HOME

TheInfoList




The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor
Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led Napoleon Bonaparte's battle record, several successful campaigns during the French Rev ...

Napoleon I
. It was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman
Klemens von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of ...
, and held in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
and the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. More fundamentally, the conservative leaders of the Congress sought to restrain or eliminate the
republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use ...
and
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

revolution
which had upended the
constitutional order
constitutional order
of the European old regime, and which continued to threaten it. In the settlement, France lost all its recent conquests, while
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...
and
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west,
Swedish Pomerania Swedish Pomerania ( sv, Svenska Pommern; german: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded ...
, 60% of the
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and ...
, and the western part of the former
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
; Austria gained
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
and much of northern Italy. Russia gained the central and eastern part of the Duchy of Warsaw. It ratified the new
Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherlands (orthographic projection).svg , map_width = 250px , image_map2 = File:KonDerNed-10-10-10.png , map_caption2 = Map of the four constituent countries shown to scale , capital = ...
which had been created just months before from the formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
. The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to 23 years of nearly continuous war. Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting triggered by Napoleon's dramatic return from exile and resumption of power in France during the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
of March to July 1815. The Congress's "final act" was signed nine days before his final defeat at
Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium from which the battle took its name *London Waterloo station, the UK's largest an ...

Waterloo
on 18 June 1815. Historians have criticized the Congress for causing the subsequent suppression of the emerging national and liberal movements, and it has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs. In a technical sense, the "Congress of Vienna" was not properly a congress: it never met in
plenary session A plenary session or plenum is a session of a Convention (meeting), conference which all members of all parties are to attend. Such a session may include a broad range of content, from keynotes to panel discussions, and is not necessarily relat ...
. Instead, most of the discussions occurred in informal, face-to-face sessions among the Great Powers of Austria, Britain, France, Russia, and sometimes Prussia, with limited or no participation by other delegates. On the other hand, the Congress was the first occasion in history where, on a continental scale, national representatives came together to formulate treaties instead of relying mostly on messages among the several capitals. The Congress of Vienna settlement formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.


Preliminaries

The
Treaty of Chaumont A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...
in 1814 had reaffirmed decisions that had been made already and that would be ratified by the more important Congress of Vienna of 1814–15. They included the establishment of a confederated Germany, the division of Italy into independent states, the restoration of the Bourbon kings of Spain, and the enlargement of the Netherlands to include what in 1830 became modern Belgium. The Treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance that formed the balance of power for decades. Other partial settlements had already occurred at the Treaty of Paris between France and the
Sixth Coalition Sixth is the ordinal form of the number six. * The Sixth Amendment, to the U.S. Constitution * A keg of beer, equal to 5 U.S. gallons or 1/6 barrel * A fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langu ...
, and the
Treaty of Kiel The Treaty of Kiel ( da, Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland ...
that covered issues raised regarding
Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to , , and , sometimes more narrowly to the , or more broadly to include , th ...

Scandinavia
. The Treaty of Paris had determined that a "general congress" should be held in
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
and that invitations would be issued to "all the Powers engaged on either side in the present war". The opening was scheduled for July 1814.


Participants

The Congress functioned through formal meetings such as working groups and official diplomatic functions; however, a large portion of the Congress was conducted informally at salons, banquets, and balls.


Four Great Powers and Bourbon France

The Four Great Powers had previously formed the core of the
Sixth Coalition Sixth is the ordinal form of the number six. * The Sixth Amendment, to the U.S. Constitution * A keg of beer, equal to 5 U.S. gallons or 1/6 barrel * A fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical langu ...
. On the verge of Napoleon's defeat they had outlined their common position in the
Treaty of Chaumont A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relat ...
(March 1814), and negotiated the
Treaty of Paris (1814) The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan Fra ...
with the
Bourbons The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the unive ...
during their restoration: *
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastli ...
was represented by
Prince Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), was an Austrian Empire, Austrian diplomat who was a ...

Prince Metternich
, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Johann von Wessenberg. As the Congress's sessions were in Vienna, Emperor
Francis Francis may refer to: People *Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=no, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to ...

Francis
was kept closely informed. * The United Kingdom was represented first by its
Foreign Secretary The secretary of state for foreign, Commonwealth and development affairs, also referred to as the foreign secretary, is a Secretary of State (United Kingdom), secretary of state in the Government of the United Kingdom, with overall responsibili ...
,
Viscount Castlereagh A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qual ...
; then by the
Duke of Wellington Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish people, Anglo-Irish soldier and Tories (British political party), Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political fi ...

Duke of Wellington
, after Castlereagh's return to England in February 1815. In the last weeks it was headed by the
Earl of Clancarty Image:Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty by Joseph Paelinck.jpg, Richard Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty Earl of Clancarty is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland. History The title was created for the first ...
, after Wellington left to face Napoleon during the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
. * Tsar
Alexander IAlexander I may refer to: * Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495–454 BC * Alexander I of Epirus (370–331 BC), king of Epirus * Pope Alexander I (died 115), early bishop of Rome * Pope Alexander I of Alexandria (died 320s), patriarch of Al ...

Alexander I
controlled the Russian delegation which was formally led by the foreign minister, Count
Karl Robert Nesselrode Image:Count Nesselrode.jpg, 200px, Count von Nesselrode, as painted by Thomas Lawrence, Sir Thomas Lawrence in 1818. Karl Robert Reichsgraf von Nesselrode-Ehreshoven, also known as Charles de Nesselrode, (Lisbon, Portugal, 14 December 1780 – Sain ...

Karl Robert Nesselrode
. The tsar had two main goals, to gain control of Poland and to promote the peaceful coexistence of European nations. He succeeded in forming the
Holy Alliance The Holy Alliance in 1840: The Holy Alliance (german: Heilige Allianz; russian: Священный союз, ''Svyashchennyy soyuz''; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition linking the monarchist great powers of Austria Aust ...

Holy Alliance
(1815), based on monarchism and anti-secularism, and formed to combat any threat of revolution or republicanism. * Prussia was represented by Prince
Karl August von Hardenberg 250px, Karl August von Hardenberg; portrait by Friedrich Georg Weitsch Karl August Fürst von Hardenberg (31 May 1750 in Essenrode-Lehre – 26 November 1822 in Genoa) was a Prussian wikt:statesman, statesman and Prime Minister of Prussia. While ...
, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar
Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (, also , ; ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a philosopher, , , diplomat, and founder of the , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, , a ). He is espe ...

Wilhelm von Humboldt
. King
Frederick William III of Prussia Frederick William III (german: Friedrich Wilhelm III.; 3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was King of Prussia The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the monarch, hereditary rulers of the former German state of ...

Frederick William III of Prussia
was also in Vienna, playing his role behind the scenes. *
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, the "fifth" power, was represented by its foreign minister, Talleyrand, as well as the Minister Plenipotentiary the Duke of Dalberg. Talleyrand had already negotiated the
Treaty of Paris (1814) The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan Fra ...
for
Louis XVIII of France Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as the Desired (), was King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, ...

Louis XVIII of France
; the king, however, distrusted him and was also secretly negotiating with Metternich, by mail.


Other signatories of the Treaty of Paris, 1814

These parties had not been part of the Chaumont agreement, but had joined the
Treaty of Paris (1814) The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan Fra ...
: * Spain – Pedro Gómez de Labrador, 1st Marquess of Labrador * Portugal – Plenipotentiaries: ; António de Saldanha da Gama, Count of Porto Santo; Joaquim Lobo da Silveira. *
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
– Count Carl Löwenhielm


Others

*
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
– Count Niels Rosenkrantz, foreign minister. King was also present in Vienna. * The Netherlands –
Earl of Clancarty Earl of Clancarty is a title that has been created twice in the Peerage of Ireland. History The title was created for the first time in 1658 in favour of Donough MacCarty, 1st Earl of Clancarty, Donough MacCarty, 2nd Viscount Muskerry, of ...
, the British Ambassador at the Dutch court, and Baron *
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...
– Every
canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...
had its own delegation. from
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
played a prominent role. *
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sa ...
– Marquis . * The
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
– Cardinal
Ercole Consalvi Ercole Consalvi (8 June 1757 – 24 January 1824) was a deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and ...

Ercole Consalvi
* The Order of St. John of Malta – Fra Antonio Miari, Fra Daniello Berlinghieri and Fra Augusto Viè de Cesarini *
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
– Marquise Agostino Pareto, Senator of the Republic. *
Grand Duchy of Tuscany The Grand Duchy of Tuscany ( it, Granducato di Toscana; la, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of th ...
– . *
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
Alvaro Ruffo della Scaletta, Luigi de' Medici di Ottajano, Antonio Maresca di Serracapriola and Fabrizio Ruffo di Castelcicala * On German issues, **
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
Maximilian Graf von Montgelas **
Württemberg Württemberg ( ; ) is a historical German territory roughly corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origi ...
– **
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
, then in a personal union with the British crown –
Ernst zu Münster Graf Ernst Friedrich Herbert zu Münster (born March 1, 1766 Osnabrück - died May 20, 1839 Hanover) was a German statesman, politician and minister in the service of the House of Hanover. Biography Ernst zu Münster was born the son of Georg zu ...

Ernst zu Münster
. (King
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
had refused to recognize the dissolution of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 1806 and maintained a separate diplomatic staff as
Elector of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic comp ...
to conduct the affairs of the family estate, the
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Late Modern era within the Holy Roman ...
, until the results of the Congress were concluded establishing the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
). **
Mecklenburg-Schwerin The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of p ...
– Virtually every state in Europe had a delegation in Vienna – more than 200 states and princely houses were represented at the Congress. In addition, there were representatives of cities, corporations, religious organizations (for instance, abbeys) and special interest groups – e.g., a delegation representing German publishers, demanding a copyright law and freedom of the press. The Congress was noted for its lavish entertainment: according to a famous joke it did not move, but danced.


Talleyrand's role

Initially, the representatives of the four victorious powers hoped to exclude the French from serious participation in the negotiations, but Talleyrand skillfully managed to insert himself into "her inner councils" in the first weeks of negotiations. He allied himself to a Committee of Eight lesser powers (including Spain, Sweden, and Portugal) to control the negotiations. Once Talleyrand was able to use this committee to make himself a part of the inner negotiations, he then left it, once again abandoning his allies. The major Allies' indecision on how to conduct their affairs without provoking a united protest from the lesser powers led to the calling of a preliminary conference on the protocol, to which Talleyrand and the Marquess of Labrador, Spain's representative, were invited on 30 September 1814. Congress Secretary
Friedrich von Gentz Friedrich von Gentz (2 May 1764 – 9 June 1832) was a German diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encom ...
reported, "The intervention of Talleyrand and Labrador has hopelessly upset all our plans. Talleyrand protested against the procedure we have adopted and soundly ated us for two hours. It was a scene I shall never forget." The embarrassed representatives of the Allies replied that the document concerning the protocol they had arranged actually meant nothing. "If it means so little, why did you sign it?" snapped Labrador. Talleyrand's policy, directed as much by national as personal ambitions, demanded the close but by no means amicable relationship he had with Labrador, whom Talleyrand regarded with disdain. Labrador later remarked of Talleyrand: "that cripple, unfortunately, is going to Vienna." Talleyrand skirted additional articles suggested by Labrador: he had no intention of handing over the 12,000 ''afrancesados'' – Spanish fugitives, sympathetic to France, who had sworn fealty to
Joseph Bonaparte it, Giuseppe-Napoleone Buonaparte es, José Napoleón Bonaparte , house = Bonaparte , father = Carlo Buonaparte Carlo Maria Buonaparte or Charles-Marie Bonaparte (27 March 1746 – 24 February 1785) was a Corsicans, Corsican ...

Joseph Bonaparte
, nor the bulk of the documents, paintings, pieces of fine art, and books that had been looted from the archives, palaces, churches and cathedrals of Spain.


Polish-Saxon crisis

The most dangerous topic at the Congress was the Polish-Saxon Crisis. Russia wanted most of Poland, and Prussia wanted all of Saxony, whose king had allied with Napoleon. The tsar would become king of Poland. Austria was fearful this would make Russia much too powerful, a view which was supported by Britain. The result was a deadlock, for which Talleyrand proposed a solution: admit France to the inner circle, and France would support Austria and Britain. The three nations signed a secret treaty on 3 January 1815, agreeing to go to war against Russia and Prussia, if necessary, to prevent the Russo-Prussian plan from coming to fruition.Nicolson, Sir Harold (2001)
''The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812–1822''
Grove Press; Rep. Ed. pp. 140–164.
When the Tsar heard of the secret treaty he agreed to a compromise that satisfied all parties on 24 October 1815. Russia received most of the Napoleonic
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
as a "Kingdom of Poland" – called
Congress Poland Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Poland, Polish State (polity), state and successor to Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw. It was est ...
, with the tsar as a king ruling it independently of Russia. Russia, however, did not receive the majority of
Greater Poland Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (; german: Großpolen, la, Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Eu ...
and
Kuyavia Kuyavia ( pl, Kujawy; german: Kujawien; la, Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć River and Lake Gopło. It is divided into three t ...
nor the
Chełmno Land Image:Polska-woj-z.chelminska.png, 250px, alt=Map of Poland with a region marked. The region is in the upper middle and covers about 2% of the land area. , Chełmno Land (dark green) on the map of Poland Chełmno land ( pl, Ziemia Chełmińska, ...
, which were given to Prussia and mostly included within the newly formed
Grand Duchy of Posen The Grand Duchy of Posen (german: link=no, Großherzogtum Posen; pl, Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established followin ...
(
Poznań Poznań is a city on the Warta, River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint Jo ...

Poznań
), nor
Kraków Kraków (), also written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River The Vistula (; pl, Wisła, , german: Weichsel) is the longest ri ...

Kraków
, which officially became a free city, but in fact was a shared protectorate of Austria, Prussia and Russia. Furthermore, the tsar was unable to unite the new domain with the parts of Poland that had been incorporated into Russia in the 1790s. Prussia received 60 percent of Saxony-later known as the
Province of Saxony The Province of Saxony (german: Provinz Sachsen), also known as Prussian Saxony () was a provinces of Prussia, province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1944. Its capital was Magdeburg. It was formed ...
, with the remainder returned to King Frederick Augustus I as his
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and ...
.


Final Act

The Final Act, embodying all the separate treaties, was signed on 9 June 1815 (nine days before the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
). Its provisions included: * Russia received most of the
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
(Poland) and retained
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
(which it had annexed from Sweden in 1809 and would hold until 1917, as the Grand Duchy of Finland). * Prussia received three-fifths of Saxony, western parts of the Duchy of Warsaw (most of which became part of the newly formed
Grand Duchy of Posen The Grand Duchy of Posen (german: link=no, Großherzogtum Posen; pl, Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie) was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established followin ...
),
Gdańsk Gdańsk ( , also ; ; german: Danzig ; csb, Gduńsk; , ) is a city on the Baltic Sea, Baltic coast of northern Poland. With a population of 470,805, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the most prominent c ...

Gdańsk
(Danzig), the
Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine The Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine (german: Großherzogtum Niederrhein), or simply known as the Lower Rhine Province ('), was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and existed from 1815 to 1822. The province was created after the Congress of Vienn ...
(merger of the former
French departments In the administrative divisions of France, the department (french: département, ) is one of the three levels of government under the national level ("territorial collectivity, territorial collectivities"), between the regions of France, admini ...
of Rhin-et-Moselle, Sarre, and
Roer The Rur or Roer (german: Rur ; nl, Roer ; french: la Roer) is a major river that flows through portions of Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Eur ...
(
Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg The Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (german: Provinz Jülich-Kleve-Berg) was a Provinces of Prussia, province of Prussia from 1815 to 1822. Jülich-Cleves-Berg was established in 1815 from land annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia from First French E ...
(merger itself of the former
Prussian GueldersPrussian Guelders or Prussian G(u)elderland ( nl, Pruisisch Gelre; german: Preußisch Geldern) was the part of the Duchy of Guelders ruled by the Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, ki ...
, Principality of Moers, and the
Grand Duchy of Berg The Grand Duchy of Berg (german: Großherzogtum Berg), also known as the Grand Duchy of Berg and Cleves, was a territorial grand duchy A grand duchy is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is ...
)) * A
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
of 39 states, under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor, formed from the previous 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire. Only portions of the territories of each of Austria and Prussia were included in the Confederation (roughly the same portions that had been within the Holy Roman Empire). * The Netherlands and the
Southern Netherlands The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied (then annexed) by France (1794–1815). The region also included a number of ...
(approximately modern-day Belgium) became a united monarchy, the
United Kingdom of the Netherlands The United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( nl, Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; french: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherla ...

United Kingdom of the Netherlands
, with the
House of Orange-Nassau The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" ...
providing the king (the Eight Articles of London). * To compensate for Orange-Nassau's loss of the Nassau lands to Prussia, the
United Kingdom of the Netherlands The United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( nl, Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; french: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherla ...

United Kingdom of the Netherlands
and the
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
were to form a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
under the House of Orange-Nassau, with Luxembourg (but not the Netherlands) inside the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
. *
Swedish Pomerania Swedish Pomerania ( sv, Svenska Pommern; german: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded ...
, given to Denmark in January 1814 in return for The Kingdom of
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
, became part of Prussia.
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
received back
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
from Sweden, with yearly installments payable to the Swedish king. * The neutrality of the 22 cantons of
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...
was guaranteed and a federal pact was recommended to them in strong terms.
Bienne , french: Biennois(e) , neighboring_municipalities= Brügg, Ipsach Ipsach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Biel/Bienne (administrative district), Biel/Bienne administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton ...
and the
Prince-Bishopric of Basel The Prince-Bishopric of Basel (german: Hochstift Basel, Fürstbistum Basel, Bistum Basel) was an Hochstift, ecclesiastical principality within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from 1032 by prince-bishops with their seat at Basel, and from 1528 until 1 ...
became part of the
Canton of Bern The canton of Bern or Berne (german: Kanton Bern; french: canton de Berne) is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Bern. The bear is th ...
. The Congress also suggested a number of compromises for resolving territorial disputes between cantons. * The former
Electorate of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Prince-elector, Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany and taking its name from the capital city of Hanover. It was fo ...
was expanded to a kingdom. It gave up the
Duchy of Lauenburg The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (german: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called ''Niedersachsen'' (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a '' reichsfrei'' duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of ...
to the Kingdom of Denmark, but gained former territories of the
Bishop of Münster A bishop is an ordained Ordination is the process by which individuals are Consecration, consecrated, that is, set apart and elevated from the laity class to the clergy, who are thus then authorization, authorized (usually by the religious den ...
and of the formerly Prussian
East Frisia East Frisia or East Friesland (german: Ostfriesland; ; stq, Aastfräislound) is a historic region in the northwest of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Fe ...
. * Most of the territorial gains of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
,
Württemberg Württemberg ( ; ) is a historical German territory roughly corresponding to the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia upThe coat of arms of Baden-Württemberg: ''Or, three lions passant sable'', the arms of the Duchy of Swabia, in origi ...
,
Baden__notoc__ Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the hi ...

Baden
,
Hesse-Darmstadt The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The S ...

Hesse-Darmstadt
, and under the mediatizations of 1801–1806 were recognized. Bavaria also gained control of the Rhenish Palatinate and of parts of the Napoleonic Duchy of Würzburg and
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German satellite state of Napoleonic creation. It came into existence in 1810 through the combination of the former territories of the Archbishopric of Mainz along with the Free City of Frankfurt itself. Histor ...
. Hesse-Darmstadt, in exchange for giving up the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia, received
Rhenish Hesse Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-HesseDickinson, Robert E (1964). ''Germany: A regional and economic geography'' (2nd ed.). London: Methuen, p. 542. . (german: Rheinhessen) is a region and a former government district () in the German state The Fede ...
with its capital at
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine ...

Mainz
. * Austria regained control of the
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
and
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...

Salzburg
; of the former
Illyrian Provinces The Illyrian Provinces sl, Ilirske province hr, Ilirske provincije it, Province illirichegerman: Illyrische Provinzen, group=note were an autonomous province Autonomous province is a term for a type of province A province is almost always an a ...
; of
Tarnopol Ternopil, ; pl, Tarnopol; russian: Тернополь, Ternopol'; german: Tarnopol; yi, טאַרנאָפּל, Tarnopl, or ; he, טארנופול (טַרְנוֹפּוֹל), Tarnopol is a city in western Ukraine. Administratively, Ternopil se ...
district (from Russia); received Lombardy-Venetia in Italy and
RagusaRagusa is the historical name of Dubrovnik. It may also refer to: Places Croatia * the Republic of Ragusa (or Republic of Dubrovnik), the maritime city-state of Ragusa * Cavtat (historically ' in Italian), a town in Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croa ...

Ragusa
in
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
. Former Austrian territory in Southwest Germany remained under the control of Württemberg and Baden; the
Austrian Netherlands The Austrian Netherlands nl, Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas Autrichiens; german: Österreichische Niederlande; la, Belgium Austriacum. was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands The Southern Netherlands, also called the Cat ...
were also not recovered. * Ferdinand III was restored as
Grand Duke of Tuscany The rulers of Tuscany varied over time, sometimes being margrave Margrave was originally the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and pre ...
. * Archduke Francis IV was acknowledged as the ruler of the Duchy of Modena, Reggio and Mirandola. * The
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
under the rule of the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
were restored to their former extent, with the exception of
Avignon Avignon (, ; ; oc, Avinhon, label= Provençal or , ; la, Avenio) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. L ...

Avignon
and the
Comtat Venaissin The Comtat Venaissin (; Provençal: , Mistralian normThe Mistralian norm is a linguistic norm for the Occitan language Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is ...

Comtat Venaissin
, which remained part of France. * Britain retained control of the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
in Southern Africa;
Tobago Tobago () is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometime ...

Tobago
;
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
; and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. Other colonies, most notably the
Dutch East Indies The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; nl, Nederlands(ch)-Indië; ) was a Dutch colony The Dutch colonial empire ( nl, Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administer ...
and
Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and ...

Martinique
, reverted to their previous overlords. * The King of
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...
, re-established in
Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Piedmont
, Nice, and
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...

Savoy
, gained control of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
(putting an end to the brief proclamation of a restored
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
). * The Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were taken from the Queen of Etruria and given to Marie Louise for her lifetime. * The
Duchy of Lucca The Duchy of Lucca was a small Italian state existing from 1815 to 1847. It was centered on the city of Lucca. By the Congress of Vienna of 1815 the Duchy was to revert to Tuscany on the end of its Bourbon-Parma line of rulers or when the line wo ...
was established for the
House of Bourbon-Parma The House of Bourbon-Parma ( it, Casa di Borbone di Parma) is a cadet branch #REDIRECT Cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well ...
, with reversionary rights to Parma after the death of Marie Louise. * The
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...

slave trade
was condemned. * Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers, notably the Rhine and the Danube. Representatives of Austria, France,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
, Prussia, Russia,
Sweden-Norway Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway ( sv, Svensk-norska unionen; no, Den svensk-norske union(en)), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, and known as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union A personal union is the comb ...
, and Britain signed the Final Act. Spain did not sign, but ratified the outcome in 1817. Subsequently, the Bourbon Ferdinand IV, King of Sicily, regained control of the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
after
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
, the king installed by Bonaparte, supported Napoleon in the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
and started the 1815
Neapolitan War The Neapolitan War, also known as the Austro-Neapolitan War, was a conflict between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), officially known as the Kingd ...

Neapolitan War
by attacking Austria.


Other changes

The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed between 1795 and 1810, which had already been settled by the Treaty of Paris, were the enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
) and Prussia, which acquired the district of Poznań, Swedish Pomerania, Westphalia and the northern Rhineland. The consolidation of Germany from the nearly 300 states of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
(dissolved in 1806) into a much less complex system of thirty-nine states (4 of which were free cities) was confirmed. These states formed a loose
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
under the leadership of Austria. Representatives at the Congress agreed to numerous other territorial changes. By the
Treaty of Kiel The Treaty of Kiel ( da, Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland ...
, Norway had been ceded by the king of Denmark-Norway to the king of
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
. This sparked the nationalist movement which led to the establishment of the
Kingdom of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål: ''Norge'' ; Nynorsk: '; Official names in minority languages: Northern Sami: ''Norga''; Lule Sami ''Vuodna''; Southern Sámi, Southern Sami: ' ...

Kingdom of Norway
on 17 May 1814 and the subsequent personal Union with
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
. Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy, while much of the rest of North-Central Italy went to Habsburg dynasties (the
Grand Duchy of Tuscany The Grand Duchy of Tuscany ( it, Granducato di Toscana; la, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of th ...
, the
Duchy of Modena A duchy is a medieval country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state o ...
, and the
Duchy of Parma The Duchy of Parma also referred to as Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, was an Italian state created in 1545 and located in northern Italy, in the current region of Emilia-Romagna. Originally a realm of the House of Farnese, Farnese family after Pop ...
). The
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
were restored to the Pope. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
. In Southern Italy, Napoleon's brother-in-law,
Joachim Murat it, Gioacchino-Napoleone Murat , religion = Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancien ...

Joachim Murat
, was originally allowed to retain his
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
, but his support of Napoleon in the
Hundred Days The Hundred Days (french: les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose ...
led to the restoration of the Bourbon to the throne. A large
United Kingdom of the Netherlands The United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( nl, Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; french: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands , national_anthem = ) , image_map = Kingdom of the Netherla ...

United Kingdom of the Netherlands
was formed for the
Prince of Orange Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or ...
, including both the old United Provinces and the formerly Austrian-ruled territories in the Southern Netherlands. Other, less important, territorial adjustments included significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
(which gained
East Frisia East Frisia or East Friesland (german: Ostfriesland; ; stq, Aastfräislound) is a historic region in the northwest of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Fe ...
from Prussia and various other territories in Northwest Germany) and
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
(which gained the Rhenish Palatinate and territories in
Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; bar, Frankn) is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...

Franconia
). The
Duchy of Lauenburg The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (german: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called ''Niedersachsen'' (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a '' reichsfrei'' duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of ...
was transferred from Hanover to Denmark, and Prussia annexed
Swedish Pomerania Swedish Pomerania ( sv, Svenska Pommern; german: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded ...
.
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
was enlarged, and Swiss neutrality was established. Swiss mercenaries had played a significant role in European wars for a couple of hundred years: Congress intended to put a stop to these activities permanently. During the wars,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
had lost its town of
Olivenza Olivenza () or Olivença () is a town situated on an historically disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border. Its territory is administered by Spain as a Municipalities of Spain, municipality belonging to the province of Badajoz, and to the w ...

Olivenza
to Spain and moved to have it restored. Portugal is historically Britain's oldest ally, and with British support succeeded in having the re-incorporation of Olivenza decreed in Article CV of the General Treaty of the Final Act, which stated that "The Powers, recognizing the justice of the claims of ... Portugal and the Brazils, upon the town of Olivenza, and the other territories ceded to Spain by the Treaty of Badajoz (1801), Treaty of Badajoz of 1801". Portugal ratified the Final Act in 1815 but Spain would not sign, and this became the most important hold-out against the Congress of Vienna. Deciding in the end that it was better to become part of Europe than to stand alone, Spain finally accepted the Treaty on 7 May 1817; however, Olivenza and its surroundings were never returned to Portuguese control and this issue remains unresolved. The United Kingdom received parts of the West Indies at the expense of the Netherlands and Spain and kept the former Dutch colonies of
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...

Ceylon
and the
Cape Colony The Cape Colony ( nl, Kaapkolonie), also known as the Cape of Good Hope, was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Cro ...
as well as Malta and Heligoland. Under the Treaty of Paris (1814) Wikisource:Treaty of Paris (1814)#ART.VIII, Article VIII France ceded to Britain the islands of "
Tobago Tobago () is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometime ...

Tobago
and Saint Lucia, and of the Isle de France (Mauritius), Isle of France and its dependencies, especially Rodrigues and Les Seychelles", and under the Wikisource:Treaty between Great Britain and Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands, Treaty between Great Britain and Austria, Prussia and Russia, respecting the Ionian Islands (signed in Paris on 5 November 1815), as one of the treaties signed during the Treaty of Paris (1815), Peace of Paris (1815), Britain obtained a protectorate over the United States of the Ionian Islands.


Later criticism

The Congress of Vienna has frequently been criticized by 19th century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reactionary, reaction on the Continent.Olson, James Stuart – Shadle, Robert (1991)
''Historical dictionary of European imperialism''
Greenwood Press, p. 149.
It was an integral part in what became known as the Conservative Order, in which the democracy and civil rights associated with the American Revolution, American and French Revolutions were de-emphasized. In the 20th century, however, many historians came to admire the statesmen at the Congress, whose work prevented another widespread European war for nearly 100 years (1815–1914). Among these is Henry Kissinger, who in 1954 wrote his doctoral dissertation, ''A World Restored'', on it. Historian Mark Jarrett argues that the Congress of Vienna and the Congress System marked "the true beginning of our modern era". He says the Congress System was deliberate conflict management and was the first genuine attempt to create an international order based upon consensus rather than conflict. "Europe was ready," Jarrett states, "to accept an unprecedented degree of international cooperation in response to the French Revolution."Mark Jarrett, ''The Congress of Vienna and Its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon'' (2013) pp. 353, xiv, 187. Historian Paul Schroeder argues that the old formulae for "balance of power (international relations), balance of power" were in fact highly destabilizing and predatory. He says the Congress of Vienna avoided them and instead set up rules that produced a stable and benign equilibrium. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in international relations, balance of power in Europe. It served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations in 1919 and the United Nations in 1945. Before the opening of the Paris peace conference of 1918, the British Foreign Office commissioned a history of the Congress of Vienna to serve as an example to its own delegates of how to achieve an equally successful peace. Besides, the main decisions of the Congress were made by the Four Great Powers and not all the countries of Europe could extend their rights at the Congress. The Italian peninsula became a mere "geographical expression" as divided into seven parts: Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Lombardy–Venetia, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Modena, Kingdom of Two Sicilies, Naples–Sicily, Duchy of Parma, Parma, Kingdom of Sardinia, Piedmont–Sardinia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Tuscany, and the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
under the control of different powers. Poland remained partitioned between Russia, Prussia and Austria, with the largest part, the newly created Congress Poland, Kingdom of Poland, remaining under Russian control. The arrangements made by the Four Great Powers sought to ensure future disputes would be settled in a manner that would avoid the terrible wars of the previous 20 years.Willner, Mark – Hero, George – Weiner, Jerry Global (2006)
''History Volume I: The Ancient World to the Age of Revolution''
Barron's Educational Series, p. 520.
Although the Congress of Vienna preserved the balance of power in Europe, it could not check the spread of revolutionary movements across the continent Revolutions of 1848, some 30 years later.


See also

* Diplomatic timeline for 1815 * Precedence among European monarchies * Concert of Europe * European balance of power *
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
* International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) *
Treaty of Paris (1814) The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan Fra ...
* Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920)


References


Further reading

* * * Ferraro, Guglielmo. ''The Reconstruction of Europe; Talleyrand and the Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815'' (1941
online
* Forrest, Alan. "The Hundred Days, the Congress of Vienna and the Atlantic Slave Trade." in ''Napoleon's Hundred Days and the Politics of Legitimacy'' (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018) pp. 163–181. * Gabriëls, Jos. "Cutting the cake: the Congress of Vienna in British, French and German political caricature." ''European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire'' 24.1 (2017): 131–157. illustrated * Gulick, E. V. "The final coalition and the Congress of Vienna, 1813–15" in C. W. Crawley, ed., ''The New Cambridge Modern History, vol 9, 1793–1830'' (1965) pp. 639–67. *
online review
* King, David. ''Vienna, 1814: How the conquerors of Napoleon made love, war, and peace at the congress of Vienna'' (Broadway Books, 2008), popular history * * * Kohler, Max James. "Jewish Rights at the Congresses of Vienna (1814–1815) and Aix-la-Chapelle (1818)" ''Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society,'' No. 26 (1918), pp. 33–12
online
* Kraehe, Enno E. ''Metternich's German Policy. Vol. 2: The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815'' (1984) * Kwan, Jonathan. "The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815: diplomacy, political culture and sociability." ''Historical Journal'' 60.4 (2020
online
* Lane, Fernanda Bretones, Guilherme de Paula Costa Santos, and Alain El Youssef. "The Congress of Vienna and the making of second slavery." ''Journal of global slavery'' 4.2 (2019): 162–195. * Langhorne, Richard. "Reflections on the Significance of the Congress of Vienna." ''Review of International Studies'' 12.4 (1986): 313–324. * * Nicolson, Harold. ''The Congress of Vienna: a Study in Allied Unity, 1812–1822'' (1946
online
* ("Chapter II The restoration of Europe") * Peterson, Genevieve. "II. Political inequality at the Congress of Vienna." ''Political Science Quarterly'' 60.4 (1945): 532–554
online
* Schenk, Joep. "National interest versus common interest: The Netherlands and the liberalization of Rhine navigation at the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815)." in ''Shaping the International Relations of the Netherlands, 1815–2000'' (Routledge, 2018) pp. 13–31. * * Schroeder, Paul W. ''The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848'' (1996), pp. 517–58
online
* Sluga, Glenda. "'Who Hold the Balance of the World?' Bankers at the Congress of Vienna, and in International History." ''American Historical Review'' 122.5 (2017): 1403–1430. * Vick, Brian. ''The Congress of Vienna. Power and Politics after Napoleon''. Harvard University Press, 2014. . * * ** also published as * *


Primary sources

* * *


Other languages

*


External links


Animated map Europe and nations, 1815–1914
* s:Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, Final Act of the Congress of Vienna
Map of Europe in 1815

Congress of Vienna (1814–1815)
Search Results at Internet Archive {{Authority control Diplomatic conferences in Austria 19th-century diplomatic conferences Peace treaties Treaties involving territorial changes 1814 in international relations 1814 in law 1814 in the Austrian Empire 1815 in international relations 1815 in the Austrian Empire 1815 in law 1815 conferences 1815 treaties 1815 in Europe 1815 in Switzerland 19th century in Vienna Reactionary European political history Modern history of Italy Treaties of the Austrian Empire Treaties of the Bourbon Restoration Treaties of the Kingdom of Portugal Treaties of the Kingdom of Prussia Treaties of the Russian Empire Treaties of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway Treaties of the United Kingdom (1801–1922) Treaties of the Spanish Empire