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Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
reigning from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus,
Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Mediterranea (Mediterranean Dacia; , ''Eparchia Dakias Mesogeiou'') was a late Roman province, split off from the former Dacia Aureliana by Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305). Serdica (or Sardica; later Sradetz or Sredets, now Sofia) was the ...
(now
Niš Niš (; sr-cyr, Ниш, ; names of European cities in different languages (M–P)#N, names in other languages) is the list of cities in Serbia, third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. It is located ...
,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
), he was the son of Flavius Constantius (a Roman army officer born in
Dacia Ripensis Dacia Ripensis () was the name of a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and l ...
who had been one of the four emperors of the
Tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was the system instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when ...
). His mother, Helena, was
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
and of low birth. Constantine served with distinction under the Roman emperors
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
and
Galerius Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus (; c. 258 – May 311) was from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by , against the , sacking their capital in 299. He also campaigned across the against the , defeating them in 297 and 300. ...

Galerius
. He began by campaigning in the eastern provinces (against
barbarians A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They ...

barbarians
, and the
Persians The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestr ...

Persians
) before he was recalled in the west (in 305 AD) to fight along side his father in
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
. After his father's death in 306, Constantine became emperor; he was acclaimed by his army at
Eboracum Eboracum () was a and later a in the of . In its prime it was the largest town in northern Britain and a provincial capital. The site remained occupied after the decline of the and ultimately developed into the present-day city , occupying ...
(
York York is a cathedral city City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United ...

York
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
). He emerged victorious in
the civil wars The Civil Wars were an American musical duo composed of Joy Williams (singer), Joy Williams and John Paul White. Formed in 2008, The Civil Wars won four Grammy Awards prior to their 2014 breakup. History 2008–2010 Both Williams and White h ...
against emperors
Maxentius Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (c. 283 – 28 October 312) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, ...
and
Licinius Licinius (; la, Valerius Licinianus Licinius ; (Ancient Greek Λίκινιος) (c. 265 – 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of M ...
to become the sole ruler of the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
by 324. Upon his ascension to emperor, Constantine enacted numerous reforms to strengthen the empire. He restructured the government, separating
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
and
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
authorities. To combat inflation he introduced the
solidus Solidus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
, a new
gold coin A gold coin is a coin A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal A metal (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...
that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The
Roman army The Roman army (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

Roman army
was reorganised to consist of mobile units (
comitatenses The comitatenses and later the palatini were the units of the field armies of the late Roman Empire The Later Roman Empire spans the period from 284 AD to 641 in the history of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ...
), and garrison troops (
limitanei The ''līmitāneī'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

limitanei
) capable of countering internal threats and
barbarian invasions The Migration Period, also known as the Barbarian Invasions (from the Roman and Greek perspective), is a term sometimes used for the period in the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the ...
. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the
Roman frontiers Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
—such as the
Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the . Later the term was associated with Germanic dynasties within the ...

Franks
, the
Alamanni The Alemanni (also ''Alamanni''; ''Suebi'' "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribe This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in anci ...
, the
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between West ...
and the
Sarmatians The Sarmatians (; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the
Crisis of the Third Century The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (235–284 AD), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed. It ended due to the military victories of Aurelian and with the ascension of Dioclet ...
with citizens of Roman culture once more. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to
convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ''Cyberman'' * Conversion (Stargate Atlantis), "Conversion" (''Stargate Atlantis ...
to
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
. Although he lived much of his life as a
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...
, and later as a catechumen, he began to favor Christianity beginning in 312, finally becoming a Christian and being baptised by either
Eusebius of Nicomedia Eusebius of Nicomedia (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος; died 341) was an Arian priest who baptized Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was ...
, an
Arian Arianism is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius Arius (; grc-koi, Ἄρειος, ; 250 or 256–336) was a Cyrenaic The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics ( grc, Κυρηναϊκοί; ''Kyrēnaïkoí'') were a sensual hedonist Greek ...
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
, as attested by many notable
Arian Arianism is a Christological doctrine first attributed to Arius Arius (; grc-koi, Ἄρειος, ; 250 or 256–336) was a Cyrenaic The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics ( grc, Κυρηναϊκοί; ''Kyrēnaïkoí'') were a sensual hedonist Greek ...
historical figures, or
Pope Sylvester I Pope Sylvester I (also Silvester, born 285 - died 31 December 335) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an , , or appointed member of the who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the , , , , , and chur ...

Pope Sylvester I
, which is maintained by the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and the
Coptic Orthodox Church The Coptic Orthodox Church ( cop, Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ⲛ̀ⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛ̀ⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, translit=Ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, lit=the Egyptian Orthodox Church; ar, الكنيسة القبطي ...

Coptic Orthodox Church
. He played an influential role in the proclamation of the
Edict of Milan The Edict of Milan ( la, Edictum Mediolanense, el, Διάταγμα τῶν Μεδιολάνων, ''Diatagma tōn Mediolanōn'') was the February 313 CE agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.Frend, W. H. C. ''Th ...
in 313, which declared tolerance for Christianity in the Roman Empire. He convoked the
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialec ...
in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the
Nicene Creed The original Nicene Creed (; grc-gre, Σύμβολον τῆς Νικαίας; la, Symbolum Nicaenum) was first adopted at the First Council of Nicaea, which opened on 19 June 325.''Readings in the History of Christian Theology'' by William Ca ...
. The
Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, hy, Սուրբ Հարության տաճար, la, Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, am, የቅዱስ መቃብር ቤተክርስቲያን, he, כנסיית הקבר, ar, كنيسة القيامة is a church in ...

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
was built on his orders at the purported site of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
'
tomb A tomb ( grc-gre, τύμβος ''tumbos'') is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes. Placing a corpse into a tomb can be called ''immuremen ...

tomb
in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
and was deemed the holiest place in all of
Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on th ...
. The papal claim to temporal power in the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
was based on the fabricated
Donation of Constantine and Constantine the Great, showing the purported Donation (Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome) The ''Donation of Constantine'' ( ) is a Forgery, forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred ...
. He has historically been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor" and he did favour the Christian Church. While some modern scholars debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of Christianity, he is venerated as a
saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...

saint
in
Eastern Christianity Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), ...
, and did much for pushing Christianity towards the mainstream of Roman culture. The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire and a pivotal moment in the transition from
classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, ...
to the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. He built a new imperial residence at and renamed it
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
(now
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
) after himself. It subsequently became the capital of the empire for more than a thousand years, the later Eastern Roman Empire being referred to as the ''
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
'' by modern historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's Tetrarchy with the ''de facto'' principle of dynastic succession, by leaving the empire to his sons and other members of the
Constantinian dynasty The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican R ...
. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and for centuries after his reign. The
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
church held him up as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference and the symbol of
imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...

imperial
legitimacy and identity. Beginning with
the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a Periodization, period in History of Europe, European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an e ...
, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship.


Sources

Constantine was a ruler of major importance, and has always been a controversial figure. The fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but they have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period and are often one-sided; no contemporaneous histories or biographies dealing with his life and rule have survived. The nearest replacement is
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
's ''''—a mixture of
eulogy A eulogy (from εὐλογία, ''eulogia'', Ancient Greek language, Classical Greek, ''eu'' for "well" or "true", ''logia'' for "words" or "text", together for "praise") is a Speech (public address), speech or writing in praise of a person or ...
and
hagiography A hagiography (; ) or vita (from Latin ''vita'', life, which begins the title of most medieval biographies) is a biography of a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holin ...
written between AD 335 and circa AD 339—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The ''Vita'' creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability. The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous '' Origo Constantini'', a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
Lactantius Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his Christian religious policy in its initial stages of emergence, and a tutor to his son Crisp ...

Lactantius
' '' De mortibus persecutorum'', a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
and the
Tetrarchy The Tetrarchy was the system instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when ...
, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. The
ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor


Modern sources

* Alföldi, Andrew. ''The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome''. Translated by Harold Mattingly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948. * Perry Anderson, Anderson, Perry. ''Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism''. London: Verso, 1981 [1974]. * Arjava, Antii. ''Women and Law in Late Antiquity''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. * * * * * * * * * * Averil Cameron, Cameron, Averil and Stuart G. Hall. ''Life of Constantine''. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999. Hardcover Paperback * Carrié, Jean-Michel & Rousselle, Aline. ''L'Empire Romain en mutation- des Sévères à Constantin, 192–337''. Paris: Seuil, 1999. * Michel Christol, Christol, Michel & Nony, D. ''Rome et son Empire''. Paris: Hachette, 2003. * Kate Cooper, Cooper, K. ''The Long Shadow of Constantine'', Journal of Roman Studies, 2014 * Simon Corcoran, Corcoran, Simon. ''The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324''. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. * Curran, John. ''Pagan City and Christian Capital''. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Hardcover Paperback * Dagron, Gilbert. ''Naissance d'une Capitale: Constantinople et ses instititutions de 330 a 451''. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. * Elizabeth DePalma Digeser, Digeser, Elizabeth DePalma. ''The Making of A Christian Empire: Lactantius and Rome''. London: Cornell University Press, 2000. * * * * * * * * Elliott, T. G. ''The Christianity of Constantine the Great''. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 1996. * Jas Elsner, Elsner, Jás. ''Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph''. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press (Oxford History of Art), 1998. * * * * Edward Gibbon, Gibbon, Edward. ''Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire''. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1952 ("Great Books" collection), in 2 volumes. * Adrian Goldsworthy, Goldsworthy, Adrian. ''How Rome Fell''. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2009. Hardcover * * * Harries, Jill. ''Law and Empire in Late Antiquity''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Hardcover Paperback * Hartley, Elizabeth. ''Constantine the Great: York's Roman Emperor''. York: Lund Humphries, 2004. . * Heather, Peter J. "''Foedera'' and ''Foederati'' of the Fourth Century." In ''From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms'', edited by Thomas F.X. Noble, 292–308. New York: Routledge, 2006. Hardcover Paperback * * Arnold Hugh Martin Jones, Jones, A.H.M. ''Constantine and the Conversion of Europe''. Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1978 [1948]. * * Lenski, Noel, ed. ''The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine''. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover Paperback * Leithart, Peter J. Defending Constantine: The Twilight of an Empire and the Dawn of Christendom. Downers Grove: IL, InterVarsity Press 2010 * Lieu, Samuel N.C. and Dominic Montserrat. ''From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views; A Source History''. New York: Routledge, 1996. * * Ramsay MacMullen, MacMullen, Ramsay. ''Constantine''. New York: Dial Press, 1969. * MacMullen, Ramsay. ''Christianizing the Roman Empire A.D. 100–400''. New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1984. * MacMullen, Ramsay. ''Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries''. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. * David Mattingly (author), Mattingly, David. ''An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire''. London: Penguin, 2007. * * Odahl, Charles Matson. ''Constantine and the Christian Empire''. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover Paperback * * * Pohlsander, Hans. ''The Emperor Constantine''. London & New York: Routledge, 2004a. Hardcover Paperback * Pohlsander, Hans.
Constantine I (306 – 337 A.D.)
" ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'' (2004b). Retrieved 16 December 2007. * Potter, David S. ''The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395''. New York: Routledge, 2005. Hardcover Paperback * * * Scheidel, Walter. "The Monetary Systems of the Han and Roman Empires". In Scheidel, ed., ''Rome and China: Comparative Perspectives on Ancient World Empires''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, * * Southern, Pat. ''The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine''. New York: Routledge, 2001. * * Treadgold, Warren. ''A History of the Byzantine State and Society''. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. * Udoh, Fabian E. "Quand notre monde est devenu chretien", review, ''Theological Studies'', June 2008 * Paul Veyne, Veyne, Paul. ''L'Empire Gréco-Romain'', Paris: Seuil, 2005. * Paul Veyne, Veyne, Paul.''Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien'', Paris: Albin Michel, 2007. * Warmington, Brian. "Some Constantinian References in Ammianus." In ''The Late Roman World and its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus'', edited by Jan Willem Drijvers and David Hunt, 166–177. London: Routledge, 1999. * * * * Wienand, Johannes (ed.). ''Contested Monarchy. Integrating the Roman Empire in the Fourth Century AD''. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2015. * Williams, Stephen. ''Diocletian and the Roman Recovery''. New York: Routledge, 1997. * * *


Further reading

* * * * Cowan, Ross (2016).
Milvian Bridge AD 312: Constantine's Battle for Empire and Faith
'. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. * * Percival J
On the Question of Constantine's Conversion to Christianity
, Clio History Journal, 2008 * * Velikov, Yuliyan (2013). ''Imperator et Sacerdos''. Veliko Turnovo University Press. (in Bulgarian)


External links


Complete chronological list of Constantine's extant writings
* * Letters of Constantine




Encyclopædia Britannica, Constantine I
* Henry Stuart Jones (1911). "wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Constantine (emperors), Constantine (emperors)". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. 6. (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press. pp. 988–992. *Charles George Herbermann and Georg Grupp (1908). "wikisource:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Constantine the Great, Constantine the Great". In ''Catholic Encyclopedia''. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
BBC North Yorkshire's site on Constantine the Great

Constantine's time in York on the 'History of York'

Commemorations
{{DEFAULTSORT:Constantine 01 Constantine the Great, 272 births 337 deaths 3rd-century births 4th-century Christian saints 4th-century Roman consuls 4th-century Roman emperors Ancient Romans in Britain Angelic visionaries Burials at the Church of the Holy Apostles Byzantine saints Characters in works by Geoffrey of Monmouth Christian royal saints Constantinian dynasty Converts to Christianity from pagan religions Deified Roman emperors Filicides Flavii Gothicus Maximus Greek people Illyrian people Military saints People from Niš Sons of Roman emperors Tetrarchy Valerii