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The Convention of Peking or First Convention of Peking is an agreement comprising three distinct
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...
concluded between the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, w ...
of China and Great Britain,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
, and the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the
unequal treaties Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed between China (mostly referring to the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in t ...
. The
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China (Taiwan) (MOFA; ) is a cabinet level policy-making body, governed under the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China (Taiwan). The fundamental purpose of the ministry is to promote, expand ...
keeps the original copy of the convention in the
National Palace Museum The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiw ...
in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
.


Background

On 18 October 1860, at the culmination of the
Second Opium War The Second Opium War (), also known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A gov ...
, the British and French troops entered the
Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a Chinese palace, palace complex in Dongcheng District, Beijing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China, at the center of the Imperial City, Beijing, Imperial City of Beijing. It is surrounded by numerous opulent imperial g ...

Forbidden City
in
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. Following the decisive defeat of the Chinese,
Prince Gong Yixin (11January 1833– 29May 1898), better known in English as PrinceKung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro Aisin Gioro was the Manchu people, Manchu ruling clan of the Later Jin (1616–1636), Later Jin dynasty (1616–1 ...
was compelled to sign two treaties on behalf of the Qing government with
Lord Elgin Earl of Elgin is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1633 for Thomas Bruce, 1st Earl of Elgin, Thomas Bruce, 3rd Lord Kinloss. He was later created Baron Bruce, of Whorlton in the County of York, in the Peerage of England on 30 July 1 ...
and
Baron Gros Antoine-Jean Gros (; 16 March 177125 June 1835), titled as Baron Gros in 1824, was a French painter. His work was in the genres of History painting, history and Neoclassicism, neoclassical painting. Gros studied under Jacques-Louis David in Par ...
, who represented Britain and France respectively.Harris, David. Van Slyke, Lyman P. (2000). Of Battle and Beauty: Felice Beato's Photographs of China. University of California Press. Although Russia had not been a belligerent, Prince Gong also signed a treaty with Nikolay Ignatyev. The original plan was to burn down the Forbidden City as punishment for the mistreatment of Anglo-French prisoners by Qing officials. Because doing so would jeopardize the treaty signing, the plan shifted to burning the
Old Summer Palace The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan (), originally called the Imperial Gardens (), and sometimes called the Winter Palace, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is northwest o ...
and
Summer Palace The Summer Palace () is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the ...

Summer Palace
instead. The treaties with France and Britain were signed in the
Ministry of Rites The Ministry or Board of Rites was one of the Six Ministries of government in late imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during ...
building immediately south of the Forbidden City on 24 October 1860.Naquin, Susan. (2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press.


Terms

In the convention, the
Xianfeng Emperor The Xianfeng Emperor (17 July 1831 – 22 August 1861), or by temple name Emperor Wenzong of Qing (), given name Yizhu (), was the eighth List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule ...
ratified the
Treaty of Tientsin The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin Tianjin (), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities ...
(1858). The area known as
Kowloon Kowloon () is an urban area in Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special a ...

Kowloon
was originally leased in March 1860. The Convention of Peking ended the lease, and ceded the land formally to the British on 24 October 1860. Article 6 of the Convention between China and the United Kingdom stipulated that China was to cede the part of Kowloon Peninsula south of present-day
Boundary Street Image:Boundary st hongkong.JPG, 250px, Boundary Street near Kowloon Tong Boundary Street is a three-lane one-way street in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It runs in an easterly direction from its start at the intersection with Tung Chau Street in the ...
,
Kowloon Kowloon () is an urban area in Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special a ...

Kowloon
, and
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over 7.5 million residents of various nationalities in a territory, Hong ...

Hong Kong
(including
Stonecutters Island Stonecutters Island or Ngong Shuen Chau is a former island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_L ...
) in perpetuity to Britain. Article 6 of the Convention between China and France stipulated that "the religious and charitable establishments which were confiscated from Christians during the persecutions of which they were victims shall be returned to their owners through the French Minister in China".


Manchuria

The treaty also ceded parts of
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
to the Russian Empire. It granted Russia the right to the Ussuri krai, a part of the modern day
Primorye Primorsky Krai ( rus, links=no, Приморский край, r=Primorsky kray, p=prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj), informally known as Primorye (, ) and translated in full as Maritime Territory, is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in th ...
, the territory that corresponded with the ancient
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...

Manchu
province of East Tartary. See
Treaty of Aigun The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор; ) was an 1858 treaty between the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Eart ...
(1858),
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Treaty of Nerchinsk () of 1689 was the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoye tsarstvo''), also c ...
(1689) and
Sino-Russian border conflicts The Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689) were a series of intermittent skirmishes between the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese ...
. In addition to ceding territory that had been ruled by the Qing dynasty, the treaty also ceded territory under
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
jurisdiction, notably the island (by that time and currently a peninsula at the southernmost end of
Primorsky Krai Primorsky Krai ( rus, links=no, Приморский край, r=Primorsky kray, p=prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj), informally known as Primorye (, ) and translated in full as Maritime Territory, is a federal subject The federal subjects of Russia ...
) of
Noktundo Noktundo is a former island (currently a peninsula) in the delta of the Tumen River on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and North Korea. The area of the island was . In the 15th century, Noktundo belonged to the Jurchen people, Jurchen. ...
. This was not known to the Koreans until the 1880s (20 or so years after the signing of the treaty, to which Korea was not a party), at which point it became a matter of official protest as the Koreans asserted that the Qing had no authority to cede Noktundo to Russia.


Aftermath


Kowloon

The governments of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population of more than 1.4 billio ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong in 1984, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with
Hong Kong Island 250px, Kornhill and Shau Kei Wan, located in the northern part of Eastern District Hong Kong Island is an Islands and peninsulas of Hong Kong, island in the southern part of Hong Kong. It has a population of 1,289,500 and its population de ...

Hong Kong Island
, ceded under the
Treaty of Nanking The Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–1842) between the United Kingdom and China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of ...
(1842), and
Kowloon Peninsula The Kowloon Peninsula is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is u ...

Kowloon Peninsula
(south of
Boundary Street Image:Boundary st hongkong.JPG, 250px, Boundary Street near Kowloon Tong Boundary Street is a three-lane one-way street in Kowloon, Hong Kong. It runs in an easterly direction from its start at the intersection with Tung Chau Street in the ...
), was to be transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997.


Noktundo

The status of
Noktundo Noktundo is a former island (currently a peninsula) in the delta of the Tumen River on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and North Korea. The area of the island was . In the 15th century, Noktundo belonged to the Jurchen people, Jurchen. ...
, which had been under Korean jurisdiction from the turn of the 17th century but was (unbeknownst to the Koreans until the 1880s) ceded to Russia in the treaty, remains formally unresolved, as only one of two Korean jurisdictions/governments have accepted a border agreement with Russia. North Korea and the USSR signed a border treaty in 1985 officially certifying the Russian-North Korean border as running through the center of the
Tumen River The Tumen River, also known as the Tuman River or Dooman River (), is a long river that serves as part of the boundary between China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of co ...
which left the now-peninsula of Noktundo on the Russian side of the border. This agreement is not recognized by South Korea, which has since demanded Noktundo's return to Korean jurisdiction (ostensibly this would be North Korean jurisdiction, with the expectation of unified Korean control after an eventual Korean reunification).


See also

*
Second Convention of Peking The Convention between the United Kingdom and China, Respecting an Extension of Hong Kong Territory, commonly known as the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory or the Second Convention of Peking, was a lease A lease is a contrac ...
*
History of Hong Kong The region of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative regio ...
*
Western imperialism in Asia Western imperialism in Asia refers to the influence of Western Europe and associated states (such as Russia, Japan and the United States) in Asian territories. It originated in the 15th-century search for trade routes to India and Southeast Asia ...


References


Further reading

* Cole, Herbert M. "Origins of the French Protectorate over Catholic Missions in China." ''American Journal of International Law'' 34.3 (1940): 473–491.


External links


A timeline of the history of Hong Kong from 1840 to 1999

Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and the United Kingdom

Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and France

Full text of the Convention of Peking between China and Russia
{{DEFAULTSORT:Convention of Peking 19th century in the Russian Empire History of Manchuria
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
Kowloon
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
1860 in France 1860 in the United Kingdom 1860 in China China–Russian Empire relations Opium Wars Boundary treaties 1860 treaties
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
Peking Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by ...
China–France relations China–United Kingdom relations October 1860 events