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A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
upon a monarch's head. The term also generally refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of
regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum ''Plurale'' is an album by Italian singer Mina, distributed back to back with album '' Singolare''. Track listing # ''Intro'' - 2:26 - (Recording dialogues during rehearsals) # ''Moonlight Serenade'' - 4 ...
, marking the formal
investiture Investiture (from the Latin preposition ''in'' and verb ''vestire'', "dress" from ''vestis'' "robe"), is the formal installation or ceremony in which a person is given the authority and regalia of a high office. Investiture can include formal dre ...
of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included
anointing Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By extension, the term is also applied to related acts of sprinkling, dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfume Perfume (, ; french: parf ...
the monarch with holy oil, or
chrism Chrism, also called myrrh, ''myron'', holy anointing oil, and consecrated oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Anglican Communion, Anglican, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian, Catholic Church, Catholic, Old Catholic Church, Old Catholic, East ...

chrism
as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible. The monarch's consort may also be crowned, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors; most modern monarchies have dispensed with them altogether, preferring simpler ceremonies to mark a monarch's accession to the throne. In the past, concepts of royalty, coronation and deity were often inexorably linked. In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or partially divine: the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...

Egyptian
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

pharaoh
was believed to be the son of
Ra
Ra
, the sun god, while in Japan, the
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...
was believed to be a descendant of
Amaterasu Amaterasu, also known as Amaterasu-Ōmikami () or Ōhirume-no-Muchi-no-Kami () among other names, is the goddess of the sun in Japanese mythology. One of the major deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses su ...

Amaterasu
, the sun goddess.
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , fo ...
promulgated the practice of
emperor worship ian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdicati ...
; in
Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, monarchs claimed to have a divine right to rule (analogous to the
Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven () is a Chinese political philosophy that was used in ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsAztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of cont ...
in dynastic China). Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. Some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country. ''Coronation'' in common parlance today may also, in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the
accession Accession refers to the general idea of joining or adding to. It may also refer to: *Accession (property law) * Accession, the act of joining a treaty by a party that did not take part in its negotiations; see Vienna Convention on the Law of Treati ...
of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ''ascension'', however, usually precedes the date of the ceremony of ''coronation''. For example, the
Coronation of Elizabeth II The coronation A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically ...
took place on 2 June 1953, almost sixteen months after
her
her
accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was and the s of the from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was concurrently the last until August 1947, when the was dissolved. Known as "B ...

George VI
.


History and development

The coronation ceremonies in medieval
Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the ...
, both
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
and
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
, are influenced by the practice of the
Roman Emperors The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rom ...
as it developed during
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a used by historians to describe the time of transition from to the in and adjacent areas bordering the . The popularization of this periodization in English has generally been credited to historian , after the publication o ...
, indirectly influenced by
Biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies, perhaps best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain (the most recent of which occurred in 1953), descend from rites initially created in
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
,
Visigothic The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...

Visigothic
Spain,
Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
France and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
and brought to their apogee during the
Medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
era. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, often related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation.
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand, Cambodia and Bhutan, while
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 Historically, the term has also been used as ...

Hindu
elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia, Brunei and Iran were shaped by
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
ones.


Antiquity

Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of
Seti I Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian
scriptures Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, mythologies, ritual practices, commandments or laws, ethical conduct, spiritual aspirations, and for c ...
testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and
II Chronicles The Book of Chronicles ( he, דִּבְרֵי־הַיָּמִים ) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is ...
23:11. The ''corona radiata'', the "
radiant crown Coin of the Roman emperor Aurelian, 274-275: Aurelian and Sol Invictus are wearing a radiate crown A radiant or radiate crown, also known as a solar crown, sun crown, Eastern crown, or tyrant's crown, is a Crown (headgear), crown, wreath, diad ...
" known best on the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a List of colossal sculpture in situ, colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the Un ...

Statue of Liberty
, and perhaps worn by the
Helios Helios; Homeric Greek: ), Latinized as Helius; Hyperion and Phaethon are also the names of his father and son respectively. often given the epithets Hyperion ("the one above") and Phaethon ("the shining"), is the deity, god and personification o ...

Helios
that was the
Colossus of Rhodes The Colossus of Rhodes ( grc, ὁ Κολοσσὸς Ῥόδιος, ho Kolossòs Rhódios gr, Κολοσσός της Ρόδου, Kolossós tes Rhódou) was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes Rhodes (; el ...

Colossus of Rhodes
, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of
Sol Invictus Sol Invictus (, "Unconquered Sun") was long considered to be the official sun god A solar deity (also sun goddess or sun god) is a sky deity The sky often has important religious significance. Many religions, both polytheistic and ...
, part of the
imperial cult An imperial cult is a form of state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations ...
as it developed during the 3rd century. The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a
halo Halo generally refers to: * Halo (optical phenomenon) * Halo (religious iconography), a glow or ring of light around a head or person in art or a ring above one's head * Halo (franchise), ''Halo'' (franchise), a video game franchise Halo or HALO ...
, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
was the browband called the
diadem A diadem is a type of Crown (headgear), crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty. Overview The word derives from the Ancient Greek, Greek διάδημα ''diádēma'', "band" or "fillet", from ...
, which had been worn by the
Achaemenid The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subj ...
rulers, was adopted by
Constantine I Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). Th ...

Constantine I
, and was worn by all subsequent rulers of the later Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine, Roman and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century. Emperor
Julian the Apostate Julian ( la, Flavius Claudius Julianus; grc-gre, Ἰουλιανός ; 331 – 26 June 363) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety ...
was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers; he later wore a jewel-studded diadem. Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the
patriarch of Constantinople The highest-ranking bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Or ...
to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was clearly established by the reign of Leo II, who was crowned by Acacius in 473. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, a further—and extremely vital—development in the liturgical ''ordo'' of crowning. After this event, according to the ''Catholic Encyclopedia'', "the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. In some European Celtic or Germanic countries prior to the adoption of Christianity, the ruler upon his election was raised on a
shield Wall painting depicting a Mycenaean Greek "figure eight" shield with a suspension strap at the middle, 15th century BC, National Archaeological Museum, Athens -The faces of figure eight shields were quite convex. The cited "strap" may be the ri ...

shield
and, while standing upon it, was borne on the shoulders of several chief men of the nation (or tribe) in a procession around his assembled subjects. This was usually performed three times. Following this, the king was given a
spear A spear is a pole weapon A pole weapon or pole arm is a close combat weapon in which the main fighting part of the weapon is fitted to the end of a long shaft, typically of wood, thereby extending the user's effective range and striking pow ...

spear
, and a diadem wrought of silk or
linen Linen () is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. It also h ...

linen
(not to be confused with a
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
) was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority.


Middle Ages

According to Adomnan of Iona, the king of
Dal Riata ''Daal'' (also spelled ''dal''; pronunciation: ) is a term originating in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses A legume () is a plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis ...
,
Áedán mac Gabráin Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced in Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Ogham, Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goide ...
, came to the monastery at Iona in 574 to be crowned by
St Columba Columba, gd, Calum Cille, sco, Columbkille, gv, Colum Keeilley, non, Kolban or (7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary evangelist credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland Scotland ( ...
. In 610,
Heraclius Heraclius ( el, Ἡράκλειος, ''Hērakleios''; c. 575 – 11 February 641), sometimes called Heraclius I, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinop ...
arranged a ceremony in
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
where he was crowned and acclaimed emperor. In Spain, the
Visigothic The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is kno ...

Visigothic
king
Sisenand Sisenand ( Spanish, Galician, and Portuguese: ''Sisenando''; la, Sisenandus) ( 605 – 12 March 636) was a Visigothic King of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Neza ...
was crowned in 631, and in 672, Wamba was the first occidental king to be anointed as well, by the archbishop of
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
. In
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
, the Anglo-Saxon king
Eardwulf of Northumbria Eardwulf ( fl. 790 – c. 830) was king of Northumbria from 796 to 806, when he was deposed and went into exile. He may have had a second reign from 808 until perhaps 811 or 830. Northumbria in the last years of the eighth century was the sc ...
was "consecrated and enthroned" in 796, and
Æthelstan Æthelstan or Athelstan (; ang, Æðelstān ; on, Aðalsteinn; meaning "noble stone"; 894 – 27 October 939) was List of monarchs of Wessex, King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and List of English monarchs, King of the English from 927 ...
was crowned and anointed in 925. These practices were nevertheless irregularly used or occurred some considerable time after the rulers had become kings, until their regular adoption by the
Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
in France. To legitimate his deposition of the last of the
Merovingian kings The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks from the middle of the 5th century until 751. They first appear as "Kings of the Franks" in the Roman army of northern Gaul. By 509 they had united all the Franks and northern Gaulish ...

Merovingian kings
,
Pepin the Short Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere, french: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was ...
was twice crowned and anointed, at the beginning of his reign in 752, and for the first time by a pope in 754 in
Saint-DenisSaint Denis may refer to: People * Saint Denis of Paris, 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint, patron saint of Paris * Denis the Carthusian (1402–1471) * Brent St. Denis (born 1950), Canadian politician * Frédéric St-Denis (born 1986), Canad ...
. The anointing served as a reminder of the baptism of
Clovis I Clovis ( la, Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern E ...

Clovis I
in
Reims Reims ( , , ; also spelled Rheims in English) is the most populous city in the French of . The city lies northeast of Paris on the river, a tributary of the . Founded by the , Reims became a major city in the . Reims later played a promin ...

Reims
in 496, where the ceremony was finally transferred in 816. His son
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
, who was crowned emperor in Rome in 800, passed as well the ceremony to the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, and this tradition acquired a newly constitutive function in England too, with the kings
Harold Godwinson Harold Godwinson ( – 14 October 1066), also called Harold II, was the last crowned Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is be ...
and
William the Conqueror William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identi ...

William the Conqueror
immediately crowned in
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
in 1066. The European coronation ceremonies of the Middle Ages were essentially a combination of the Christian rite of
anointing Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By extension, the term is also applied to related acts of sprinkling, dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfume Perfume (, ; french: parf ...
with additional elements. Following Europe's conversion to Christianity, crowning ceremonies became more and more ornate, depending on the country in question, and their Christian elements—especially anointing—became the paramount concern. Crowns and
sceptre A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English) is a Staff of office, staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of regalia, royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial authority or sovereignt ...

sceptre
s, used in coronations since ancient times, took on a Christian significance together with the as symbols of the purported divine order of things, with the monarch as the divinely ordained overlord and protector of his dominion. During the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, this rite was considered so vital in some European kingdoms that it was sometimes referred to as an "eighth
sacrament A sacrament is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ...
". The anointed ruler was viewed as a ''mixta persona'', part priest and part layman, but never wholly either. This notion persisted into the twentieth century in
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. T ...
, where the
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
was considered to be "wedded" to his subjects through the Orthodox coronation service. Coronation stones marked the site of some medieval ceremonies, though some alleged stones are later inventions. As reported by the jurisconsult Tancredus, initially only four monarchs were crowned and anointed, they were the Kings of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
,
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
: Crowning ceremonies arose from a worldview in which monarchs were seen as ordained by GodChristian references include I Peter 2:13,17 and Romans 13:1–7. Information on the Islamic viewpoint may be found a
Islamic Monarchy
from th
Science Encyclopedia
website.
to serve not merely as political or military leaders, nor as figureheads, but rather to occupy a vital ''spiritual'' place in their dominions as well. Coronations were created to reflect and enable these alleged connections; however, the belief systems that gave birth to them have been radically altered in recent centuries by secularism, egalitarianism and the rise of
constitutionalism Constitutionalism is "a compound of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law". Political organizations are constitutional ...

constitutionalism
and democracy. During the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity File:Petersdom von Engelsburg gesehen.jpg, 250px, St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the larges ...
, the idea of divinely ordained monarchs began to be challenged.


Modern history

The
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
and various revolutions of the last three centuries all helped to further this trend. Hence, many monarchies—especially in Europe—have dispensed with coronations altogether, or transformed them into simpler inauguration or benediction rites. Majority of contemporary European monarchies today have either long abandoned coronations ceremonies (e.g. Spain, last practiced in 1494) or have never practiced coronations (e.g. Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg). Of all European monarchies today, only the United Kingdom still retains its coronation rite. Other nations still crowning their rulers include Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Thailand, and Tonga, as well as several subnational entities such as the
Toro Kingdom The original Kingdom of Tooro (red) and its districts. Lake Victoria and other bodies of water are shaded blue. Tooro is a Bantu peoples, Bantu kingdom located within the borders of Uganda. The current Omukama of Toro is King Oyo Nyimba Kabamba ...
. The
Papacy The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...
retains the option of a coronation, but no pope has used it since 1963 after
Pope John Paul I Pope John Paul I ( la, Ioannes Paulus I}; it, Giovanni Paolo I; born Albino Luciani ; 17 October 191228 September 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of ...
opted for an
Inauguration In government and politics, inauguration is the process of Oath of office, swearing a person into Public administration, office and thus making that person the incumbent. Such an inauguration commonly occurs through a formal ceremony or special ev ...
in 1978.


Canonical Coronation

A Canonical Coronation (Latin: ''coronatio canonica'') is a pious institutional act of the Pope, on behalf of a Catholic devotions, devotion. This tradition still stands in 2015, in 2014 Pope Francis crowned Our Lady of Immaculate Conception of Juquila. Since 1989, the act has been carried out through the authorised decree by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.


Coronations and monarchical power

In most kingdoms, a monarch succeeding hereditarily does not have to undergo a coronation to ascend the throne or exercise the prerogatives of their office. King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, for example, did not reign long enough to be crowned before he abdicated, yet he was unquestionably the King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India during his brief reign. This is because in Britain, the law stipulates that in the moment one monarch dies, the new one assumes automatically and immediately the throne; thus, there is no interregnum. France likewise followed automatic succession, though by tradition the new king ascended the throne when the coffin of the previous monarch descended into the vault at Saint Denis Basilica, and the Duke of Uzès proclaimed "The King is dead. Long live the King, Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi"!''The [old] king is dead; long live the [new] King!'' In Hungary, on the other hand, no ruler was regarded as being truly legitimate until he was physically crowned with Holy Crown of Hungary, St. Stephen's Crown performed by the archbishop of Esztergom in Székesfehérvár Cathedral (during the Ottoman Empire's invasion of Hungary in Pozsony, then Budapest),An account of this service, written by Count Miklos Banffy, a witness, may be read a
The Last Habsburg Coronation: Budapest, 1916
Fro
Theodore's Royalty and Monarchy Website
while monarchs of Albania were not allowed to succeed or exercise any of their prerogatives until swearing a formal constitutional oath before their respective nations' parliaments. The same still applies in Belgium. Following their election, the kings of Poland were permitted to perform a variety of political acts prior to their coronation, but were not allowed to exercise any of their judicial powers prior to being crowned. In the Holy Roman Empire an individual became King of the Romans, thus gained governance of the Empire unless he was elected during his predecessor's lifetime, upon his acceptance of the election capitulation, not his coronation. However, prior to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I he could not style himself "Emperor" until his coronation by the Pope, resulting in many individuals being "Kings of the Romans" or "Kings of Germany," but not "Emperor." Maximilian received Papal permission to call himself "Elected Emperor of the Romans" when he was unable to travel for his coronation. His successors likewise adopted the title with the last Emperor crowned by the Pope being Maxmilian's grandson Charles V.


Official and personal coronation Gifts

The official coronation gifts Royal or Imperial commencing in the 19th century were commissioned by the coronation commission, intended for the incoming monarch, as personal mementos of the coronation event. Personal coronation gifts presented at the coronation festivities directly by the newly crowned monarch to the official coronation guest were similar or identical to the official coronation gift all according to the Royal or Imperial protocol and Court status of the recipient. Presentation of coronation gifts was major anticipated reviling function of the incoming monarch.


Coronation of heirs apparent

During the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, House of Capet, Capetian List of French monarchs, Kings of France chose to have their heir apparent, heirs apparent crowned during their own lifetime to avoid succession disputes. This practice was later adopted by House of Plantagenet, Angevin List of English monarchs, Kings of England, List of Hungarian monarchs, Kings of Hungary and other European monarchs. From the moment of their coronation, the heirs were regarded as junior kings (''rex iunior''), but they exercised little power and historically were not included in the numbering of monarchs if they predeceased their fathers. The nobility disliked this custom, as it reduced their chances to benefit from a possible succession dispute. The last heir apparent to the French throne to be crowned during his father's lifetime was the future Philip II of France, Philip II, while the only crowned heir apparent to the English throne was Henry the Young King, who was first crowned alone and then with his wife, Margaret of France (1158–1197), Margaret of France. It is worth noting that Stephen of England, King Stephen attempted to have his son Eustace IV of Boulogne crowned King in his lifetime but faced serious Papal opposition as the Church did not want to be seen as intervening in the ongoing The Anarchy, Norman Anarchy.The practice was eventually abandoned by all kingdoms that had adopted it, as the rules of primogeniture became stronger. The last coronation of an heir apparent, with the exception of Investiture of the Prince of Wales, investitures of the Prince of Wales in 1911 and 1969, was the coronation of the future Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria as junior King of Hungary in 1830.


In the modern era

Specific coronation rituals by country, arranged by continent or region, are described in the following articles: *Coronations in Africa *Coronations in the Americas *Coronations in Asia *Coronations in Europe *Coronations in Oceania


Image gallery

File:Pepin le Bref.jpg, Coronation of
Pepin the Short Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere, french: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was ...
File:Lvisrdce korunovace 1189.jpg, Richard I of England crowned king. File:JanBrienne.jpg, Coronation of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, King of Jerusalem and Latin Emperor of Constantinople File:Bela4 korunovace.jpg, The coronation of Béla IV King of Hungary File:Coelestin V.jpg, Coronation of Pope Celestine V. File:Kraków Coronation of Casimir I the Restorer.jpg, Coronation of John II Casimir Vasa File:Preussen 1701 Königsberg.jpg, Frederick I of Prussia, being anointed by two Protestant bishops after his coronation at Königsberg in 1701. File:SerovV MiropomazanNikolAlek.jpg, Anointing of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia during his coronation in 1896. File:The Anointing of Queen Alexandra at the Coronation of Edward VII.JPG, The Anointing of Alexandra of Denmark, Queen Alexandra at the Coronation of Edward VII File:Coroaçao pedro I 001.jpg, Coronation ceremony of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil in 1822 File:Abraham Bloemaert - Coronation Scene - 1993.1 - Indianapolis Museum of Art.jpg, Coronation Scene by Dutch painter Abraham Bloemaert File:The Coronation of Shah Suleyman, presided over by Sheikholeslam of Isfahan-1666.jpg, Coronation of Suleiman of Persia, the eighth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, in 1666


See also

* Accession day * Coronation of the British monarch * Coronation of the Virgin * Coronation anthem * Inauguration * Anointing * Enthronement


Bibliography

''Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual''. ed. Janos M. Bak. University of California Press 1990. . Bernhard A. Macek: ''Die Kroenung Josephs II. in Frankfurt am Main. Logistisches Meisterwerk, zeremonielle Glanzleistung und Kulturgueter fuer die Ewigkeit''. Peter Lang 2010. . Zupka, Dušan: ''Power of rituals and rituals of power: Religious and secular rituals in the political culture of medieval Kingdom of Hungary''. IN: Historiography in Motion. Bratislava – Banská Bystrica, 2010, pp. 29–42. .


Notes

This section contains expansions on the main text of the article, as well as links provided for context that may not meet Wikipedia standards for Wikipedia:RS, reliable sources, due largely to being Wikipedia:SPS, self-published.


References

{{Authority control Coronation, Monarchy Royalty