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The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an
African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...

African American
s in the
civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
. Founded in 1942, its stated mission is "to bring about equality for all people regardless of race, creed, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion or ethnic background."


History


Founding

CORE was founded in Chicago, Illinois, in March 1942. Among the founding members were
James L. Farmer, Jr.
James L. Farmer, Jr.
, Pauli Murray,
George Houser George Mills Houser (June 2, 1916 – August 19, 2015) was an American Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ...
, James R. Robinson, Samuel E. Riley,
Bernice Fisher Elsie Bernice Fisher (December 8, 1916 – May 2, 1966) was a civil rights activist and union organizer. She was among the co-founders of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1942 in Chicago, Illinois. Civil rights leader and union organize ...
,
Homer Jack Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greece, ancient Greek author and epic poetry, epic poet. He is the reputed author of the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey'', the two epic poems that are the foundational works of ancie ...
, and Joe Guinn. Of the 50 original members, 28 were men and 22 were women, roughly one-third of them were black and two-thirds white.
Bayard Rustin Bayard Rustin (; March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforce ...
, while not a father of the organization, was, as Farmer and Houser later said, "an uncle to CORE" and supported it greatly. The group had evolved out of the
pacifist Pacifism is the opposition or resistance to war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
Fellowship of Reconciliation The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries. They are linked by affiliation to the International Fellowship of Reconciliation (IFOR). ...
, and sought to apply the principles of
nonviolence Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a g ...
as a tactic against
segregationSegregation may refer to: Separation of people * Geographical segregation, rates of two or more populations which are not homogenous throughout a defined space *Educational segegration * Housing segregation * Racial segregation, separation of huma ...
. The group's inspiration was
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
's teachings of non-violent debate. Krishnalal Shridharani, a popular writer and journalist as well as a vibrant and theatrical speaker, had been a protege of Gandhi and had been jailed in the
Salt March The Salt March, also known as the Salt Satyagraha, Dandi March and the Dandi Satyagraha, was an act of nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the ...

Salt March
whose book ''War Without Violence'' influenced the organisation. Gandhi had, in turn, been influenced by the writings of
Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817May 6, 1862) was an American naturalist, essayist, poet, and philosopher. A leading Transcendentalism, transcendentalist, he is best known for his book ''Walden'', a reflection upon simple living in natural s ...

Henry David Thoreau
, the American author, poet, and philosopher. At the time of CORE's founding
Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the t ...

Gandhi
was still engaged in non-violent resistance against
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
rule in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
; CORE believed that nonviolent
civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the co ...
could also be used by
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
to challenge
racial segregation in the United States Racial segregation in the United States is the racial segregation, segregation of facilities and services such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation in the United States along Race in the United States, racial lines. ...
. In accordance with CORE's constitution and bylaws, in the early and mid-1960s, chapters were organized on a model similar to that of a democratic
trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native ...
, with monthly membership meetings, elected and usually unpaid officers, and numerous committees of volunteers. In the South, CORE's nonviolent
direct action Direct action originated as a political activism, activist term for economic and political acts in which the actors use their power (e.g. economic power, economic or physical) to directly reach certain goals of interest; in contrast to those a ...
campaigns opposed "
Jim Crow Jim or JIM may refer to: * Jim, a diminutive form of the given name James James is a common English language surname and given name: * James (name), the typically masculine first name James * James (surname), various people with the last name Jame ...
" segregation and job discrimination, and fought for voting rights. Outside the South, CORE focused on discrimination in employment and housing, and also in
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
school segregation. Some of CORE's main leadership had strong disagreements with the
Deacons for Defense and Justice The Deacons for Defense and Justice is an armed African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plura ...
over the Deacons' public threat to
racist Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy), something which is higher in a hi ...

racist
Southerners that they would use armed self-defense to protect CORE workers from racist organizations, such as the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, gene ...
, in
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
during the 1960s. Others, however, strongly supported the organization. By the mid-1960s, Farmer tried to incorporate elements of the emerging
black nationalist Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...
sentiments within CORE—sentiments that, among other things, would quickly lead to an embrace of
Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial, ...

Black Power
. Farmer failed to reconcile these tensions, and he resigned in 1966, but he backed his replacement,
Floyd McKissick Floyd Bixler McKissick (March 9, 1922 – April 28, 1991) was an American lawyer and civil rights activist. He became the first African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Am ...
. By 1961 CORE had 53 chapters throughout the United States. By 1963, most of the major urban centers of the Northeast, Midwest, Mid-Atlantic and West Coast had one or more CORE chapters, including a growing number of chapters on college campuses. In the South, CORE had active chapters and projects in
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
,
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
,
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
, and
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
.


Freedom Rides

On April 10, 1947, CORE sent a group of eight white (including James Peck, their publicity officer) and eight black men on what was to be a two-week
Journey of Reconciliation The Journey of Reconciliation, also called "First Freedom Ride", was a form of nonviolent direct action to challenge state Racial segregation in the United States, segregation laws on interstate buses in the Southern United States. Bayard Rustin ...
through
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
,
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
, and Kentucky in an effort to end segregation in interstate travel. The members of this group were arrested and jailed several times, but they received a great deal of publicity, and this marked the beginning of a long series of similar campaigns. By the early 1960s, Farmer, who had taken a hiatus from leading the group, returned as its executive secretary and sought to repeat the 1947 journey, coining a new name for it: the
Freedom Ride Freedom Riders were civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior ...
. On May 4, 1961, participants journeyed to the deep
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...
, this time including women as well as men and testing segregated bus terminals as well. The riders were met with severe
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations ...

violence
. In
Anniston, Alabama Anniston is the county seat of Calhoun County, Alabama, Calhoun County in Alabama and is one of two urban centers/principal cities of and included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Area, Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of th ...
, one of the buses was fire-bombed and passengers were beaten by a white mob. White mobs also attacked Freedom Riders in
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...
and
Montgomery Montgomery may refer to: People For people with the name Montgomery, see Montgomery (name) Places Belgium * Montgomery Square, Brussels * Montgomery metro station, Brussels Pakistan * Montgomery (town), British India, former name of Sahiwal, Punj ...
. The violence garnered national attention, sparking a summer of similar rides by CORE, the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced ) was the principal channel of student commitment in the United States to the civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States T ...
and other
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
organizations and thousands of ordinary citizens.


Desegregating Chicago's schools

In 1960, the
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
chapter of CORE began to challenge racial segregation in the
Chicago Public Schools Chicago Public Schools (CPS), officially classified as City of Chicago School District #299 for funding and districting reasons, in Chicago, Illinois (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Inter ...
(CPS). By the late 1950s, the
Chicago Board of Education The Chicago Board of Education serves as the board of education (school board) for the Chicago Public Schools. The board traces its origins to the Board of School Inspectors, created in 1837. The board is currently appointed solely by the mayor ...
's maintenance of the neighborhood school policy resulted in a pattern of racial segregation in the CPS. Predominantly black schools were situated in predominantly black neighborhoods on the south and west sides of the city, while predominantly white schools were located in predominantly white areas in the north, northwest and southwest sides of Chicago. Many segregated schools were overcrowded, and in order to ease overcrowding, the Board instated double-shifts at some schools. Double-shifts meant that students in affected schools attended less than a full day of class. In another measure to alleviate overcrowding at some schools, the Board sanctioned the construction of mobile classroom units. Moreover, a significant proportion of students dropped out before finishing high school. Faculty was segregated, and many teachers in predominantly black schools lacked full-time teaching experience compared to teachers in white schools. In addition, the history curriculum did not mention African Americans. According to CORE, "school segregation a damaging bacteria, a psychological handicap, which estereda disease generating widespread unemployment and crime in Chicago".CORE Rebuttal to CBS Standpoint editorial broadcast program, January 16, 1964, Chicago, CHM, CORE Papers, Box 2. Between 1960 and 1963, CORE wrote letters about the conditions of schools to the Board of Education (headed by Superintendent Benjamin Willis), Mayor
Richard J. Daley Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was an American politician who served as the Mayor of Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , ...

Richard J. Daley
, the
Illinois House of Representatives The Illinois House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated ...

Illinois House of Representatives
and the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. In addition, CORE attended the Board's school budget hearings, speaking against segregation and asking for the Board to implement transfer plans to desegregate the schools. In July 1963, CORE staged a week-long sit-in and protest at the Board office in downtown Chicago in response to the Board's inaction. Finally, Board President Claire Roddewig and Willis agreed to meet with CORE to negotiate integration, but no significant changes came to the schools. During the mid-1960s, CORE turned towards community involvement, seeking to equip Chicagoans with ways to challenge segregation. Freedom Houses, transfer petitions, community rallies and meetings served to educate Chicagoans about segregation and provide them with tools to circumnavigate the neighborhood school policy. By 1966, the
Chicago Freedom Movement The Chicago Freedom Movement, also known as the Chicago open housing movement, was led by Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African ...
, led by
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
, the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that ...
(SCLC) and Chicago's Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO), had assumed control over civil rights demonstrations and negotiations. While CORE was a member organization of the CCCO, it increasingly lost influence over desegregation efforts. And when the Chicago Freedom Movement met with representatives of the city to negotiate in the summer of 1966, they agreed on ten fair housing reforms but did not discuss reforms to desegregate the schools. While CORE played no role in the housing summit, it had shifted towards promoting and developing Black power in Chicago. By fall of 1966, CORE was no longer a civil rights organization, but a Black power organization. Changes in CORE's national leadership and continued inaction on behalf of the Board to desegregate the schools pushed CORE towards separatism and away from desegregation efforts. The chapter collapsed in October 1968.


Desegregating Durham

In 1962, CORE set up a headquarters in Durham, North Carolina where upon arrival, local black women activists, including Sadie Sawyer Hughley, welcomed them into their homes. CORE worked with the local NAACP to organize pickets at Eckerd's Drug Store and
Howard Johnson's Howard Johnson's, or Howard Johnson by Wyndham, is a worldwide American-owned chain of hotels and motels located primarily throughout the United States. It was also a chain of restaurants for over 90 years and widely known for that alone. Found ...
. The goals were to increase employment opportunities for black workers and integrate local restaurants.


March on Washington

In 1963, the organization helped organize the famous March on Washington. On August 28, 1963, more than 250,000 people marched peacefully to the
Lincoln Memorial The Lincoln Memorial is a US national memorial built to honor the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The pres ...

Lincoln Memorial
to demand equal justice for all citizens under the law. At the end of the march
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
made his famous "
I Have a Dream "I Have a Dream" is a public speech that was delivered by American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social o ...
" speech.


"Freedom Summer"

The following year, CORE along with the
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced ) was the principal channel of student commitment in the United States to the civil rights movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States T ...
(SNCC) and the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through ...
(NAACP) helped organize the "Freedom Summer" campaign - aimed principally at ending the political disenfranchisement of African Americans in the Deep South. Operating under the umbrella coalition of the
Council of Federated Organizations The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) was a coalition of the major Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United S ...
(COFO), volunteers from the three organizations concentrated their efforts in Mississippi. In 1962 only 6.7 percent of African Americans in the state were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in the country. This involved the formation of the
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), also referred to as the Freedom Democratic Party, was an American political party created in 1964 as a branch of the populist Freedom Democratic organization in the U.S. state, state of Mississippi ...
(MFDP). Over 80,000 people joined the party and 68 delegates attended the in
Atlantic City Atlantic City, often known by its initials A.C., is a coastal Resort town, resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos, Boardwalk (entertainment district), boardwalk, and beache ...

Atlantic City
and challenged the attendance of the all-white Mississippi representation. CORE, SNCC and COFO also established 30 Freedom Schools in towns throughout Mississippi. Volunteers taught in the schools and the curriculum now included black history, the philosophy of the civil rights movement. During the summer of 1964 over 3,000 students attended these schools and the experiment provided a model for future educational programs such as Head Start.
Freedom Schools Freedom Schools were temporary, alternative, and free schools for African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A pe ...
were often targets of white mobs. So also were the homes of local African Americans involved in the campaign. That summer 30 black homes and 37 black churches were firebombed. Over 80 volunteers were beaten by white mobs or racist police officers. Three CORE activists,
James Chaney James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was one of three Congress of Racial Equality The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an African Americans, African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a p ...
, Andrew Goodman and
Michael Schwerner Michael Henry "Mickey" Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), was one of three Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) field workers killed in rural Neshoba County, Mississippi, by members of the Ku Klux Klan. Schwerner and two co-workers, J ...
, were murdered by the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, gene ...
on June 21, 1964 (''see''
Murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...
). These deaths created nationwide publicity for the campaign.


March in Cicero, Illinois

On September 4, 1966, Robert Lucas and fellow members of CORE led activists through Cicero, Illinois, to pressure the city of Chicago's white leaders into making solid commitments to open housing. Shortly before the march, Chicago city officials, including Mayor
Richard J. Daley Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was an American politician who served as the Mayor of Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , ...

Richard J. Daley
, negotiated a Fair Housing agreement with
Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or part ...
,
James Bevel James Luther Bevel (October 19, 1936 – December 19, 2008) was a minister and a leader of the Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the was preceded by a decades-long campaign by and their like-minded allies to ...
,
Al Raby Albert Anderson Raby (1933 – November 23, 1988) was a teacher at Chicago's Hess Upper Grade Center who secured the support of Martin Luther King Jr. to desegregate schools and housing in Chicago between 1965 and 1967. Raby was a part of the civi ...
and others in exchange for an end of demonstrations. Nevertheless, Robert Lucas and other members of CORE felt that the march was strategically necessary and proceeded with it anyway. The march is documented in the 1966 short documentary film '' Cicero March'', which was added to the
National Film Registry The National Film Registry (or NFR for short) is the United States National Film Preservation Board The United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contigu ...
in 2013.


Since 1966

In 1966, James Farmer resigned as Director of CORE, to be replaced by
Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political slogan, political, Advertising slogan, commercial, ...

Black Power
advocate
Floyd McKissick Floyd Bixler McKissick (March 9, 1922 – April 28, 1991) was an American lawyer and civil rights activist. He became the first African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Am ...
until 1968, when California activist Wilfred T. Ussery served a brief term as national chairman. He was replaced by
Roy Innis Roy Emile Alfredo Innis (June 6, 1934 – January 8, 2017) was an American Activism, activist and politician. He was National Chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) from 1968 until his death. One of his sons, Niger Innis, Niger Roy In ...
, who was National Chairman until his death in 2017. Innis initially led the organization to strongly support
black nationalism Black nationalism is a type of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many ...
. However, subsequent political developments within the organization led it to support
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of ae ...
political positions. The
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
's "
COINTELPRO COINTELPRO (syllabic abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, k ...
" program targeted civil rights groups, including the CORE, for infiltration, discreditation and disruption. In August 1967, the FBI instructed its program "COINTELPRO" to "neutralize" what the FBI called "black nationalist hate groups" and other dissident groups. A CORE delegation toured seven African countries in 1971. Innis met with several heads of state, including
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
’s
Jomo Kenyatta Jomo Kenyatta (22 August 1978) was a Kenyan anti-colonial Colonial or The Colonial may refer to: * Colonial, of, relating to, or characteristic of a colony or colony (biology) Architecture * American colonial architecture * French Colonial * S ...

Jomo Kenyatta
,
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
’s
Julius Nyerere Julius Kambarage Nyerere (; 13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian Tanzania (;This approximates the Kiswahili pronunciation. However, is also heard in English. ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya ...

Julius Nyerere
,
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape ...

Liberia
’s
William Tolbert William Richard Tolbert Jr. (13 May 1913 – 12 April 1980) was the 20th President of Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of ...
and
Uganda Uganda (Ugandan Languages: Yuganda), officially the Republic of Uganda ( sw, Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic ba ...

Uganda
's
Idi Amin Idi Amin Dada Oumee (, ; 16 August 2003) was a Ugandan military officer who served as the third president of Uganda The President of the Republic of Uganda is the head of state and the head of government of Uganda. The President leads the ...
, who was awarded a life membership of CORE. In 1973 he became the first American to attend the
Organization of African Unity An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language in most current and former Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British ...
(OAU) as a delegate. In 1981, to settle illegal fundraising allegations under Roy Innis, CORE paid a $35,000 fine. CORE provides immigration services to immigrants in the preparation of petitions and applications to the
United States Citizenship and Immigration Services U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly kno ...
. CORE also provides classes for immigrants in fields such as
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
and American Civics in its center in
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
.


Geography

Winning victories in northern cities in the 1940s and 1950s, CORE became active in the South with the lunch counter sit-ins of 1960. The following year CORE organized "Freedom Rides," sending black and white students south to disrupt segregated interstate bus service. Drawing much of its membership from college campuses, CORE kept up civil disobedience campaigns in the North as well as the South. They also organized activities in California, where they protested housing discrimination in San Francisco and Los Angeles, held a Western Region Conference in the Sacramento area, and launched an equal employment campaign at restaurants and stores throughout the state. In 1968, Seattle's chapter of CORE decided that, in order for it to function best in the community, it needed to be an all-black organization.


International activities

CORE has an
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
n branch based in Uganda, with Fiona Kobusingye as is its director. Bringing attention to the
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
crisis is one of the organization's main activities, and it has championed the use of
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others bein ...

DDT
to fight the disease, and it has partnered with a variety of conservative and
libertarian Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la, libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and funda ...
think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to inc ...
s in this effort. Relevant section excerpted at: In 2007, CORE organized a 300-mile walk across Uganda to promote DDT-based interventions against malaria.Hilary Bainemigisha
"Uganda: Walking Kampala to Gulu to Fight Malaria"
(Page 1 of 1). AllAfrica.com, July 10, 2007.


Criticism

According to an interview given by
James Farmer James Leonard Farmer Jr. (January 12, 1920 – July 9, 1999) was an American civil rights activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U ...

James Farmer
in 1993, "CORE has no functioning chapters; it holds no conventions, no elections, no meetings, sets no policies, has no social programs and does no fund-raising. In my opinion, CORE is fraudulent." CORE has been criticized for its efforts promoting DDT use against malaria in Africa by environmentalist groups. An article in ''
Mother Jones Mary G. Harris Jones (1837 (baptized) – 30 November 1930), known as Mother Jones from 1897 onwards, was an Irish-born American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent union organizer, community organizer, and activist. She hel ...
'' magazine accused the group of selling influence, writing that, "is better known among real civil rights groups for renting out its historic name to any corporation in need of a black front person. The group has taken money from the payday-lending industry, chemical giant (and original DDT manufacturer) Monsanto, and a reported $40,000 from ExxonMobil.""Put a Tiger In Your Think Tank"
''Mother Jones'', May/June 2005.
In his book ''Not A Conspiracy Theory: How Business Propaganda Hijacks Democracy'', Donald Gutstein wrote that "In recent years CORE used its African-American facade to work with conservative groups to attack organizations like Greenpeace and undermine environmental regulation."


See also

* '' Louisiana Diary'', a 1964 documentary about CORE's 1963 voting registration drive in Louisiana. * DePorres Club, an affiliate at Creighton University in Omaha * New York Foundation * Steelworkers and Shipyard Workers for Equality


Notes


References

* * *Frazier, Nishani (2017). ''Harambee City: Congress of Racial Equality in Cleveland and the Rise of Black Power Populism''. University of Arkansas Press. .


External links


Congress of Racial Equality
Official website
Harambee City
Archival site incorporating documents, maps, audio/visual materials related to CORE's work in black power and black economic development.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) Actions 1942-1970
Maps and charts showing the geography of CORE activism. From the Mapping American Social Movements project at the University of Washington.
Timeline of Congress of Racial Equality Actions 1942-1970
A timeline of more than 600 events reported in CORE publications and ''The New York Times''.
Civil Rights Greensboro

Civil Rights Movement Archive

"You Don't Have to Ride Jim Crow!"
Web site for documentary of Journey of Reconciliation. * Chris Mooney, ''
Mother Jones Mary G. Harris Jones (1837 (baptized) – 30 November 1930), known as Mother Jones from 1897 onwards, was an Irish-born American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent union organizer, community organizer, and activist. She hel ...
'', May/June 2005
"Black Gold?"
- CORE, ExxonMobil
The Frank J. Miranda Papers
document Miranda's activities as CORE activist and one-time chair of the Boston CORE chapter. Located in the Archives and Special Collections of the Northeastern University Libraries in Boston, MA.
A History of Harlem CORE


multimedia resources on CORE activity in Seattle, Washington from the Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project.
CORE Documents
Online collection of original CORE documents ~ Civil Rights Movement Archive.
A History of CORE in New York City

"CORE," One Person, One Vote

Congress of Racial Equality Collected Records
fro
Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Archives


Congress of Racial Equality, Seattle Chapter, records.
1961–1970. 5 cubic feet (12 boxes). At th
Labor Archives of Washington State, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections

Image of three CORE hunger strikers, Jay Frank, Stanley Kohls, and Martin Goldsmith, sitting in a hallway at the Los Angeles Board of Education Building, 1963.
''Los Angeles Times'' Photographic Archive (Collection 1429). UCLA Library Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, University of California, Los Angeles. {{Authority control 1942 establishments in Illinois Black conservatism in the United States African Americans' rights organizations COINTELPRO targets Civil rights organizations in the United States Nonviolence organizations based in the United States Organizations established in 1942 Anti-racist organizations in the United States