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The ''Corpus Juris'' (or ''Iuris'') ''Civilis'' ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of . Scholars of jurisprudence seek to explain the nature of law in its most general form and provide a deeper understanding of , , , and the proper application and rol ...
, issued from 529 to 534 by order of
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
,
Byzantine Emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse ...
. It is also sometimes referred to metonymically after one of its parts, the
Code of Justinian The Code of Justinian ( la, Codex Justinianus, or ) is one part of the ''Corpus Juris Civilis The ''Corpus Juris'' (or ''Iuris'') ''Civilis'' ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, i ...
. The work as planned had three parts: the ''Code'' (''Codex'') is a compilation, by selection and extraction, of imperial enactments to date; the ''
Digest Digest may refer to: In biology: *Digestion of food *Restriction digest In literature or publication: *''The Digest'', formerly the English and Empire Digest *Digest size magazine format *Digest (Roman law), ''Digest'' (Roman law), also known as ...

Digest
'' or ''Pandects'' (the Latin title contains both ''Digesta'' and ''Pandectae'') is an encyclopedia composed of mostly brief extracts from the writings of Roman jurists; and the ''Institutes'' (''Institutiones'') is a student textbook, mainly introducing the ''Code'', although it has important conceptual elements that are less developed in the ''Code'' or the ''Digest''. All three parts, even the textbook, were given force of law. They were intended to be, together, the sole source of law; reference to any other source, including the original texts from which the ''Code'' and the ''Digest'' had been taken, was forbidden. Nonetheless, Justinian found himself having to enact further laws and today these are counted as a fourth part of the Corpus, the ''
Novellae ConstitutionesThe ("new constitutions"; grc, Νεαραὶ διατάξεις), or ''Justinian's Novels'', are now considered one of the four major units of Roman law initiated by Roman emperor Justinian I in the course of his long reign (AD 527–565). The othe ...

Novellae Constitutiones
'' (''Novels'', literally ''New Laws''). The work was directed by
Tribonian Tribonian ( Greek: Τριβωνιανός rivonia'nos c. 485?–542) was a notable Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces ...
, an official in Justinian's court in
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. His team was authorized to edit what they included. How far they made amendments is not recorded and, in the main, cannot be known because most of the originals have not survived. The text was composed and distributed almost entirely in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
, which was still the official language of the government of the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
in 529–534, whereas the prevalent language of merchants, farmers, seamen, and other citizens was
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
. By the early 7th century, the official government language had become Greek during the lengthy reign of
Heraclius Heraclius ( el, Ἡράκλειος, ''Hērakleios''; c. 575 – 11 February 641), sometimes called Heraclius I, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinop ...
(610–641). The ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' was revised into Greek, when that became the predominant language of the Eastern Roman Empire, and continued to form the basis of the empire's laws, the ''
Basilika The ''Basilika'' was a collection of laws completed c. 892 AD in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qust ...

Basilika
'' (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: τὰ βασιλικά, 'imperial laws'), through the 15th century. The ''Basilika'' in turn served as the basis for local legal codes in the Balkans during the following
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
period and later formed the basis of the legal code of Modern Greece. In Western Europe the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'', or its successor texts like the ''Basilika'', did not get well established originally and was only recovered in the Middle Ages, being "received" or imitated as
private law Private law is that part of a civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as E ...
. Its
public law Public law is the part of law that governs relations between legal person In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as ent ...
content was quarried for arguments by both secular and ecclesiastical authorities. This recovered Roman law, in turn, became the foundation of law in all
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
jurisdictions. The provisions of the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' also influenced the
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic Church
: it was said that ''ecclesia vivit lege romana'' – the church lives by Roman law. Its influence on
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ...
legal systems has been much smaller, although some basic concepts from the Corpus have survived through
Norman lawNorman law refers to the customary law of the Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the Viking leader Rollo. The duchy was named for its inhabitants ...
– such as the contrast, especially in the ''Institutes'', between "law" (statute) and custom. The Corpus continues to have a major influence on
public international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between s. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework for states ac ...
. Its four parts thus constitute the foundation documents of the
Western legal tradition Western law refers to the legal traditions of Western culture Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is the heritage of social norms, ...
.


Compilation process

Justinian acceded to the imperial throne in
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
in 527. Six months after his accession, in order to reduce the great number of imperial constitutions and thus also the number of court proceedings, Justinian arranged for the creation of a new collection of imperial constitutions (''Codex Iustinianus''). The commission in charge of the compilation process was explicitly authorized to leave out or change text and to delete what was obsolete or contradictory. Soon, in 529, the Codex was completed and was conferred the force of law in the whole empire, replacing all earlier constitutions and the ''
Codex Theodosianus The ''Codex Theodosianus'' (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against huma ...

Codex Theodosianus
''. A little more than a year after the enactment of the first edition of the Code, Justinian appointed a commission headed by
Tribonian Tribonian ( Greek: Τριβωνιανός rivonia'nos c. 485?–542) was a notable Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces ...
to compile the traditional jurists' law in a new, shortened and contemporary codification: the 'Digest or Pandects'. The traditional collection of jurists' law, Justinian believed, was so extensive that it had become unmanageable, necessitating a new compilation. The commission completed its work within three years, in 533. Tribonian's commission surveyed the works of classical jurists who were assumed in Justinian's time to have the authority to clarify law (''ius respondendi'') and whose works were still available. In total, there are excerpts from 38 jurists in the Digest.


The four parts


Codex

The "Codex Justinianus", "Codex Justinianeus" or "Codex Justiniani" (Latin for "Justinian's Code") was the first part to be finished, on 7 April 529. It contained in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
most of the existing imperial ''constitutiones'' (imperial pronouncements having force of law), back to the time of
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of in . His father was of senatorial rank and was ...

Hadrian
. It used both the ''
Codex Theodosianus The ''Codex Theodosianus'' (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against huma ...

Codex Theodosianus
'' and the fourth-century collections embodied in the ''
Codex GregorianusThe Codex Gregorianus(Eng. Gregorian Code) is the title of a collection of constitutions (legal pronouncements) of Roman emperors The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors ...
'' and ''
Codex Hermogenianus The ''Codex Hermogenianus'' (Eng. Hermogenian Code) is the title of a collection of constitutions (legal pronouncements) of the Roman emperors of the first tetrarchy (Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; Greek lang ...
'', which provided the model for division into books that were themselves divided into titles. These works had developed authoritative standing. This first edition is now lost; a second edition was issued in 534 and is the text that has survived. At least the second edition contained some of Justinian's own legislation, including some legislation in Greek. It is not known whether he intended there to be further editions, although he did envisage translation of Latin enactments into Greek.


Legislation about religion

Numerous provisions served to secure the status of Christianity as the
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether ...
of the empire, uniting Church and state, and making anyone who was not connected to the Christian church a non-citizen. The Christianity referred to is
Chalcedonian Christianity Chalcedonian Christianity refers to the branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus ...
as defined by the state church, which excluded a variety of other major Christian sects in existence at the time such as the
Church of the East The Church of the East ( syc, , ''ʿĒḏtā d-Maḏenḥā''), also called the Persian Church, East Syrian Church, Babylonian Church, Seleucian Church, Edessan Church, Chaldean Church, or the Nestorian Church, was an church of the , based ...
and
Oriental Orthodoxy The Oriental Orthodox Churches are a group of Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings ...
.


=Laws against heresy

= The very first law in the Codex requires all persons under the jurisdiction of the Empire to hold the Christian faith. This was primarily aimed at heresies such as
Nestorianism Nestorianism is a polysemic Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic field. Polysemy is thus ...

Nestorianism
. This text later became the springboard for discussions of international law, especially the question of just what persons are under the jurisdiction of a given state or legal system.


=Laws against paganism

= Other laws, while not aimed at pagan belief as such, forbid particular pagan practices. For example, it is provided that all persons present at a pagan sacrifice may be indicted as if for murder.


Digesta

The ''Digesta'' or ''Pandectae'', completed in 533, is a collection of juristic writings, mostly dating back to the second and third centuries. Fragments were taken out of various legal treatises and opinions and inserted in the Digest. In their original context, the statements of the law contained in these fragments were just private opinions of legal scholars – although some juristic writings had been privileged by Theodosius II's
Law of Citations The Law of Citations (''Lex citationum'') was a Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Ju ...
in 426. The Digest, however, was given full force of law.


Institutions

As the ''Digest'' neared completion,
Tribonian Tribonian ( Greek: Τριβωνιανός rivonia'nos c. 485?–542) was a notable Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces ...
and two professors, Theophilus and Dorotheus, made a student textbook, called the ''Institutions'' or ''Elements''. As there were four elements, the manual consists of four books. The ''Institutiones'' are largely based on the ''Institutiones'' of
Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustri ...
. Two-thirds of the ''Institutiones'' of Justinian consists of literal quotes from Gaius. The new ''Institutiones'' were used as a manual for jurists in training from 21 November 533 and were given the authority of law on 30 December 533 along with the ''Digest''.


Novellae

The Novellae consisted of new laws that were passed after 534. They were later re-worked into the ''Syntagma'', a practical lawyer's edition, by Athanasios of Emesa during the years 572–577.


Continuation in the East

The term Byzantine Empire is used today to refer to what remained of the Roman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean following the collapse of the Empire in the West. This Eastern empire continued to practice
Roman Law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor J ...
, and it was as the ruler of this empire that Justinian formalized Roman law in his ''Corpus Juris Civilis''. To account for the language shift of the Empire's administration from Latin to Greek
legal code A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of Codification ...

legal code
s based on the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' were enacted in Greek. The most well known are: * the ''Ecloga'' (740) – enacted by emperor Leo the Isaurian; * the ''Prochiron'' and ''Epanagoge'' (c. 879) – enacted by emperor
Basil the Macedonian Basil I, called the Macedonian ( el, Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, ''Basíleios ō Makedṓn''; 811 – August 29, 886), was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the theme of Macedonia, he rose in t ...
; and * the ''
Basilika The ''Basilika'' was a collection of laws completed c. 892 AD in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qust ...

Basilika
'' (late 9th century) – started by Basil the Macedonian and finished by his son emperor Leo the Wise. The ''Basilika'' was a complete adaptation of Justinian's codification. At 60 volumes it proved to be difficult for judges and lawyers to use. There was need for a short and handy version. This was finally made by Constantine Harmenopoulos, a Byzantine judge from
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica () is the second-largest city in Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...

Thessaloniki
, in 1345. He made a short version of ''Basilika'' in six books, called ''Hexabiblos''. This was widely used throughout the Balkans during the following Ottoman period, and along with the ''Basilika'' was used as the first legal code for the newly independent Greek state in the 1820s.
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
n state, law and culture was built on the foundations of Rome and Byzantium. Therefore, the most important Serbian legal codes:
Zakonopravilo The Nomocanon of Saint Sava ( sr-cyr, Номоканон светог Саве), known in Serbian as ''Zakonopravilo'' (Законоправило) or ''Krmčija'' (), was the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219. This lega ...
(1219) and Dušan's Code (1349 and 1354),
transplanted ''A.N.T. Farm'' is a List of Disney Channel series, Disney Channel original series that follows Chyna Parks (China Anne McClain) and her two best friends, Olive Doyle (Sierra McCormick) and Fletcher Quimby (Jake Short), who are in the "Advanced Nat ...
Romano-Byzantine Law included in ''Corpus Juris Civilis'', ''Prohiron'' and ''Basilika''. These Serbian codes were practised until the
Serbian Despotate The Serbian Despotate ( sr, / ) was a medieval Serbia , medieval capital of Serbia (12th-13th century) Serbia in the Middle Ages refers to the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the di ...
fell to the Turkish
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
in 1459. After the liberation from the Turks in the
Serbian Revolution The Serbian Revolution ( sr, Српска револуција / ''Srpska revolucija'') was a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a sha ...
,
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
continued to practise Roman Law by enacting Serbian civil code in 1844. It was a short version of
Austrian civil code Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
(called ''Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch''), which was made on the basis of ''Corpus Juris Civilis''.


Recovery in the West

Justinian's ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' was distributed in the West and went into effect in those areas regained under Justinian's wars of reconquest ( Pragmatic Sanction of 554), including the
Exarchate of Ravenna The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy ( la, Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Rom ...
. Accordingly, the ''Institutes'' were made the textbook at the law school in Rome, and later in Ravenna when the school relocated there. However, after the loss of most of these areas, only the
Catepanate A ''katepanikion'' ( el, κατεπανίκιον) was a Byzantine term for an area under the control of a ''katepano''. It was used to describe two different types of administrative divisions: * From ca. 971 until the late 11th century, it referr ...
(southern Italy) maintained a Byzantine legal tradition, but there the ''Corpus'' was superseded by the ''
Ecloga Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law Roman law is the system of , including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of , from the (c. 449 BC), to the ' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor . Roman law ...
'' and ''
Basilika The ''Basilika'' was a collection of laws completed c. 892 AD in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qust ...

Basilika
''. Only the ''Corpuss provisions regulating the church still had any effect, but the Catholic church's ''de facto'' autonomy and the
Great Schism Great Schism may refer to: * East–West Schism, between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, beginning in 1054 * Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1417 See also

* Schism, a divis ...
made even that irrelevant. In Western Europe, the ''Corpus'' may have spurred a slew of Romano-Germanic law codes in the successor Germanic kingdoms, but these were heavily based on the older ''
Theodosian Code The ''Codex Theodosianus'' (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws Law is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ...
'', not the ''Corpus''. Historians disagree on the precise way the ''Corpus'' was recovered in Northern Italy about 1070: legal studies were undertaken on behalf of papal authority central to the
Gregorian Reform#REDIRECT Gregorian Reform : ''Should not be confused with the Gregorian calendar''. The Gregorian Reforms were a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the Roman Curia, papal curia, c. 1050–80, which dealt w ...
of
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII ( la, Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana ( it, Ildebrando da Soana), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian d ...

Pope Gregory VII
, which may have led to its accidental rediscovery. Aside from the ''
Littera Florentina The parchment codex called ''Littera Florentina'' is the closest survivor to an official version of the ''Digest (Roman law), Digest'' of Roman law promulgated by Justinian I in 530–533. The codex, of 907 leaves, is written in the Byzantine ...

Littera Florentina
'' (a complete 6th-century copy of the ''Digest'' preserved in
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
and later moved to
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Pisa
) and the ''Epitome Codicis'' (c. 1050; incomplete manuscript preserving most of the ''Codex''), there may have been other manuscript sources for the text that began to be taught at Bologna, by Pepo and then by
Irnerius Irnerius (c. 1050 – after 1125), sometimes referred to as ''lucerna juris'' ("lantern of the law"), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply ...
. Irnerius' technique was to read a passage aloud, which permitted his students to copy it, then to deliver an excursus explaining and illuminating Justinian's text, in the form of
glosses A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginalia, marginal one or an interlinear gloss, interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text. It may be in the language of the text or in the reader's language if that is different. A ...
. Irnerius' pupils, the so-called
Four Doctors of Bologna Decretals with Glossa ordinariaThe Four Doctors of Bologna (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, know ...
, were among the first of the "
glossators The scholars of the 11th- and 12th-century legal schools in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Al ...
" who established the curriculum of medieval Roman law. The tradition was carried on by French lawyers, known as the Ultramontani, in the 13th century. The merchant classes of Italian communes required law with a concept of
equity Equity may refer to: Finance, accounting and ownership *Equity (finance), ownership of assets that have liabilities attached to them ** Stock, equity based on original contributions of cash or other value to a business ** Home equity, the differe ...

equity
, and law that covered situations inherent in urban life better than the primitive Germanic oral traditions. The provenance of the Code appealed to scholars who saw in the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
a revival of venerable precedents from the classical heritage. The new class of lawyers staffed the bureaucracies that were beginning to be required by the princes of Europe. The
University of Bologna The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence ''studiorum''), it is the List of oldest universities in con ...
, where Justinian's Code was first taught, remained the dominant centre for the study of law through the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
. A two-volume edition of the Digest was published in Paris in 1549 and 1550, translated by Antonio Agustín, Bishop of Tarragona, who was well known for other legal works. The full title of the Digest was ''Digestorum Seu Pandectarum tomus alter'', and it was published by "Apud Carolam Guillards". Vol. 1 of the Digest has 2934 pages, while Vol. 2 has 2754 pages. Referring to Justinian's Code as ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' was only adopted in the 16th century, when it was printed in 1583 by Dionysius Gothofredus under this title. The legal thinking behind the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' served as the backbone of the single largest legal reform of the modern age, the
Napoleonic Code The Napoleonic Code (, lit. "Code Napoleon"), officially the Civil Code of the French (; simply referred to as ) is the French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), of ...
, which marked the abolition of
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
. Napoleon wanted to see these principles introduced to the whole of Europe because he saw them as an effective form of rule that created a more equal society and thus creating a more friendly relationship between the ruling class and the rest of the peoples of Europe. The ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' was translated into French, German, Italian, and Spanish in the 19th century. However, no English translation of the entire ''Corpus Juris Civilis ''existed until 1932 when
Samuel Parsons ScottSamuel Parsons Scott (8 July 1846 – 30 May 1929), known as S. P. Scott, was an American attorney, banker and scholar. He was born in Hillsboro, Ohio Hillsboro is a city in and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of gov ...

Samuel Parsons Scott
published his version ''The Civil Law''. Scott did not base his translation on the best available Latin versions, and his work was severely criticized. Fred. H. Blume used the best-regarded Latin editions for his translations of the Code and of the Novels. A new English translation of the Code, based on Blume's, was published in October 2016. In 2018, the Cambridge University Press also published a new English translation of the Novels, based primarily on the Greek text.David J.D. Miller & Peter Saaris, ''The Novels of Justinian: A Complete Annotated English Translation'' (2 vols., 2018).


See also

*
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (german: Friedrich I., it, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt on ...
*
Basilika The ''Basilika'' was a collection of laws completed c. 892 AD in Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qust ...

Basilika
*
Byzantine law Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christianity, Christian influence. Most sources define ''Byzantine law'' as the Roman legal traditions starting after the reign of Justinian I in the 6th century and ending w ...
*
Code of Hammurabi The Code of Hammurabi is a Babylonian legal text composed 1755–1750 BC. It is the longest, best-organised, and best-preserved legal text from the ancient Near East. It is written in the Old Babylonian dialect of Akkadian, purportedly by Ham ...

Code of Hammurabi
* Codex Repetitae Praelectionis *
Corpus Juris Canonici The ''Corpus Juris Canonici'' ( lit. 'Body of Canon Law') is a collection of significant sources of the canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastic ...
*
Henry de Bracton . The photo shows Windsor Castle in Berkshire. Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton (c. 1210 – c. 1268) was an English Catholic priest, cleric and jurist. He is famous now for his w ...
* Dušan's Code *
International Roman Law Moot Court International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The Th ...
*
List of Roman laws This is a partial list of Roman laws. A Roman law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the ...
*
Twelve Tables The ''Law of the Twelve tables'' ( la, Leges Duodecim Tabularum or ) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand y ...
*
Zakonopravilo The Nomocanon of Saint Sava ( sr-cyr, Номоканон светог Саве), known in Serbian as ''Zakonopravilo'' (Законоправило) or ''Krmčija'' (), was the highest code in the Serbian Orthodox Church, finished in 1219. This lega ...


References


External links


Corpus Juris Civilis – World History Encyclopedia

BBC In Our Time podcast 'Justinian's Legal Code'

Justinian's Code by Fred H. Blume


Latin texts


''Corpus Iuris Civilis'' complete


''Corpus Iuris Civilis''
Mommsen and Krueger edition; photographically reproduced
''Corpus Iuris Civilis''
Lion, Hugues de la Porte, 1558–1560: photographically reproduced *
Digestum vetus
*
Infortiatum
*
Digestum novum
*
Codex
*
Volumen parvum

The Roman Law Library
Including ''Corpus Iuris Civilis'', Mommsen and Krueger edition; digitised


''Institutiones'', ''Codex'' and ''Digesta''



Text (edition unstated); digitised


English translations


''Corpus Iuris Civilis'' complete



English translation (from Latin editions earlier than that of Mommsen and Krueger) by S.P. Scott, 1932


''Codex''



In S.P. Scott's translation (see previous); digitised
Information on the ''Justinian Code'' and its manuscript tradition on the ' website
A database on Carolingian secular law texts (Karl Ubl, Cologne University, Germany). * Bruce W. Frier, ed. (2016, ''The Codex of Justinian. A New Annotated Translation, with Parallel Latin and Greek Text,'' Cambridge University Press, p. 2963, .


''Novellae''

*David J.D. Miller & Peter Saaris, ''The Novels of Justinian: A Complete Annotated English Translation'' Cambridge University Press, p. 1192, ''Codex'' and ''Novellae''
Annotated Justinian Code
English translation (from the Mommsen and Krueger edition) by Fred H. Blume, 1943; revised by Timothy Kearley, 2005–2009 (greatly preferable to Scott's translation).


Selections


Selected Laws of Justinian
Internet Medieval Sourcebook {{Authority control
Roman law {{CatAutoTOC, numerals=no Law in ancient history Ancient Rome, Law Indo-European law, Roman Law by former country ...
Byzantine law Defunct constitutions Medieval legal codes Roman law codes Justinian I 6th century in law 6th-century Latin books 6th century in the Byzantine Empire Latin prose texts