young (born 1945) (musician, activist)

See also

* Beatnik * Bomb Culture * Freak scene * List of underground newspapers of the 1960s counterculture * Mod (subculture) * Non-conformists of the 1930s * Protests of 1968 * Timeline of 1960s counterculture * War on Drugs * Yé-yé


Works cited

* * * . *

Further reading

* * * * Roche, Nancy McGuire, "The Spectacle of Gender: Representations of Women in British and American Cinema of the Nineteen-Sixties" (PhD dissertation. Middle Tennessee State University, 2011). DA3464539. * * Street, Joe, "Dirty Harry's San Francisco", ''The Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics, and Culture'', 5 (June 2012), 1–21. * * * * * * * * *

External links

Lisa Law Photographic Exhibition at Smithsonian Institution (with commentary)

* [https://web.archive.org/web/20140308030647/http://www.sixtiespix.com/subhomepage.html 1960s archive with photographs of be-ins and protests]
The 1960s: Years that Shaped a Generation

Online archive of underground publications from the 1960s counterculture

Scott Stephenson (2014) LSD and the American Counterculture, ''Burgmann Journal''

The Peanuts Club - a small part of the Sixties counter-culture

Collection: "U.S. Civil Rights Movement"
from the University of Michigan Museum of Art {{DEFAULTSORT:Counterculture Of The 1960s Counterculture of the 1960s, 1960s 1970s Anti-war protests British Invasion Counterculture