HistoryCork was originally a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by in the 6th century. Cork became (more) urbanised some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman ( ) settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network. The ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking ''longphort'', with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship; the Norsemen providing otherwise unobtainable trade goods for the monastery, and perhaps also military aid. The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as , in 1185. The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile countryside and cut off from the English government in around . Neighbouring Gaelic and lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city. The present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the ; it now takes in much of the neighbouring . Together, these are located between the to the east, to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south. The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people. It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of plague when the arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English when , a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow . The then mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by in 1318, and the title was changed to ''Lord Mayor'' in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent mayor by on her visit to the city. Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a strongly Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for and the , but from 1910 stood firmly behind 's dissident All-for-Ireland Party. O'Brien published a third local newspaper, the '' ''. Cork was overtaken by as Ireland's second largest city in the nineteenth century. In the , the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British , in an event known as the " " and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the , Cork was for a time held by anti- forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.
ClimateThe climate of Cork, like the majority of Ireland, is mild (''Cfb'' in the ) and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant 9b. maintains a climatological at , a few kilometres south of the city centre. The airport is at an altitude of and temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the rest of the city. There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at and Clover Hill. Due to its position on the coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below or above are rare. Cork Airport records an average of of annually, most of which is rain. The airport records an average of 7 days of hail and 11 days of snow or sleet a year; though it only records lying snow for 2 days of the year. The low altitude of the city, and moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow very rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year (over of rainfall), of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain" (over ). Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, however, Cork is also one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine", mostly during and around winter.
CultureThe and the provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork (UCC). Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame; the Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre (capacity c.90), which includes the Triskel Christchurch independent cinema; dance venue the Firkin Crane (capacity c.240); the Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA) and Graffiti Theatre Company; and the , and Live at the Marquee events. The (capacity c.650) and the Granary Theatre (capacity c.150) both host plays throughout the year. Cork is home to the RTÉ Vanbrugh Quartet, and popular rock musicians and bands including John Spillane, , Five Go Down to the Sea?, , The Frank and Walters, Sultans of Ping, , and . The opera singers Cara O'Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. Ranging in capacity from 50 to 1,000, the main music venues in the city are the (capacity c.1000), The Everyman, Cyprus Avenue, Dali, Triskel Christchurch, The Roundy, and Coughlan's. The city's literary community centres on the Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre. The short story writers and hailed from Cork, and contemporary writers include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy, and novelist and poet William Wall. Additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to the and renovations to the Cork Opera House in the early 21st century. The opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the in the United Kingdom, and the building of a new €60 million School of Music was completed in September 2007. Cork was the for 2005, and in 2009 was included in the 's top 10 "Best in Travel 2010". The guide described Cork as being "at the top of its game: sophisticated, vibrant and diverse". There is a "friendly rivalry" between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between and or and . Some Corkonians view themselves as different from the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as "The Rebels"; the county is known as the Rebel County. This view sometimes manifests itself in humorous references to the ''Real Capital'' and the sale of T-shirts with light-hearted banners celebrating ''The People's Republic of Cork''.
FoodThe city has many local traditions in food, including , and , which were historically served in eating houses like that run by Katty Barry in the mid-20th century. The English Market sells locally produced foods, including fresh fish, meats, fruit and vegetables, eggs and artisan cheeses and breads. During certain city festivals, food stalls are also sometimes erected on city streets such as St. Patrick's Street or Grand Parade, Cork, Grand Parade.
AccentThe Cork accent, part of the Southwest dialect of Hiberno-English, displays various features which set it apart from other accents in Ireland. Patterns of tone and intonation often rise and fall, with the overall tone tending to be more high-pitched than other Irish accents. English spoken in Cork has a number of dialect words that are peculiar to the city and environs. Like standard Hiberno-English, some of these words originate from the Irish language, but others through other languages Cork's inhabitants encountered at home and abroad. The Cork accent displays varying degrees of rhoticity in English, rhoticity, usually indicative of the speaker's local community.
BroadcastingBroadcasting companies based in Cork include Raidió Teilifís Éireann, RTÉ Cork, which has a radio, television and production unit on Father Matthew Street in the city centre. Communicorp, Communicorp Media opened a radio studio in 2019 in the city covering content on both Today FM and Newstalk. Virgin Media Television also has an office in the city which covers local news stories developing within the city and county. The city's FM broadcasting, FM radio band features RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, Classic Hits (Ireland), Classic Hits, Newstalk and the religious station Spirit Radio. There are also local stations such as Cork's 96FM, Red FM (Ireland), Cork's Red FM, 103FM County Sound, C103, CUH 102.0FM, UCC 98.3FM (formerly Cork Campus Radio 97.4fm) and Christian radio station Life 93.1FM. Cork also has a temporary licensed citywide community station 'Cork FM Community Radio' on 100.5FM, which is on-air on Saturdays and Sundays only. Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, including South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s. Today some small pirates stations remain.
Places of interestCork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Medieval to Modern periods. The only notable remnant of the Medieval era is the Red Abbey, Cork, Red Abbey. There are two cathedrals in the city; St. Mary's Cathedral, Cork, St. Mary's Cathedral and Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral. St Mary's Cathedral, often referred to as the North Cathedral, is the Catholic Church, Catholic cathedral of the city and was begun in 1808. Its distinctive tower was added in the 1860s. St Fin Barre's Cathedral serves the Church of Ireland (Anglican) and is possibly the more famous of the two. It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges. St. Patrick's Street, the main street of the city which was remodelled in the mid-2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along its pedestrian-friendly route and is the main shopping thoroughfare. At its northern end is a landmark statue of Theobald Mathew (temperence reformer), Father Mathew. The reason for its curved shape is that it was originally a channel of the which was built over on arches. The General Post Office, with its limestone façade, is on Oliver Plunkett Street, on the site of the Theatre Royal, Cork, Theatre Royal which was built in 1760 and burned down in 1840. The English circus proprietor Pablo Fanque rebuilt an amphitheatre on the spot in 1850, which was subsequently transformed into a theatre and then into the present General Post Office in 1877. The Grand Parade, Cork, Grand Parade is a tree-lined avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions. The old financial centre is the South Mall, Cork, South Mall, with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th century, such as the Allied Irish Bank's which was once an exchange. Many of the city's buildings are in the Georgian architecture, Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as Cork County Hall, County Hall tower, which was, at one time the List of tallest buildings in Ireland, tallest building in Ireland until being superseded by another Cork building: The Elysian. Outside the County Hall is the landmark sculpture of two men, known locally as Two Working Men, 'Cha and Miah'. Across the river from County Hall is Ireland's longest building; built in Victorian era, Victorian times, Our Lady's Hospital, Cork, Our Lady's Psychiatric Hospital has now been partially renovated and converted into a residential housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins (architect), William Atkins. Cork's most famous building is the Church of St Anne (Shandon), church tower of Shandon, which dominates the Northside of the city. It is widely regarded as the symbol of the city. The North and East sides are faced in red sandstone, and the West and South sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. At the top sits a weather vane in the form of an eleven-foot salmon. Another site in Shandon is Skiddy's Almshouse, which was built in the 18th century to provide a home to the poorest of the city. Cork City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one which was destroyed by the during the War of Independence in an event known as the " ". The cost of this new building was provided by the UK Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation. Other notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the , Christ Church on South Main Street (now the Triskel Arts Centre and the original site of early Hiberno-Norse church), and St Mary's Dominican Church on Popes Quay. Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Cork, through which the River Lee flows, the Cork City Gaol, Women's Gaol at Sunday's Well (now a heritage centre) and the English Market. This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the present building dates from 1786. Parks and amenity spaces include Fitzgerald's Park to the west of the city (which contains the Cork Public Museum), the angling lake known as The Lough, Cork, The Lough, Bishop Lucey Park (which is centrally located and contains a portion of the old city wall) and the Marina and Atlantic Pond (an avenue and amenity near Blackrock, Cork, Blackrock used by joggers, runners and rowing clubs). Up until April 2009, there were also two large commercial breweries in the city. The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street closed in April 2009 and transferred production to the Murphy's Irish Stout, Murphy's brewery in Lady's Well. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market. There is also the Franciscan Well brewery, which started as an independent brewery in 1998 but has since been acquired by Coors.
Local government and politicsWith a population of approximately 210,000, Cork is the second-most populous city in the State and the 16th-most populous area of local government. Per the ''Local Government Act 2001'', Cork City Council is a tier-1 entity of local government with the same status in law as a county council. While local government in Ireland has limited powers in comparison with other countries, the council has responsibility for planning, roads, sanitation, libraries, street lighting, parks, and a number of other important functions. Cork City Council has 31 elected members representing six electoral areas. As of the 2019 Cork City Council election, the political representation is: Fianna Fáil (8 members), Fine Gael (7 members), Green Party (Ireland), Green Party (4 members), Sinn Féin (4 members), Labour Party (Ireland), Labour (1 member), Solidarity–People Before Profit (1 member), Workers' Party of Ireland, Workers' Party (1 member), Independent politicians in Ireland, Independents (5 members). Certain councillors are co-opted to represent the city at the South-West Region, Ireland, South-West Regional Authority. A new Lord Mayor of Cork is chosen in a vote by the elected members of the council under a D'Hondt system count. Since June 2020, the mayor has been Colm Kelleher of Fianna Fáil. Cork City Hall is located along Albert Quay on the south side of the city. It officially opened on 8 September 1936, following the previous building being destroyed in the "Burning of Cork" in 1920. The administrative offices for Cork County Council are also located within the city limits, on the Carrigrohane Road on the west side of the city. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the city is part of two Dáil constituencies, constituencies: Cork North-Central (Dáil constituency), Cork North-Central and Cork South-Central (Dáil constituency), Cork South-Central which each returns four Teachta Dála, TDs. Since the 2020 Irish general election, 2016 general election, these constituencies are represented by three Fianna Fáil TDs, two TDs Fine Gael TDs, two Sinn Féin TDs and one People Before Profit/Solidarity TD.
City boundary expansionIn 2018, cabinet approval was given for an extension of the Cork City Council boundary, to include , Douglas, County Cork, Douglas, Ballincollig and other surrounding areas. Legislation to expand the boundary of the city, which would increase its area to and the population within its bounds from 125,000 to 210,000, was debated and approved in Dáil Éireann in June 2018. Corresponding legislation was drafted during July 2018, and enacted as part of the Local Government Act 2019. The boundary change occurred at the end of May 2019, following the 2019 Irish local elections, 2019 local elections.
RetailThe retail trade in Cork city includes a mix of modern shopping centres and family-owned local shops. Shopping centres can be found in several of Cork's suburbs, including Blackpool, Cork, Blackpool, Ballincollig, Douglas, County Cork, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton Shopping Centre, Wilton and at Mahon Point Shopping Centre. Other shopping arcades are in the city centre, including the "Cornmarket Centre" on Cornmarket Street, "Merchant's Quay Shopping Centre" on Merchant's Quay, home to Debenhams Ireland, Debenhams, Dunnes Stores and Marks & Spencer, and a retail street called Opera Lane off St. Patrick's Street/Academy Street. A mixed retail and office development, on the site of the former Capitol Cineplex, with approximately of retail space, was opened in June 2017. Retail tenants in this development include Facebook, AlienVault and Huawei. Cork's main shopping street is St. Patrick's Street and is the most expensive street in the country per sq. metre after Dublin's Grafton Street. The area was impacted by the Post-2008 Irish economic downturn, post-2008 downturn, though retail growth has increased since, with Primark, Penneys announcing expansion plans in 2015, redesigning of some facades on the street, and opening of newer outlets, including SuperGroup, Superdry in 2015. Other shopping areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett Street, Oliver Plunkett St. and Grand Parade, Cork, Grand Parade. Cork is home to some of the country's leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores being laid in the city.
IndustryCork City is a hub of industry in the region. Several pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the area, including Pfizer Inc., Johnson & Johnson and Swiss company Novartis. Perhaps the most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc. where over 3,000 staff are involved in manufacturing, R&D and customer support. Logitech and EMC Corporation are also important information technology, IT employers in the area. Three hospitals are also among the top ten employers in the city. The city is also home to the Heineken Brewery that brews Murphy's Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (taken over by Heineken in 2008) which have been in the city for generations. 45% of the world's Tic Tac sweets are manufactured at the city's Ferrero SpA, Ferrero factory. For many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed in 1984. Henry Ford's grandfather was from West Cork, which was one of the main reasons for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork. Technology has since replaced the older manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working at a number of IT companies across the city area – such as Amazon.com, the online retailer, which has offices at Cork Airport Business Park. Cork's deep harbour allows large ships to enter, bringing trade and easy import/export of products. also allows easy access to continental Europe and Cork Kent railway station in the city centre provides good rail links for domestic trade.
EmploymentAccording to the 2011 Cork City Employment & Land Use Survey, the single largest employers in the city (all with over 1,000 employees) include Cork University Hospital, Apple Inc, University College Cork, Boston Scientific, Cork City Council, Cork Institute of Technology, Bon Secours Hospital, Cork, retailers SuperValu (Ireland), Supervalu and Centra, the Irish Defence Forces at Collins Barracks (Cork), Collins Barracks, and the Mercy University Hospital.
AirCork Airport is the second List of the busiest airports in the Republic of Ireland, busiest airport in the Republic of Ireland, and is situated on the south side of Cork city close to Ballygarvan, County Cork, Ballygarvan. Nine airlines fly to more than 45 destinations in Europe. Scheduled airlines using Cork airport include Aer Lingus, Aer Lingus Regional, Air France, Flybe, Iberia Express, Ryanair, Swiss International Air Lines and Volotea.
BusPublic bus services within the city are provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. City routes are numbered from 201 through to 226 and connect the city centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and places of interest. Two of these bus routes provide orbital services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city respectively. Buses to the outer suburbs and towns, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire, Midleton and Carrigaline are provided from the city's bus terminal at Parnell Place in the city centre. Suburban services also include shuttles to , and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs only. Long-distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services run to Killarney/Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport/Ennis/Limerick/Galway and there are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Wales and Bristol. Private operators include Irish Citylink, Aircoach and Dublin Coach. Irish Citylink serves Limerick and Galway. Aircoach operates an Express non-stop service which serves Dublin City Centre and Dublin Airport 18 times daily in each direction. Dublin Coach serves Dublin via Fermoy, Mitchelstown, Cashel, County Tipperary, Cashel and Cahir.
Harbour and waterwaysThe Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrooke, County Cork, Rushbrooke to Passage West, links the R624 to R610 road (Ireland), R610. This service is used by some commuters to avoid traffic in the Jack Lynch Tunnel and Dunkettle area. The Port of Cork is situated at Ringaskiddy, SE via the N28 road (Ireland), N28. Brittany Ferries operates direct Roll-on/roll-off, car ferry services from Cork to Roscoff in France.
RoadThe city's road infrastructure improved in the late 20th and early 21st century, including the early 1980s construction of the Cork South Link dual carriageway which links the Kinsale Road roundabout with the city centre. Shortly after, the first sections of the South Ring dual carriageway were opened. Work continued on extending the N25 road (Ireland), N25 South Ring Road through the 1990s, culminating in the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the . The Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a bottleneck for traffic heading to Cork Airport or Killarney. Other projects completed at this time include the N20 road, N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. The N22 road, N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road was opened in September 2004. City centre road improvements include the Patrick Street project – which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus. The M8 motorway (Ireland), M8 motorway links Cork with . From 2012, cycle paths and bike stands were added in a number of areas. Subsequently, in 2014, a bicycle sharing system, public bicycle rental scheme was launched. The scheme is operated by An Rothar Nua on behalf of the National Transport Authority (Ireland), National Transport Authority, with funding supplemented by an advertising sponsor. The scheme supports 330 bikes with 31 stations placed around the city for paid public use.
Railway and tramway heritageCork was one of the most rail-oriented cities in Ireland, featuring eight stations at various times. The main route, still much the same today, is from Dublin Heuston. Originally terminating on the city's outskirts at Blackpool, Cork, Blackpool, the route now reaches the city centre terminal station, terminus of Cork Kent railway station, Kent Station via the Glanmire tunnel and Kilnap Viaduct. Now a through station, the line through Kent connects the towns of Cobh and Midleton east of the city. This also connected to the seaside town of Youghal, until the 1980s. Other rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the ''Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway'', a line to Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarney, Coachford and Donoughmore, as well as the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork towns. West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail system connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement). There have been two tram networks in operation Within the city. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city's railway termini) was made by American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. However, the company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line. In December 1898, the Cork Electric Tramways and Lighting Company began operating on the Blackpool–Douglas, Summerhill–Sunday's Well and Tivoli, Cork, Tivoli–Blackrock routes. Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, which discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931. The wider city area, including the city's suburbs, is served by three railway stations. These are Cork Kent railway station, Little Island railway station and Glounthaune railway station.
Current routesCork's Cork Kent railway station, Kent Station is the main railway station in the city. From here, Irish Rail services run to destinations all over Ireland. The mainline from Cork to Dublin Heuston, Dublin has hourly departures on the half-hour from Cork, and is linked from Limerick Junction with connections to Clonmel railway station, Clonmel and Waterford railway station, Waterford. InterCity services are also available to Killarney railway station, Killarney and Tralee railway station, Tralee, and to Limerick railway station, Limerick, Ennis railway station, Ennis, Athenry railway station, Athenry and Galway railway station, Galway (via Limerick Junction and the Limerick to Galway railway line). The Cork Suburban Rail system also departs from Cork Kent railway station, Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork. Stations include Little Island, Cork, Little Island, Mallow, County Cork, Mallow, Midleton, Fota Island, Fota and Cobh. In July 2009 the Glounthaune railway station, Glounthaune to Midleton railway station, Midleton line was reopened, with new stations at Carrigtwohill railway station, Carrigtwohill and Midleton railway station, Midleton (and additional stations proposed for Blarney and elsewhere). Little Island railway station serves Cork's Eastern Suburbs.
EducationCork is an important educational centre in Ireland – There are over 35,000 third level students in the city, meaning the city has a higher ratio of students in the population than the national average. Over 10% of the population of the Metropolitan area are students in University College Cork (UCC) and Cork Institute of Technology (CIT), including nearly 3,000 international students from over 100 different countries. UCC is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland and offers courses in arts, commerce, engineering, law, medicine and science. It has been named "Irish University of the Year" four times since 2003, most recently in 2016. Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish "Institute of Technology of the Year" in 2007, 2010 and 2016 and offers third-level courses in Computing and IT, Business, Humanities and Engineering (Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical). The National Maritime College of Ireland is located in Cork and is the only Irish college in which Nautical Studies and Marine Engineering can be undertaken. CIT incorporates the and as constituent schools. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest 'Further education, College of Further Education' in Ireland. Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork, a private institution, and various other colleges. Research institutes linked to the third level colleges in the city support the research and innovation capacity of the city and region. Examples include the Tyndall National Institute (ICT hardware research), IMERC (Marine Energy), Environmental Research Institute, NIMBUS (Network Embedded Systems); and CREATE (Advanced Therapeutic Engineering). UCC and CIT also have start-up company incubation centres. In UCC, the IGNITE Graduate Business Innovation Centre aims to foster and support entrepreneurship. In CIT, The Rubicon Centre is a business innovation hub that is home to 57 knowledge based start-up companies.
SportRugby union, Rugby, Gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastimes for Corkonians.
Gaelic gamesHurling and football are the most popular spectator sports in the city. Hurling has a strong identity with city and county – with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, All-Ireland Championships. Gaelic football is also popular, and Cork has won 7 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship titles. Cork is the only county that has won both championships at least 7 times and the only one that has won both in the 21st century. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including Blackrock GAA, Blackrock National Hurling Club, St. Finbarr's GAA, St. Finbarr's, Glen Rovers GAA, Glen Rovers, Na Piarsaigh GAA, Na Piarsaigh, Nemo Rangers GAA, Nemo Rangers and Douglas GAA. The main public venues are Páirc Uí Chaoimh and Páirc Uí Rinn (named after the noted Glen Rovers player Christy Ring). Camogie (hurling for ladies) and women's Gaelic football are increasing in popularity.
Association footballCork City F.C. are the largest and most successful association football team in Cork, winning three League of Ireland titles, four FAI Cup titles, and one Setanta Sports Cup, "All Ireland" Setanta Sports Cup title. They play their home games on the south side of the city in Turners Cross (stadium), Turners Cross. Several, now defunct, Cork clubs played in the League of Ireland before 1984. In total, teams from the city have won the league 12 times. Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs across the city, as well as in Five-a-side football, "five-a-side" style leagues.
RugbyRugby union is played at various levels, from school to senior league level. There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork Constitution (five-time All Ireland League Champions) play their home games in Ballintemple, Cork, Ballintemple and Dolphin R.F.C. play at home in Musgrave Park, Cork, Musgrave Park. Other notable rugby clubs in the city include Highfield, Sunday's Well and UCC. At the schools level, Christian Brothers College, Cork, Christian Brothers College and Presentation Brothers College, Cork, Presentation Brothers College are two of the country's better-known rugby nurseries. Munster Rugby plays a number of its home matches in the Pro14 at Musgrave Park, Cork, Musgrave Park in Ballyphehane. In the past Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park, but most of these are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick. In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup champions, with many players hailing from Cork city and county.
Water sportsThere are a variety of watersports in Cork, including Sport rowing, rowing and sailing. There are five rowing clubs training on the river Lee, including Shandon BC, UCC RC, Pres RC, Lee RC, and Cork BC. Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members row traditional Currach, naomhóga on the Lee in occasional competitions. The "Ocean to City" race has been held annually since 2005, and attracts teams and boats from local and visiting clubs who row the from Crosshaven into Cork city centre. The National Rowing Center was moved to Inniscarra – approximately 12 km outside the city centre – in 2007. Cork's maritime sailing heritage is maintained through its sailing clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club located in Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world's oldest yacht club, and "Cork Week" is a notable sailing event.
CricketThe most notable cricket club in Cork is Cork County Cricket Club, which was formed in 1874. Although located within the Munster Cricket Union, Munster jurisdiction, the club plays in the Leinster Senior League (cricket), Leinster Senior League. The club plays at the Mardyke, a ground which has hosted three first-class cricket, first-class matches in 1947, 1961 and 1973. All three involved Ireland cricket team, Ireland playing Scotland cricket team, Scotland. The Cork Cricket Academy operates within the city, with the stated aim of introducing the sport to schools in the city and county. Cork's other main cricket club, Harlequins Cricket Club, play close to . The provincial representative side, the Munster Reds, plays its home matches in the Twenty20 Inter-Provincial Trophy at the Richard Beamish Cricket Grounds, Mardyke Cricket Ground.
Other sportsThe city contains clubs active in national competitions in basketball (Neptune Cork, Neptune and UCC Demons) and American Football (Cork Admirals). There are also golf, pitch and putt, field hockey, hockey, tennis, and sport of athletics, athletics clubs in the Cork area. The city is the home of Irish Road Bowling, road bowling, which is played in the north-side and south-west suburbs. There are boxing and martial arts clubs (including Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo) within the city, while the sports-based performance art of professional wrestling maintains a presence via local promotion Phoenix Wrestling. Cork Racing, a motorsport team based in Cork, has raced in the Irish Formula Ford Championship since 2005. Cork also hosts one of Ireland's most successful Australian Rules Football teams, the Leeside Lions, who have won the Australian Rules Football League of Ireland Premiership several times.
Twin citiesCork is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with Cologne, Coventry, Rennes, San Francisco, Swansea and Shanghai. As of February 2017, the city council was also in talks to twin with Bordeaux, Saint Petersburg and Miami.
DemographicsThe population of Cork City and its suburbs was recorded as 208,669 by the 2016 census, with in excess of 300,000 in the Metropolitan Cork area. There were 119,230 people present in the Cork City Council administered area at the time of the 2011 census, of these 117,221 indicated that they were usually present in Cork. In common with other Irish urban centres, the female population (50.67%) is higher than the male population (49.33%), although the gap is somewhat smaller than in other cities. In the 2011 census, of those usually resident, 100,901 (86.08%) were Irish citizens; 10,295 (8.78%) were citizens of other EU countries; 4,316 (3.68%) were citizens of countries elsewhere in the world; 1,709 (1.46%) did not state their citizenship. By the 2016 census, the population of the city and suburbs were 81% white Irish, 10% other white, 1.4% black/black Irish, 2.5% Asian/Asian Irish, 1.7% other, with 2.6% not stating an ethnicity. Also as of the census, the population was 76.4% Catholic, 8.1% other stated religion, with 12.8% having no religion and 2.7% not stated. While Cork saw some Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe in the 19th century, with second-generation immigrants like Gerald Goldberg holding public office, the community later declined and the synagogue closed. Later immigrant communities retain their places of worship. In the 2011 and 2016 censuses, Roman Catholicism was the most common religion in the city overall, followed by Anglicanism, Presbyterianism, and Islam. As of the 2016 census, an increasing number of residents (15%) indicated that they had no religion – a higher rate of increase and a higher overall percentage than the national average (10%).
Further reading* ''Merchants, Mystics and Philanthropists – 350 Years of Cork Quakers'' Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) 2006 * ''Atlas of Cork City'', edited John Crowley, Robert Devoy, Denis Linehan and Patrick O'Flanagan. Illustrated by Michael Murphy. Cork University Press, 2005, . * ''A New History of Cork'', Henry A. Jefferies. History Press Ireland, 2010, . * ''Cork Rock: From Rory Gallagher To The Sultans Of Ping'', by Mark McAvoy. Published by Mercier Press (2009) . * ''Where Bridges Stand :the River Lee bridges of Cork City'', Antóin O'Callaghan. History Press Ireland, 2012, . * ''Cork City Through Time'', Kieran McCarthy & Daniel Breen. Stroud : Amberley, 2012, .