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The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, and it replaced the Constitution of the Fourth Republic, of 1946.
Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; ; 22 November 18909 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 19 ...
was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by
Michel Debré
Michel Debré
. Since then, the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, through 2008.


Provisions


Preamble

The preamble of the constitution recalls the ''
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (french: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789, links=no), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most ...
'' from 1789 and establishes
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
as a secular and
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
country, deriving its
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
from the people.


Government institutions and practices

The French Constitution established a
semi-presidential A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state. It differs from a parliam ...
system of government, with two competing readings. On one hand, the executive branch has both a
President of the Republic The President of the Republic is a title used for heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or r ...
and a
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, which is commonly seen in
parliamentary systems A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state (polity), state, by a market (economics), mar ...
with a symbolic President and a Prime Minister who directs the government. This reading is supported by Articles 5 and 21 of the Constitution, which respectively states that the President is a Guardian of the State and of the Constitution, while the Prime Minister has the power to decide on Government’s actions and policies. On the other hand, the Parliament is very weak for a parliamentary system. Parliament has a limited legislative competence: article 34 of the Constitution lists domains exclusive to Parliamentary legislation, but the remaining domains are left to the Executive's regulations. The President also has the crucial powers to call a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
and to dissolve the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. While Parliament may make a vote of no confidence on the government, since 1962 a majority in the National Assembly has supported the Government. Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the Fifth Republic, was instrumental in the adoption of the new constitution, as he was called back from retirement and narrowly avoided a coup resulting from the
Algerian War The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the Algerian War of Independence,( ar, الثورة الجزائرية '; '' ber, Tagrawla Tadzayrit''; french: Guerre d'Algérie or ') and sometimes in Algeria as the War of 1 November ...
. De Gaulle always supported the second interpretation of the constitution, in favor of a powerful President. The first socialist President François Mitterrand, elected in 1981, also supported this interpretation. Beginning in 1986, elections have from time to time resulted in Parliaments with a majority that did not support the President. Such periods as known in France as
cohabitation Cohabitation is an arrangement where two people are not married but live together. They are often involved in a romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of t ...
, where a President appoints a Prime Minister from the new parliamentary majority. During cohabitation, besides powers reserved to the President by the Constitution, all other government powers would be exercised by the Prime Minister. In 2000, the Constitution was amended by shortening the President's term of office from seven years to five, coinciding with the term of Parliament. The amendment means the Presidential election would take place around the Parliamentary election, making it more likely to have winners who agree with one another and make cohabitation less likely. The Constitution provides for the election of the President and the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, the selection of the Government, the powers of each and the relations between them. It ensures judicial authority and creates a High Court (a never-as-yet-convened court for trying the Government), a Constitutional Council (an innovation of the Fifth Republic), and an Economic and Social Council.


Treaties and the EU

It enables the ratification of international treaties and those associated with the European Union. It is unclear whether the wording, especially the reserves of reciprocity, is compatible with
European Union law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the European Coal and Steel Community following World War II, the EU has developed the aim to "promote peace, its values and ...
.


Amendment

The Constitution also sets out methods for its own amendment: a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
(article 11) or a Parliamentary process with Presidential consent. The normal procedure of constitutional amendment is that the amendment must be adopted in identical terms by both houses of Parliament and then must be adopted by a simple majority in a referendum or by a three-fifths supermajority of the
French Congress The Congress of the French Parliament (french: Congrès du Parlement français) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament The French Parliament (french: Parlement français) is the bicameral leg ...
, a joint session of both houses of Parliament (article 89).


Principles

Prior to 1971, though executive, administrative and judicial decisions had to comply with the general principles of law (
jurisprudence Jurisprudence, or legal theory, is the theoretical study of the propriety of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whol ...
derived from law and the practice of law in general), there were no such restrictions on legislation. It was assumed that unelected judges and other appointees should not be able to overrule laws voted for by the directly elected French parliament.


"Constitutional block"

In 1971, a landmark decision by the Constitutional Council (71-44DC) cited the preamble of the Constitution and its references to the principles laid in the
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (french: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789, links=no), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most ...
as a reason for rejecting a law that, according to the council, violated one of these principles. Although considered a juridical coup d’état at the time, the decision formed basis of the Constitutional Council today. Since then, it is assumed that the "constitutional block" includes not only the Constitution, but also the other texts referred to in its preamble: * The
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (french: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789, links=no), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most ...
of 1789 * The preamble of the Constitution of 1946 (which adds a number of "social rights", as well as the equality of males and females) * The Charter for the Environment of 2004 Since then, the possibility of sending laws before the council has been extended. In practice, the political opposition sends all controversial laws before it.


Principles of the Republic

In the Constitution, are written the principles of the French Republic: *
Social welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and ...
, which means that everybody must be able to access free public services and be helped when needed. *
Laïcité (; 'secularism Secularism the principle seeking to conduct human affairs based on secular, naturalistic considerations. It is most commonly defined as the separation of religion from civic affairs and the state, and may be broadened to a ...
, which means that the churches are separated from the
State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and the freedom from religion is protected. *
Democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

Democracy
, which means that the Parliament and the Government are elected by the people. * Indivisibility, which means that the French people are united in a single
sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descende ...
country with one language, the
French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of inf ...

French language
, and all people are equal.


Amendments

The Constitution, in Article 89, has an amending formula. First, a constitutional bill must be approved by both houses of Parliament. Then, the bill must either be approved by the
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
, a special joint session of both houses, or submitted to a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
. In 1962, Charles de Gaulle proposed that the President be elected by direct suffrage. He bypassed the amendment procedure by directly sending a constitutional amendment to referendum (article 11). The Art. 11 procedure was envisioned as a procedure for proposing legislation, including changing the organization of constitutional institutions. The 1962 referendum was approved by 62% of the vote but only 46% of registered voters. The amendment permitted the establishment of a popularly-elected presidency, which would otherwise have been vetoed by the Parliament.
Dieter Nohlen Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939) is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German na ...
& Philip Stöver (2010) ''Elections in Europe: A data handbook'', p674
The referendum was highly controversial at the time, but the Constitutional Council ruled that it can only review legislative acts for unconstitutionality, not executive acts; since the referendum was proposed by the executive, it was unreviewable. Since a referendum expressed the will of the sovereign people, the Council ruled that the amendment had been adopted. Some scholars had regarded the amendment as a post hoc manifestation of the constituent power, which is the inherent power of the people to bypass an existing constitution to adopt a new constitution. Article 11 was used for constitutional changes for the second and final time in
1969 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of th ...
, but the "No" prevailed, causing Charles de Gaulle to resign from the presidency. On 21 July 2008, Parliament passed constitutional reforms championed by President
Nicolas Sarkozy Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (; ; born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the 23th President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la ...

Nicolas Sarkozy
by a margin of two votes. The changes, when finalized, introduced a consecutive two-term limit for the presidency, gave Parliament a veto over some presidential appointments, ended government control over Parliament's committee system, allowed Parliament to set its own agenda, allowed the president to address Parliament in-session and ended the president's right of collective pardon. (See
French constitutional law of 23 July 2008 The Constitutional law on the Modernisation of the Institutions of the Fifth Republic (french: link=no, loi constitutionnelle de modernisation des institutions de la Ve République) was enacted into French constitutional law by the Parliament of Fra ...
).


Former constitutions

France had numerous constitutions in its history: * The
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
, under the ''
Ancien Régime The Ancien Régime (; ; literally "old rule"), also known as the Old Regime was the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms o ...
'', was an
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
and lacked a formal constitution; the regime essentially relied on
custom Custom may refer to: Sense: Customary * Convention (norm) A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. In a social context, a convention ma ...
. That said, certain rules, the "fundamental laws of the Kingdom" (''les lois fondamentales du Royaume''), were outside the power of the monarch to change without further consent. These rules were mainly about the inheritance of the Crown, which required strict
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
unless the heir was not Catholic, and from the
Treaty of Troyes The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his death in 1422. Despite his relatively short reign, ...

Treaty of Troyes
onward was strictly
agnatic Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, althoug ...
(male-only) as well. The
Parlement of Paris A ''parlement'' (), under the French Ancien Régime File:Prise de la Bastille.jpg, The ''Storming of the Bastille'' on 14 July 1789, later taken to mark the end of the ''Ancien Régime''; watercolour by Jean-Pierre Houël The Ancien Régi ...
, a primarily judicial body with quasi-legislative functions that was tasked with applying the ''lois fondamentales'', rarely brooked modification of the laws. For instance,
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
tried by his will and testament to change the inheritance order, but the ''Parlement'' annulled it. On the other hand, the law was occasionally changed, as when the provisions of the
Peace of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht is a series of peace treaty, peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht between April 1713 and February 1715. The war involved three contenders for the vaca ...
renouncing the claim of Louis XIV's grandson
PhilippePhilippe may refer to: * Philippe of Belgium (born 1960), King of the Belgians (2013–present) * Philippe's or Philippe the Original, a restaurant in Los Angeles * Philippe (footballer) (born 2000), Brazilian footballer See also

* Philip (name ...

Philippe
to inherit the throne of France were approved to allow him to inherit the throne of Spain. * The saw a number of constitutions: ** The Constitution of 1791, adopted 3 September 1791, established the
Kingdom of the French Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts a ...
, a constitutional monarchy, and the
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...
** The
Girondin constitutional project The Girondin constitutional project, presented to the French National Convention on 15 and 16 February 1793 by Nicolas de Caritat, formerly the Marquis de Condorcet, is composed of three parts: * An ''Exposition of the Principles and Motives of t ...
in process of being adopted before the coup that led to the ''Montagnard'' faction being in control ** The Constitution of 1793, ratified 24 June 1793, but never applied due to the suspension of all ordinary legality 10 October 1793 (under the
French First Republic In the history of France, the First Republic (French: ''Première République''), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic lasted until the dec ...
) ** The
Constitution of the Year III The Constitution of the Year III was the constitution of the that established the . Adopted by the convention on 5 Year III (22 August 1795) and approved by on 6 September. Its preamble is the Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man an ...
, adopted 22 August 1795, established the
Directory Directory may refer to: * Directory (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and developmen ...
** The
Constitution of the Year VIII The Constitution of the Year VIII (french: Constitution de l'an VIII or french: Constitution du 22 frimaire an VIII) was a national constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that const ...
, adopted 24 December 1799, established the
Consulate A consulate is the office of a consul (representative), consul. A type of diplomatic mission, it is usually subordinate to the state's main representation in the capital of that foreign country (host state), usually an ''embassy'' or – betw ...
** The
Constitution of the Year X The Constitution of the Year X was a national constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisat ...

Constitution of the Year X
, adopted 1 August 1802, established the Consulate for Life ** The
Constitution of the Year XII The Constitution of the Year XII (), also called the Organic Sénatus-consulte of 28 Floréal, year XII (''Sénatus-consulte organique du 28 floréal an XII''), was a national constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental prin ...
, adopted 18 May 1804, established the
First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, also known as the Napoleonic Empire, was the empire ruled by Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th cen ...
* Following the restoration of the Monarchy: ** The
Charter of 1814 The French Charter of 1814 was a constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case A legal case is in a general sens ...
, adopted 4 June 1814, established the
Bourbon RestorationBourbon Restoration may refer to: * Bourbon Restoration in France The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the ...
** The
Charter of 1815 The Charter of 1815, signed on April 22, 1815, was the French constitution prepared by Benjamin Constant at the request of Napoleon I when he returned from exile on Elba. More correctly known as the "Additional Act to the Constitutions of the Em ...

Charter of 1815
, adopted 22 April 1815, was used during the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
** The
Charter of 1830 The Charter of 1830 (french: Charte de 1830) instigated the July Monarchy in France. It was considered a compromise between constitutional monarchy, constitutional monarchists and republicanism, republicans. History After three days of prot ...
, adopted 14 August 1830, established the
July Monarchy The July Monarchy (french: Monarchie de juillet, officially the Kingdom of France, french: Royaume de France) was a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberal ...
* Mid-19th Century: ** The
French Constitution of 1848 The Constitution of 1848 is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: ...
, adopted 4 November 1848, established the
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
** The
French Constitution of 1852 The French Constitution of 1852 was enacted on 14 January 1852 by Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (Napoleon III). Slightly modified later that year, on 25 December 1852 the constitution became the basis for the creation of the Second French E ...
, adopted 14 January 1852, established the
French Second Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...
** The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 of the
French Third Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in History of France, France from 4 September 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, ...
, 24 and 25 February, and 16 July 1875 * 20th Century: ** The
French Constitutional Law of 1940 French Constitutional Law of 1940, are the bills that were voted into law on 10 July 1940 by the National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of pe ...
, adopted 10 July 1940, established
Vichy France Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy; 10 July 1940 – 9 August 1944) is the common name of the French State (') headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known a ...
** The , adopted 1945, organized the
Provisional Government of the French Republic The Provisional Government of the French Republic (PGFR) (french: Gouvernement provisoire de la République française (''GPRF'') is a name for an interim government of Free France between 3 June 1944 and 27 October 1946 following the liberation ...
** The
French Constitution of 1946 The Constitution of the French Republic of 27 October 1946 was the constitution of the French Fourth Republic. Adopted by the on 29 September 1946, and promulgated by Georges Bidault, president of the Provisional Government of the French ...
, adopted 27 October 1946, established the
French Fourth Republic The French Fourth Republic (french: Quatrième république française) was the republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually assoc ...
** The French Constitution of 1958, adopted 4 October 1958, established the
French Fifth Republic The Fifth Republic (french: Cinquième République) is France's current republic, republican system of government. It was established 4 October 1958 by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of France, Constitution of the Fifth Republic.. The ...
(the current Constitution in force)


See also

*
Article 49 of the French Constitution Article 49 of the French Constitution is an article of the French Constitution, the fundamental law of the French Fifth Republic. It sets out the political responsibility of the Government of France, government (the executive branch) towards the Fr ...
*
Constitutionalism Constitutionalism is "a compound of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law". Political organizations are constitutional ...

Constitutionalism
* French Constitutional Council *
Constitutional economics A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
* Fifth Republic (France) *
French Community The French Community (1958–1960; french: Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies From the 16th to the 17th centuries, the First French colonial empire stretched from a total area at its peak in 1680 to over , ...
, which succeeded the
French Union French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to ** , which originated in France, and its various dialects ** , a nation and ethnic group identified with France ** , cooking traditions and practices Arts a ...

French Union
*
Government of France The Government of France (French: ''Gouvernement français''), officially the Government of the French Republic (''Gouvernement de la République française'' ), exercises executive power The executive (short for executive branch or exec ...
*
Politics of France The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the Constitution of France, French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic. The nation declares itself to be an "indivisible, laïcité, secular, ...
* Parliamentary immunity in France * De Gaulle's 1946 Bayeux speech, in which he outlined his vision of the constitution


Notes and references


Further reading

* * * * * Frédéric Monera, ''L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel'' – Paris : L.G.D.J., 200

* Martin A. Rogoff, "French Constitutional Law: Cases and Materials" – Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 201


External links

* * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Constitution of France Constitutions of France 1958 in law Legal history of France 1958 documents