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The Congress of the Philippines ( fil, Kongreso ng Pilipinas) is the
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
. It consists of the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
(upper house) and the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
(lower house), although colloquially, the term "Congress" commonly refers to just the latter. The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district. In the ongoing 18th Congress, there are 304 seats in the House of Representatives. The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
states that the House "shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwise fixed by law," and that at least 20% of it shall be sectoral representatives. There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. At the time of the ratification of the constitution, there were 200 districts, leaving 50 seats for sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular congressional district of the country. All
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

provinces
in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
also have their own congressional districts, with some having two or more representatives. From 200 districts in 1987, the number of districts have increased to 243. Every new Congress has seen an increase in the number of districts. The party-list congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations. With the increase of districts also means that the seats for party-list representatives increase as well, as the 1:4 ratio has to be respected. The Constitution provides that Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
may, however, call
special session In a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that s ...
s which are usually held between regular
legislative session A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often ...
s to handle emergencies or urgent matters.


History


Spanish era

During the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, municipal governments, or Cabildos were established. One such example was the Cabildo in Manila, established in 1571. When the Philippines was under colonial rule as part of the
Spanish East Indies Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...
, the colony was not given representation to the
Spanish Cortes The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate Deliberative assembly, assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicamera ...
. It was only in 1809 where the colony was made an integral part of Spain and was given representation in the Cortes. While colonies such as the Philippines were selecting its delegates, substitutes were named so that the Cortes can convene. The substitutes, and first delegates for the Philippines were Pedro Pérez de Tagle and José Manuel Couto. Both had no connections to the colony. By July 1810, Governor General Manuel González de Aguilar received the instruction to hold an election. As only the Manila Municipal Council qualified to elect a representative, it was tasked to select a delegate. Three of its representatives, the governor-general and the Archbishop of Manila selected Ventura de los Reyes as Manila's delegate to the Cortes. De los Reyes arrived in Cadiz in December 1811. However, with
Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...

Napoleon I
's defeat at the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
, his brother
Joseph Bonaparte it, Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte es, José Napoleón Bonaparte , house = House of Bonaparte, Bonaparte , father = Carlo Buonaparte , mother = Letizia Ramolino , birth_date = 7 January 1768 , birth_place = Corte, Cors ...

Joseph Bonaparte
was removed from the Spanish throne, and the Cádiz Constitution was replaced by the Cortes on May 24, 1816, with a more conservative constitution that removed Philippine representation on the Cortes, among other things. Restoration of Philippine representation to the Cortes was one of the grievances by the
Ilustrados The Ilustrados (, "erudite", "learned" or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and ha ...
, the educated class during the late 19th century.


Revolutionary era

The Illustrados' campaign transformed into the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
that aimed to overthrow Spanish rule. Proclaiming independence on June 12, 1898,
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phi ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
then ordered the convening of a revolutionary congress at
Malolos , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a and capital of the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subna ...
. The
Malolos Congress , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a and capital of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territor ...

Malolos Congress
, among other things, approved the
Malolos Constitution The Political Constitution of 1899 ( es, Constitución Política de 1899), informally known as the Malolos Constitution, was the constitution of the First Philippine Republic. It was written by Felipe Calderón y Roca and Felipe Buencamino as a ...
. With the approval of the Treaty of Paris, the Spanish ceded the Philippines to the United States. The revolutionaries, attempting to prevent American conquest, launched the Philippine–American War, but were defeated when Aguinaldo was captured in 1901.


American era

When the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
was under American colonial rule, the legislative body was the
Philippine Commission The Philippine Commission was the name of two bodies, both appointed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power ...
which existed from 1900 to 1907. The
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of ...

President of the United States
appointed the members of the
Philippine Commission The Philippine Commission was the name of two bodies, both appointed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power ...
. Furthermore, two Filipinos served as Resident Commissioners to the House of Representatives of the United States from 1907 to 1935, then only one from 1935 to 1946. The Resident Commissioners had a voice in the House, but did not have voting rights. The
Philippine Bill of 1902 The Philippine Organic Act (c. 1369, ) was a basic law for the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands, Insular Government that was enacted by the United States Congress on July 1, 1902. It is also known as the Philippine Bill of 1902 and the ...
mandated the creation of a bicameral or a two-chamber
Philippine Legislature The Philippine Legislature was the legislature of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
with the
Philippine Commission The Philippine Commission was the name of two bodies, both appointed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power ...
as the Upper House and the
Philippine Assembly The Philippine Assembly (sometimes called the Philippine National Assembly) was the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" ...
as the Lower House. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in 1907. Through the leadership of then
Speaker Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech, sometimes also called a speaker-hearer Electronics * Loudspeaker, a ...
Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Sr. (, ; 9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of t ...
and then-Floor Leader
Manuel L. Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, (, ; 19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino people, Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 193 ...
, the Rules of the
59th United States Congress The 59th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1905, to ...
were substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. In 1916, the Jones Law changed the legislative system. The
Philippine Commission The Philippine Commission was the name of two bodies, both appointed by the President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power ...
was abolished, and a new bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
and a
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
was established.


Commonwealth and Second Republic era

The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, aside from instituting the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
which gave the Filipinos more role in government, established a unicameral
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
and a
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
was created. Those elected in 1941 would not serve until 1945, as World War II erupted. The invading Japanese set up the
Second Philippine Republic The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines ( tl, Republika ng Pilipinas; ja, フィリピン, Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: ''República de Filipinas'') and also known as the Japanese-sponsored Philippine ...
and convened its own
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
. With the Japanese defeat in 1945, the Commonwealth and its Congress was restored. The same setup continued until the Americans granted independence on July 4, 1946.


Independent era

Upon the inauguration of the
Republic of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republi ...

Republic of the Philippines
on July 4, 1946,
Republic Act This article contains a partial list of Philippine laws. Sources of Philippine laws ;Notes : *Customs may be considered as supplementary source of law, however, customs which are contrary to law, public order or public policy shall not be c ...
No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the
Republic of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republi ...

Republic of the Philippines
, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. Successive Congresses were elected until President
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometime ...
declared martial law on September 23, 1972. Marcos then ruled by decree. As early as 1970, Marcos had convened a constitutional convention to revise the 1935 constitution; in 1973, the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
was approved. It abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be known as the
Batasang Pambansa The Batasang Pambansa ( en, National Assembly; ; often referred to simply as the Batasan) was the former parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern par ...
in a
semi-presidential system A semi-presidential system, or dual executive system, is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, g ...
of government. The batasan elected a
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
. The Batasang Pambansa first convened in 1978. Marcos was overthrown after the
1986 People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the P ...
; President
Corazon Aquino Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (, 25 January 1933 – 1 August 2009) was a Filipinos, Filipina politician who served as the List of presidents of the Philippines, 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. She was t ...
then ruled by decree. Later that year she appointed a
constitutional commission Many entities have been called a Constitutional Commission with the general purpose of reviewing a constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity ...
that drafted a new constitution. The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
was approved in a plebiscite the next year; it restored the
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (President (government title), president) leads an Executive (government), executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in s ...
of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. It first convened in 1987.


Seat

The two houses of Congress meet at different places in
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
, the seat of government: the Senate meets at the
GSIS Building The GSIS Building is the headquarters of the Government Service Insurance System The Government Service Insurance System ( fil, Paseguruhan ng mga Naglilingkod sa Pamahalaan, abbreviated as GSIS) is a government-owned and controlled corporation (G ...
, the main office of the
Government Service Insurance System The Government Service Insurance System ( fil, Paseguruhan ng mga Naglilingkod sa Pamahalaan, abbreviated as GSIS) is a government-owned and controlled corporation (GOCC) of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas ...
(GSIS) at
Pasay , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the of the . According to the , it has a population of people. Due to its location just south of the City of Manila, Pasay quickly became an urban town during the American colonial period ...
, while the House of Representatives sits at the
Batasang Pambansa Complex The Batasang Pambansa Complex or the Batasan is the seat of the House of Representatives of the Philippines. It is located along Batasan Road in Batasan Hills, Quezon City Quezon City (, ; tl, Lungsod Quezon ; also known as the City of Q ...
in
Quezon City Quezon City (, ; fil, Lungsod Quezon ), also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi), is the List of cities in the Philippines, most populous city in the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population ...

Quezon City
. The two are around apart. File:Barasoainchurch33jf.JPG,
Barasoain Church Barasoaín Church (officially as the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish) is a Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic church (building), church built in 1888 in Malolos City, Malolos, Bulacan. It is about 42 kilometers away from Manila. Having earned t ...

Barasoain Church
File:Ayuntameinto_de_Manila.JPG, Ayuntamiento de Manila File:Central_facade_of_the_Legislative_Building.jpg, Old Legislative Building
The
Barasoain Church Barasoaín Church (officially as the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish) is a Roman Catholic Church, Roman Catholic church (building), church built in 1888 in Malolos City, Malolos, Bulacan. It is about 42 kilometers away from Manila. Having earned t ...

Barasoain Church
in
Malolos , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a and capital of the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subna ...
,
Bulacan Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Bulacan; pam, Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC031400000 ISO: PH-BUL) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administra ...
served as a meeting place of unicameral congress of the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity in the Philippines. It was established by the promulgation of the Malolos Constitutio ...
. After the Americans defeated the First Republic, the US-instituted
Philippine Legislature The Philippine Legislature was the legislature of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
convened at the
Ayuntamiento ''Ayuntamiento'' ()In other languages of Spain The languages of Spain ( es, lenguas de España), or Spanish languages ( es, lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiau ...
in
Intramuros, Manila Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the historic walled area within the city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration with the help of the city government of Manila. Present-day Intr ...
from 1907 to 1926, when it transferred to the Legislative Building just outside Intramuros. In the Legislative Building, the Senate occupied the upper floors while the House of Representatives used the lower floors. With the Legislative Building destroyed during the Battle of Manila of 1945, the Commonwealth Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Sampaloc. Congress met at the school auditorium, with the Senate convening on evenings and the House of Representatives meeting every morning. The Senate subsequently moved to the
Manila City Hall The Manila City Hall ( fil, Bulwagan ng Lungsod ng Maynila) is the official seat of government of the City of Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital city, capital of t ...

Manila City Hall
, with the House staying in the schoolhouse. The two chambers of Congress returned to the reconstructed Legislative Building, now the Congress Building in 1950. In 1973, when President Marcos ruled by decree, Congress was padlocked. Marcos built a new seat of a unicameral parliament at
Quezon City Quezon City (, ; fil, Lungsod Quezon ), also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi), is the List of cities in the Philippines, most populous city in the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population ...

Quezon City
, which would eventually be the
Batasang Pambansa Complex The Batasang Pambansa Complex or the Batasan is the seat of the House of Representatives of the Philippines. It is located along Batasan Road in Batasan Hills, Quezon City Quezon City (, ; tl, Lungsod Quezon ; also known as the City of Q ...
. The parliament that will eventually be named as the
Batasang Pambansa The Batasang Pambansa ( en, National Assembly; ; often referred to simply as the Batasan) was the former parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern par ...
(National Legislature), first met at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in 1978. With the overthrow of Marcos after the
People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
, the bicameral Congress was restored. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate returned to the Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate moved to the newly constructed building owned by the GSIS on land reclaimed from
Manila Bay Manila Bay ( fil, Look ng Maynila) is a natural harbor A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling differences) (synonym: haven) is a sheltered body o ...

Manila Bay
at
Pasay , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the of the . According to the , it has a population of people. Due to its location just south of the City of Manila, Pasay quickly became an urban town during the American colonial period ...
; the Congress Building was eventually transformed into the National Museum of Fine Arts. The Senate will eventually move into a new building that they would own in Fort Bonifacio,
Taguig ( aˈɡiɡ, officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in Metro Manila, . According to the , it has a population of people. Located in the western shores of Laguna de Bay, the city is known ...
.


Powers

The powers of the Congress of the Philippines may be classified as: *


Lawmaking

* Preparation of the bill :The Member or the Bill Drafting Division of the Reference and Research Bureau prepares and drafts the bill upon the Member's request. *First reading *#The bill is filed with the Bills and Index Service and the same is numbered and reproduced. *#Three days after its filing, the same is included in the Order of Business for First Reading. *#On First Reading, the Secretary General reads the title and number of the bill. The Speaker refers the bill to the appropriate Committee/s. *Committee consideration / action *#The Committee where the bill was referred to evaluates it to determine the necessity of conducting public hearings. *:*If the Committee finds it necessary to conduct public hearings, it schedules the time thereof, issues public notices and invites resource persons from the public and private sectors, the academe, and experts on the proposed legislation. *:*If the Committee determines that public hearing is not needed, it schedules the bill for Committee discussion/s. *#Based on the result of the public hearings or Committee discussions, the Committee may introduce amendments, consolidate bills on the same subject matter, or propose a substitute bill. It then prepares the corresponding committee report. *#The Committee approves the Committee Report and formally transmits the same to the Plenary Affairs Bureau. *Second reading *#The Committee Report is registered and numbered by the Bills and Index Service. It is included in the Order of Business and referred to the Committee on Rules. *#The Committee on Rules schedules the bill for consideration on Second Reading. *#On Second Reading, the Secretary General reads the number, title and text of the bill and the following takes place: *:*Period of Sponsorship and Debate *:*Period of Amendments *:*Voting, which may be by *::#''
viva voce ''Viva voce'' is a Latin phrase literally meaning "with living voice" but most often translated as "by word of mouth." It may refer to: *Word of mouth *A voice vote in a deliberative assembly *An oral exam **Thesis defence, in academia *Spoken Evid ...
'' *::#count by tellers *::# division of the House *::# nominal voting *Third reading *#The amendments, if any, are engrossed and printed copies of the bill are reproduced for Third Reading. *#The engrossed bill is included in the Calendar of Bills for Third Reading and copies of the same are distributed to all the Members three days before its Third Reading. *#On Third Reading, the Secretary General reads only the number and title of the bill. *#A roll call or nominal voting is called and a Member, if he desires, is given three minutes to explain his vote. No amendment on the bill is allowed at this stage. *:*The bill is approved by an affirmative vote of a majority of the Members present. *:*If the bill is disapproved, the same is transmitted to the Archives. *Transmittal of the approved bill to the Senate *:The approved bill is transmitted to the Senate for its concurrence. *Senate action on approved bill of the House *:The bill undergoes the same legislative process in the Senate. *Conference committee *#A Conference Committee is constituted and is composed of Members from each House of Congress to settle, reconcile or thresh out differences or disagreements on any provision of the bill. *#The conferees are not limited to reconciling the differences in the bill but may introduce new provisions germane to the subject matter or may report out an entirely new bill on the subject. *#The Conference Committee prepares a report to be signed by all the conferees and the chairman. *#The Conference Committee Report is submitted for consideration/approval of both Houses. No amendment is allowed. *Transmittal of the bill to the President *:Copies of the bill, signed by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives and certified by both the Secretary of the Senate and the Secretary General of the House, are transmitted to the President. *Presidential action on the bill *:If the bill is approved by the President, it is assigned an RA number and transmitted to the House where it originated. *Action on approved bill *:The bill is reproduced and copies are sent to the Official Gazette Office for publication and distribution to the implementing agencies. It is then included in the annual compilation of Acts and Resolutions. *Action on vetoed bill *:The message is included in the Order of Business. If the Congress decides to override the veto, the House and the Senate shall proceed separately to reconsider the bill or the vetoed items of the bill. If the bill or its vetoed items is passed by a vote of two-thirds of the Members of each House, such bill or items shall become a law.


Composition

In the diagrams below, Congress is divided in blocs, with the colors referring to the political party of the person leading that bloc. The blocs are determined by the vote of the member in speakership or Senate presidential elections. The Senate is composed of the winners of the
2016 2016 was designated as: * International Year of Pulses 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by the sixty eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 2013. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ...
and 2019 Senate elections. The House of Representatives is composed of the winners of the . In both chambers, the majority bloc is composed of members generally supportive of the
presidency of Rodrigo Duterte The presidency of Rodrigo Duterte began at noon on June 30, 2016 following his Inauguration of Rodrigo Duterte, inauguration as the 16th President of the Philippines, succeeding Benigno Aquino III. His term is expected to end exactly six years lat ...
, while the minority blocs are those opposed. In the House of Representatives, there is an independent minority bloc, and 4 vacant seats. In both chambers, membership in committees is determined by the size of the bloc; only members of the majority and minority blocs are given committee memberships. In the Philippines, political parties are liquid, and it is not uncommon to see partymates see themselves on different blocs.


Leadership

Each chamber is headed by a presiding officer, both elected from their respective membership; in the Senate, it is the
Senate President President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative a ...
, while in the House of Representatives, it is the
Speaker Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech, sometimes also called a speaker-hearer Electronics * Loudspeaker, a ...
. The Senate also has a Senate president ''pro tempore'', and the House of Representatives has deputy speakers. Each chamber has its own floor leaders.


Summary


Senate


House of Representatives

*Party-list representatives


Voting requirements

The vote requirements in the Congress of the Philippines are as follows: In most cases, such as the approval of bills, only a majority of members present is needed; on some cases such as the election of presiding officers, a majority of all members, including vacant seats, is needed.


Sessions

A new session of Congress starts after every House of Representatives election. During the operation of the 1935 constitution as amended in 1940, mid-term elections in the Senate cause its membership to be changed mid-session. From 1945 to 1972, there were two commonwealth congresses and seven congresses of the republic, with the 2nd Commonwealth Congress becoming the 1st Congress of the Republic. During the usage of the 1973 constitution, the
Batasang Pambansa The Batasang Pambansa ( en, National Assembly; ; often referred to simply as the Batasan) was the former parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern par ...
was the legislature, with it having two elections. Starting in the 1987 constitution, each Senate election was synchronized with the House elections, with the first congress under that constitution being counted as the " 8th Congress", picking up from the last congress of the 1935 constitution.


Per historical era


List of Congresses


Latest elections


Senate

In the Philippines, the most common way to illustrate the result in a Senate election is via a tally of candidates in descending order of votes. The twelve candidates with the highest number of votes are elected.


House of Representatives

A voter has two votes in the House of Representatives: one vote for a representative elected in the voter's congressional district (
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system (FPTP or FPP; sometimes formally called single-member plurality voting or SMP; sometimes called choose-one voting for single-member districts, in contrast to ranked voting, ranked-choice voting), voter ...
), and one vote for a party in the party-list system (
closed list Closed list describes the variant of party-list systems where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is ...
), the so-called party-list representatives; party-list representatives shall comprise not more than 20% of the House of Representatives. To determine the winning parties in the party-list election, a party must surpass the 2%
election threshold The electoral threshold, or election threshold, is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature. This limit can operate in vario ...
of the national vote; usually, the party with the largest number of votes wins the maximum three seats, the rest two seats. If the number of seats of the parties that surpassed the 2% threshold is less than 20% of the total seats, the parties that won less than 2% of the vote gets one seat each until the 20% requirement is met.


District elections


Party-list election


See also

*
Politics of the Philippines The politics of the Philippines take place within a three-branch governmental system. The country is a democracy, led by a directly-elected president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader o ...
*
Senate of the Philippines The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipin ...
*
House of Representatives of the Philippines The House of Representatives of the Philippines ( fil, Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas) is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. Informally known as the ''Kamara'' (from the Spanish language, Spanish word ''Cámara'', mea ...
*
Legislative districts of the Philippines A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin. ...
*
List of Philippine Senate committees This is a list of Philippine congressional committees (standing committees and special committees) that are currently operating in the Senate of the Philippines, the upper house of the Congress of the Philippines, Philippine Congress. The compositi ...
* List of Philippine House committees * List of legislatures by country * List of current members of the Congress of the Philippines by wealth


Notes


References


Sources

* Ramirez, Efren V. and Lee, Jr., German G., ''The New Philippine Constitution''. Cebu City: 1987: pp. 142–173.
Article VI of the 1987 Philippine Constitution

How a Bill becomes a Law

Legislative History

Your Legislature


External links


Official Website of the Senate

Official Website of the House of Representatives
{{Asia topic, Parliament of Congress of the Philippines, Politics of the Philippines Political organizations based in the Philippines National legislatures, Philippines Government of the Philippines Bicameral legislatures, Philippines Former territorial legislatures of the United States