HOME

TheInfoList




) , anthem = "
The Internationale "The Internationale" (french: "L'Internationale", italic=no, ) is a left-wing anthem. It has been a standard of the socialism, socialist movement since the late nineteenth century, when the Second International adopted it as its official anthem ...
"
, seats1_title =
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
( 13th) , seats1 = , seats2_title =
NPC Standing Committee The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC), officially the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, is the permanent body of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the Peopl ...
, seats2 = , flag = , colours =
Red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...

Red
, website
cpc.people.com.cn
, country = China The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole
ruling party The ruling party or governing party in a democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a fo ...
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC). The CCP leads eight other legally permitted subordinate minor parties together as the
United Front A united front is an alliance An alliance is a relationship among people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousne ...
. The CCP was founded in 1921, mainly by
Chen Duxiu Chen Duxiu ( zh, t=陳獨秀, w=Ch'en Tu-hsiu; 8 October 1879 – 27 May 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of gen ...

Chen Duxiu
and
Li Dazhao Li Dazhao or Li Ta-chao (October 29, 1889 – April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who participated in the New Cultural Movement in the early years of the Republic of China, established in 1912. He co-founded the Communist Party of China (C ...
, with the help of the Far Eastern Bureau of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Abbreviated in Russian as КПСС or ''KPSS''. was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the One-party state, sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 19 ...
and Far Eastern Secretariat of the
Communist International The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International, was an international organization founded in 1919 that advocated world communism, headed by the Soviet Union. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "str ...
. The party grew quickly; by 1949 the Nationalist Government of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
(KMT) had been driven from
mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

mainland China
to
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
after the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, leading to the
establishment Establishment may refer to: * The Establishment, the dominant group or elite holding effective power or authority in a society * The Establishment (club), an English satire club of the 1960s * The Establishment (comics), ''The Establishment'' (com ...
of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949. The CCP controls the country's armed forces, the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
(PLA). It is also one of the two major historical contemporary parties in Chinese history, the other being the Kuomintang. The CCP leads an
authoritarian Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
Marxist–Leninist
one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. ...
in China. The party is officially organized on the basis of
democratic centralism Democratic centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electi ...
, a principle conceived by
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
which entails open discussion of policy on the condition of unity among party members in upholding the agreed-upon decision. Theoretically, the highest body of the CCP is the
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...
, convened every fifth year. When the National Congress is not in session, the
Central Committee Central committee is the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, of both ruling and nonruling parties of former and existing Socialist State, socialist states. In such party org ...
is the highest body, but since the body meets normally only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the
Politburo A politburo () or political bureau is the executive committee for communist party, communist parties. It is present in most former and existing communist states. Names The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian language, Russian ''Polit ...
and its
Standing Committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than w ...
, members of the latter seen as the top leadership of the Party and the State. The party's leader recently holds the offices of
general secretary Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social inter ...
(responsible for civilian party duties), Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) (responsible for military affairs) and
State President The State President of the Republic of South Africa ( af, Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics o ...
(a largely ceremonial position). Through these posts, the party leader is the country's
paramount leader The paramount leader also named supreme leader () of the Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , ...
. The current leader is
Xi Jinping Xi Jinping ( ; , ; born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician who has been serving as General Secretary Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology ...

Xi Jinping
, elected at the 18th Central Committee held on 15 November 2012. Officially, the CCP is committed to
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
and continues to participate in the
International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties (IMCWP) is an annual conference attended by communist and workers' parties from several nations. It originated in 1998 when the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) invited communist and ...
each year. According to the party constitution, the CCP adheres to
Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing. pp. 9–24, 36–44. . "By 1985, one-third of the world's po ...
,
Mao Zedong Thought Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought (), is a variety of Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Squar ...
,
socialism with Chinese characteristics The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics ( zh, s=中国特色社会主义, hp=Zhōngguó tèsè shèhuìzhǔyì) is a set of political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Le ...
,
Deng Xiaoping Theory Deng Xiaoping Theory () is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (, ; ; Wade–Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; born Xiansheng (); courtesy name Xixian (); 22 August 1904 – 19 Fe ...
, the
Three Represents The Three Represents or the important thought of Three Represents is a guiding socio-political theory within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
, the
Scientific Outlook on Development The Scientific Outlook on Development (), sometimes translated to either the scientific development concept, or as the scientific development perspective, is one of the guiding socio-economic principles of the Communist Party of China The C ...
, and
Xi Jinping Thought Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, commonly abbreviated as Xi Jinping Thought, is a set of policies and ideas derived from the writings and speeches of Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jin ...
. The official explanation for China's economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism, a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production. The
command economy A planned economy is a type of economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A ...
established under
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the ...

Mao Zedong
was replaced by the
socialist market economy The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distribution of g ...
under
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in ...

Deng Xiaoping
, the current economic system, on the basis that "Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth" - a principle reinforced through a 1978 article that aimed to combat dogmatism and criticised the Two Whatevers policy. Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
in 1991, the CCP has emphasized its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining
socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is bor ...
s. While the CCP still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling
communist parties A communist party is a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political philosophy that builds from the concept of social equal ...
around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of
one-party states A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of unitary state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are e ...
(whatever their ideology), dominant parties in democracies (whatever their ideology) and
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ...
parties. As of 2021, the CCP has more than 95 million members, making it the second largest political party in the world after
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
's
Bharatiya Janata Party The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major List of political parties in India, political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. It is the current List of ruling political parties by country, ruling politic ...
.


History


Founding and early history (1921–1927)

The CCP traces its origins to the
May Fourth Movement The May Fourth Movement was a Chinese anti-imperialist Anti-imperialism in political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisi ...
of 1919, during which radical Western ideologies like
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
and
anarchism Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge ...
gained traction among Chinese intellectuals. Other influences stemming from the
Bolshevik revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in ...

Bolshevik revolution
and
Marxist theory Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of ...
inspired the CCP.
Chen Duxiu Chen Duxiu ( zh, t=陳獨秀, w=Ch'en Tu-hsiu; 8 October 1879 – 27 May 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of gen ...

Chen Duxiu
and
Li Dazhao Li Dazhao or Li Ta-chao (October 29, 1889 – April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who participated in the New Cultural Movement in the early years of the Republic of China, established in 1912. He co-founded the Communist Party of China (C ...
were among the first to publicly support
Leninism Leninism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for reasons that are not purely epistemic, in which "practical elements are as prominent as the ...
and
world revolution World revolution is the Marxism, Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the class consciousness, conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class. For theorists, these revolutions will not necessarily ...
. Both regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. Study circles were, according to
Cai Hesen Cai Hesen (March 30, 1895 – August 4, 1931) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong. Cai was born in Shanghai but grew up in Shuangfeng County in Hunan Province of China. He helped M ...

Cai Hesen
, "the rudiments f our party. Several study circles were established during the
New Culture Movement The New Culture Movement () was a movement in China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different co ...
, but "by 1920 skepticism about their suitability as vehicles for reform had become widespread." The CCP was founded on 1 July 1921, according to official narrative account by the CCP. However, party documents suggest that the party's true founding date was actually on 23 July 1921, the date of the first day of the 1st National Congress of the CCP. The founding National Congress of the CCP was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CCP organization and authorities grew tremendously. While it was originally held in
a house A House were an Irish rock band that was active in Dublin from the 1985 to 1997, and recognized for the clever, "often bitter or irony laden lyrics of frontman Dave Couse ... bolstered by the and'sseemingly effortless musicality". The single " ...
in the
Shanghai French Concession The Shanghai French Concession (french: link=no, Concession française de Changhaï; ; Shanghainese Shanghainese, also known as the Shanghai language, Shanghai dialect, or Hu language, is a Wu Chinese Wu (Chinese character: , , Manda ...
, French police interrupted the meeting on 30 July and the congress was moved to a tourist boat on in
Jiaxing Jiaxing (), alternately romanized as Kashing or Kiahsing, is a prefecture-level city A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi m ...

Jiaxing
, Zhejiang province. A dozen delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend, the latter sending a personal representative in his stead. The resolutions of the congress called for the establishment of a
communist party A communist party is a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and part ...
(as a branch of the
Communist International The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International, was an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institution or intergovernmental organization) is a stable se ...
) and elected Chen as its leader. Chen then served as the first general secretary of the Communist Party and was referred to as "China's Lenin". The Soviets hoped to foster pro-Soviet forces in the Far East to fight against
anti-communist Anti-communism is a political movement and ideology opposed to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet U ...

anti-communist
countries, especially
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. They tried to contact the warlord
Wu Peifu Wu Peifu or Wu P'ei-fu (; ; April 22, 1874 – December 4, 1939) was a major figure in the struggles between the List of warlords and military cliques in the Warlord Era, warlords who dominated History of the Republic of China, Republican Ch ...

Wu Peifu
, but failed. The Soviets then contacted the Kuomintang (KMT), which was leading the Guangzhou government parallel to the
Beiyang government The Beiyang government (), officially the Republic of China (), also sometimes Chinese postal romanization, spelled Peiyang Government or the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic o ...
. On 6 October 1923, the
Comintern The Communist International (Comintern), also known as the Third International, was an international organization founded in 1919 that advocated world communism, headed by the Soviet Union. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "str ...
sent
Mikhail Borodin Mikhail Markovich Gruzenberg, known by the alias Borodin, zh, 鮑羅廷 (9 July 1884 – 29 May 1951), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Communist International (Comintern) agent. He was an advisor to Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang ...
to Guangzhou, and the Soviets established friendly relations with the KMT. The Central Committee of the CCP, Soviet leader
Joseph Stalin ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death in 1953. He held power both as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952 ...
, and the Comintern all hoped that the CCP would eventually control the KMT and called their opponents "rightists". Sun eased the conflict between the communists and their opponents. CCP members grew tremendously after the 4th congress, from 900 to 2,428 in year 1925. The CCP still treats Sun Yat-sen as one of the founders of their movement and claim descent from him as he is viewed as a proto communist and the economic element of Sun's ideology was socialism. Sun stated, "Our Principle of Livelihood is a form of communism". The communists dominated the left-wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, struggling for power with the party's right wing. When KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist,
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Chiang, Sun's former assistant, was not actively anti-communist at that time, even though he hated the theory of
class struggle Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, socia ...
and the CCP's seizure of power. The communists proposed removing Chiang's power. When Chiang gradually gained the support of Western countries, the conflict between him and the communists became more and more intense. Chiang asked the Kuomintang to join the Communist International to rule out the secret expansion of communists in the KMT, while Chen Duxiu hoped that the communists would completely withdraw from the KMT. In April 1927, both Chiang and the CCP were preparing for combat. Fresh from the success of the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiang's arrival, he turned on them, massacring 5,000 with the aid of the
Green GangThe Green Gang () was a Chinese secret society and Organized crime, criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century. History Origins As a secret society, the ori ...
. Chiang's army then marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CCP General
Ye Ting New Fourth Army commander Ye Ting Ye Ting () (September 10, 1896 – April 8, 1946), born in Huiyang, Guangdong Guangdong ( alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung) is a coastal province A province is almost always an ad ...

Ye Ting
and his troops. Chiang's allies also attacked communists; in Beijing, Li Dazhao and 19 other leading communists were executed by
Zhang Zuolin Zhang Zuolin (; March 19, 1875 June 4, 1928) was an influential Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong national government ...

Zhang Zuolin
, while in
Changsha Changsha (; ; ; Changshanese pronunciation: (), Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the li ...

Changsha
, He Jian's forces machine gunned hundreds of peasant militiamen. Affected by this stimulus, the peasant movement supported by the CCP became more cruel. , a famous scholar, was killed by the communists.
He Jian He Jian (; 10 April 1887 – 25 April 1956) was a National Revolutionary Army, Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general and politician in the Republic of China. He was governor of Hunan province between 1929 and 1937, and Ministry of the Interior (Taiwan) ...

He Jian
gunned hundreds of peasant militiamen, as revenge. That May, tens of thousands of communists and their sympathizers were killed by nationalist troops, with the CCP losing approximately of its members.


Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War (1927–1949)

The CCP continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, but on 15 July 1927 the Wuhan government expelled all communists from the KMT. The CCP reacted by founding the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, better known as the "
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
", to battle the KMT. A battalion led by General
Zhu De Zhu De (; also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, ...

Zhu De
was ordered to take the city of
Nanchang Nanchang (, ; ) is the capital of Jiangxi Province Jiangxi (; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages spoken natively by many people in the Jiangxi Jiangxi ...

Nanchang
on 1 August 1927 in what became known as the
Nanchang uprising The Nanchang Uprising (; ) was the first major Nationalist Party of China–Communist Party of China The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and One-party state, sole Ruling ...
; initially successful, they were forced into retreat after five days, marching south to
Shantou Shantou, as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a on the eastern coast of , China, with a total population of 5,502,031 as of the 2020 census (5,391,028 in 2010) and an administrative area of . However, its built-up (or metro) area i ...

Shantou
, and from there being driven into the wilderness of
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
.
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the ...

Mao Zedong
was appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Army, and led four regiments against Changsha in the
Autumn Harvest Uprising The Autumn Harvest Uprising () was an insurrection Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Soc ...
, hoping to spark peasant uprisings across Hunan. His plan was to attack the KMT-held city from three directions on 9 September, but the Fourth Regiment deserted to the KMT cause, attacking the Third Regiment. Mao's army made it to Changsha, but could not take it; by 15 September, he accepted defeat, with 1,000 survivors marching east to the
Jinggang Mountains The Jinggang Mountains () are a mountain range of the Luoxiao Mountains System (罗霄山), in the border region of Jiangxi Jiangxi (; Postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese: ''Kongsi'', Hakka: ''Go ...
of
Jiangxi Jiangxi (; ; alternately romanized as Kiangsi or Chianghsi, Gan Chinese Gan, Gann or Kan is a group of Sinitic languages The Sinitic languages, often synonymous with "Chinese languages", constitute the major branch of the Sino-Tibe ...

Jiangxi
. The near-destruction of the CCP's urban organizational apparatus led to institutional changes within the party. The party adopted
democratic centralism Democratic centralism is a practice in which political decisions reached by voting processes are binding upon all members of the political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's electi ...
, a way to organize revolutionary parties, and established a Politburo (to function as the standing committee of the Central Committee). The result was increased centralization of power within the party. At every level of the party this was duplicated, with standing committees now in effective control. After being expelled from the party, Chen Duxiu went on to lead China's
Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Ukrainian-Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky and by some other members of the Left Opposition and Fourth International. Trotsky self-identified as an Orthodox Marxism, orth ...
movement.
Li Lisan Lǐ Lìsān (; November 18, 1899 – June 22, 1967) was an early leader of the Chinese communists, a leader of the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the f ...

Li Lisan
was able to assume ''de facto'' control of the party organization by 1929–30. Li Lisan's leadership was a failure, leaving the CCP on the brink of destruction. The Comintern became involved, and by late 1930, his powers had been taken away. By 1935 Mao had become the party's
Politburo Standing Committee The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Chinese Communist Party, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Chinese Communist Party The Communist Pa ...
member and informal military leader, with
Zhou Enlai Zhou Enlai (; 5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China The premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, abbreviated to Premier, sometimes also referred to informally as ...

Zhou Enlai
and
Zhang Wentian Zhang Wentian (; 30 August 1900 – 1 July 1976), also known as Luo Fu (), was a high-ranking leader of the Communist Party of China The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ...
, the formal head of the party, serving as his informal deputies. The conflict with the KMT led to the reorganization of the Red Army, with power now centralized in the leadership through the creation of CCP political departments charged with supervising the army. The
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
caused a pause in the conflict between the CCP and the KMT. The
Second United Front The Second United Front ( zh, t=第二次國共合作 , s=第二次国共合作 ) was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT) () is a major political party in Taiwan which originated as a r ...
was established between the CCP and the KMT to tackle the invasion. While the front formally existed until 1945, all collaboration between the two parties had ended by 1940. Despite their formal alliance, the CCP used the opportunity to expand and carve out independent bases of operations to prepare for the coming war with the KMT. In 1939 the KMT began to restrict CCP expansion within China. This led to frequent clashes between CCP and KMT forces but which subsided rapidly on the realisation on both sides that civil war was not an option. Yet, by 1943, the CCP was again actively expanding its territory at the expense of the KMT. Mao Zedong became the
Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party () was the List of leaders of the Communist Party of China, head of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The position was established at the 8th National Congress of the Communi ...
in 1945. From 1945 until 1949, the war had been reduced to two parties; the CCP and the KMT. This period lasted through four stages; the first was from August 1945 (when the Japanese surrendered) to June 1946 (when the peace talks between the CCP and the KMT ended). By 1945, the KMT had three-times more soldiers under its command than the CCP and initially appeared to be prevailing. With the cooperation of the Americans and the Japanese, the KMT was able to retake major parts of the country. However, KMT rule over the reconquered territories would prove unpopular because of endemic party corruption. Notwithstanding its huge numerical superiority, the KMT failed to reconquer the rural territories which made up the CCP's stronghold. Around the same time, the CCP launched an invasion of
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
, where they were assisted by the Soviet Union. The second stage, lasting from July 1946 to June 1947, saw the KMT extend its control over major cities, such as
Yan'an Yan'an (; ), alternatively spelled as Yenan is a prefecture-level city A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectural city is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China China (), of ...
(the CCP headquarters for much of the war). The KMT's successes were hollow; the CCP had tactically withdrawn from the cities, and instead attacked KMT authorities by instigating protests amongst students and intellectuals in the cities (the KMT responded to these events with heavy-handed repression). In the meantime, the KMT was struggling with factional infighting and Chiang Kai-shek's autocratic control over the party, which weakened the KMT's ability to respond to attacks. The third stage, lasting from July 1947 to August 1948, saw a limited counteroffensive by the CCP. The objective was clearing "Central China, strengthening North China, and recovering Northeast China." This policy, coupled with desertions from the KMT military force (by the spring of 1948, the KMT military had lost an estimated 2 of its 3 million troops) and declining popularity of KMT rule. The result was that the CCP was able to cut off KMT garrisons in
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
and retake several lost territories. The last stage, lasting from September 1948 to December 1949, saw the communists take the initiative and the collapse of KMT rule in mainland China as a whole. On 1 October 1949, Mao declared the establishment of the PRC, which signified the end of the Chinese Revolution (as it is officially described by the CCP).


Founding the PRC and becoming the sole ruling party (1949–present)

On 1 October 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the establishment of the PRC before a massive crowd at Tiananmen Square. The CCP headed the
Central People's Government The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China China, officia ...
. From this time through the 1980s, top leaders of the CCP (like Mao Zedong, Lin Biao, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping) were largely the same military leaders prior to the PRC's founding. As a result, informal personal ties between political and military leaders dominated civil-military relations.
Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin * ka, link=no, იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე სტალინი. ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgians, Georgian revolutionary and Soviet political leader who governed the Soviet Unio ...

Stalin
proposed a one-party constitution when
Liu Shaoqi Liu Shaoqi ( ; 24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist. He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organiz ...

Liu Shaoqi
visited the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
in 1952. Then the Constitution of the PRC in 1954 changed the previous coalition government and established the CCP's sole ruling system. Mao said that China should implement a
multi-party system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
under the leadership of the working class revolutionary party (CCP) on the CCP's 8th Congress in 1956. He had not proposed that other parties should be led before, although the CCP had actually controlled the most political power since 1949. In 1957, the CCP launched the
Anti-Rightist Campaign 250px, One of many 1950s Chinese parades showing support for the communist political movement. The Anti-Rightist Campaign () in the People's Republic of China, which lasted from 1957 to roughly 1959, was a political campaign to purge alleged "Righ ...
against the political dissents and figures of the other minor parties which resulted in the political persecution of at least 550,000 people. The campaign significantly damaged the limited pluralistic nature in the socialist republic and turned the country into a ''de facto''
one-party state A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. ...
. The event led to the catastrophic results of the Second Five Year from 1958 when the CCP attempted at transforming the country from an agrarian into an industrialized economy through the formation of people's communes by launching the
Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward (Second Five Year Plan) of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, mo ...
campaign. The Great Leap resulted in tens of millions of deaths, with estimates ranging between 15 and 55 million deaths, making the
Great Chinese Famine The Great Chinese Famine (, "three years of great famine") was a period between 1959 and 1961 in the history of the People's Republic of China The History of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China Mainland ...
the largest in human history. During the 1960s and 1970s, the CCP experienced a significant ideological separation from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union which was going through the
De-Stalinization De-Stalinization (russian: десталинизация, translit=destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federal ...
under
Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– 11 September 1971) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and as Premier of the Soviet Unio ...
. By that time, Mao had begun saying that the "continued revolution under the
dictatorship of the proletariat In Marxist philosophy Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's Historical materialism, materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists. Marxist philosophy may be broadly ...
" stipulated that class enemies continued to exist even though the socialist revolution seemed to be complete, leading to the
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
in which millions were persecuted and killed. In the Cultural Revolution, party leaders such as Liu Shaoqi,
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), also known by his courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in ...

Deng Xiaoping
,
Peng Dehuai Peng Dehuai (; October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959. Peng was born into a poor peasant family, and received several years of primary ed ...

Peng Dehuai
, and
He Long He Long (; March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the of the . He was from a poor rural family in Hunan, and his family was not able to provide him with any formal education. He began his revolutionary ...

He Long
, were purged or exiled and the power were fallen into the
Gang of Four The Gang of Four () was a Maoist Maoism, officially called Mao Zedong Thought () by the Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congre ...
led by
Jiang Qing Jiang Qing (19 March 191414 May 1991), also known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). She was the fourth wife of Mao Zedong, the Chairman of t ...
, Mao's wife. Following Mao's death in 1976, a power struggle between CCP chairman
Hua Guofeng Hua Guofeng (; born Su Zhu; 16 February 1921 – 20 August 2008), alternatively spelled as Hua Kuo-feng was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Chinese Co ...

Hua Guofeng
and vice-chairman Deng Xiaoping erupted. Deng won the struggle, and became the "paramount leader" in 1978. Deng, alongside
Hu Yaobang Hu Yaobang (; 20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries ...

Hu Yaobang
and
Zhao Ziyang Zhao Ziyang ( zh, 赵紫阳; pronounced , 17 October 1919 – 17 January 2005) was a high-ranking politician in the People's Republic of China (PRC). He was the third Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal n ...
, spearheaded the
Reform and opening The Chinese economic reform or reform and opening-up, known in the West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the ...
policy, and introduced the ideological concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics, opening China to the world's markets. In reversing some of Mao's "leftist" policies, Deng argued that a socialist state could use the
market economy A market economy is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The ide ...
without itself being capitalist. While asserting the political power of the Party, the change in policy generated significant economic growth. The new ideology, however, was contested on both sides of the spectrum, by Maoists as well as by those supporting political liberalization. With other social factors, the conflicts culminated in the
1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre The Tiananmen Square protests, known as the June Fourth Incident () in China, were student-led Demonstration (people), demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre (), Peopl ...
. The protests having been crushed and the reformist party general secretary Zhao Ziyang under house arrest, Deng's economic policies resumed and by the early 1990s the concept of a
socialist market economy The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distribution of g ...
had been introduced. In 1997, Deng's beliefs (Deng Xiaoping Theory), were embedded in the CCP constitution. CCP general secretary
Jiang Zemin Jiang Zemin (; ; born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military ...

Jiang Zemin
succeeded Deng as "paramount leader" in the 1990s, and continued most of his policies. In the 1990s, the CCP transformed from a veteran revolutionary leadership that was both leading militarily and politically, to a political elite increasingly regenerated according to institutionalized norms in the civil bureaucracy. Leadership was largely selected based on rules and norms on promotion and retirement, educational background, and managerial and technical expertise. There is a largely separate group of professionalized military officers, serving under top CCP leadership largely through formal relationships within institutional channels. As part of Jiang Zemin's nominal legacy, the CCP ratified the
Three Represents The Three Represents or the important thought of Three Represents is a guiding socio-political theory within China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
for the 2003 revision of the party's constitution, as a "guiding ideology" to encourage the party to represent "advanced productive forces, the progressive course of China's culture, and the fundamental interests of the people." The theory legitimized the entry of private business owners and
bourgeois Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeois
elements into the party.
Hu Jintao Hu Jintao (; ; ; born 21 December 1942) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China () is typically t ...

Hu Jintao
, Jiang Zemin's successor as general secretary, took office in 2002. Unlike Mao, Deng and Jiang Zemin, Hu laid emphasis on
collective leadership Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organizational structure. Communist examples China Collective leadership in China and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is generally considered to have begun with Deng Xiaoping in the lat ...
and opposed one-man dominance of the political system. The insistence on focusing on economic growth led to a wide range of serious social problems. To address these, Hu introduced two main ideological concepts: the Scientific Outlook on Development and Harmonious Socialist Society. Hu resigned from his post as CCP general secretary and Chairman of the CMC at the 18th National Congress held in 2012, and was succeeded in both posts by Xi Jinping. Since taking power, Xi has initiated a wide-reaching anti-corruption campaign, while centralizing powers in the office of CCP general secretary at the expense of the collective leadership of prior decades. Commentators have described the campaign as a defining part of Xi's leadership as well as "the principal reason why he has been able to consolidate his power so quickly and effectively." Foreign commentators have likened him to Mao. Xi's leadership has also overseen an increase in the Party's role in China. Xi has added his ideology, named after himself, into the CCP constitution in 2017. As has been speculated, Xi Jinping may not retire from his top posts after serving for 10 years in 2022. On 21 October 2020, the Subcommittee on International Human Rights (SDIR) of the
Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International DevelopmentThe Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development (FAAE) is a committee in the House of Commons of Canada that focuses on Canada's foreign policy and international development. Before the 39th Canadian Parliament, 39th Parliam ...
condemned the persecution of Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang by the Government of China and concluded that the Chinese Communist Party's actions amount to genocide of the Uyghurs per the
Genocide Convention The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG), or Genocide Convention, is an International Agreement, international treaty that criminalizes genocide and obligates state parties to enforce its prohibition. It w ...
. On 1 July 2021, the celebrations of the 100th anniversary of the CCP, one of the Two Centenaries, took place.


Ideology

It has been argued in recent years, mainly by foreign commentators, that the CCP does not have an ideology, and that the party organization is Pragmatism, pragmatic and interested only in what works. The party itself, however, argues otherwise. For instance, Hu Jintao stated in 2012 that the Western world is "threatening to divide us" and that "the international culture of the West is strong while we are weak ... Ideological and cultural fields are our main targets". The CCP puts a great deal of effort into the party schools and into crafting its ideological message. Before the "" campaign, the relationship between ideology and decision-making was a deductive one, meaning that policy-making was derived from ideological knowledge. Under Deng this relationship was turned upside down, with decision-making justifying ideology and not the other way around. Lastly, Chinese policy-makers believe that the State ideology of the Soviet Union, Soviet Union's state ideology was "rigid, unimaginative, ossified, and disconnected from reality" and that this was one of the reasons for the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
. They therefore believe that their party ideology must be dynamic to safeguard the party's rule. Main ideologies of the party have corresponded with distinct generations of Chinese leadership. As both the CCP and the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between St ...
promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership.The landmark study of military generations and factions is William Whitson's ''The Chinese High Command,'' Praeger, 1973 In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct extension of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied various periods in the development of the government of the People's Republic of China by reference to these "generations".


Formal ideology

Marxism–Leninism was the first official ideology of the CCP. According to the CCP, "Marxism–Leninism reveals the Historical materialism, universal laws governing the development of history of human society." To the CCP, Marxism–Leninism provides a "vision of the Capitalist mode of production (Marxist theory), contradictions in capitalist society and of the inevitability of a future socialist and communist societies". According to the ''People's Daily'',
Mao Zedong Thought Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought (), is a variety of Marxism–Leninism Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology and the main communist movement throughout the 20th century.Lansford, Thomas (2007). ''Communism''. New York: Cavendish Squar ...
"is Marxism–Leninism applied and developed in China". Mao Zedong Thought was conceived not only by Mao Zedong, but by leading party officials. While non-Chinese analysts generally agree that the CCP has rejected orthodox Marxism–Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought (or at least basic thoughts within orthodox thinking), the CCP itself disagrees. Certain groups argue that Jiang Zemin ended the CCP's formal commitment to Marxism with the introduction of the ideological theory, the Three Represents. However, party theorist Leng Rong disagrees, claiming that "President Jiang rid the Party of the ideological obstacles to different kinds of ownership [...] He did not give up Marxism or socialism. He strengthened the Party by providing a modern understanding of Marxism and socialism—which is why we talk about a 'socialist market economy' with Chinese characteristics." The attainment of true "communism" is still described as the CCP's and China's "ultimate goal". While the CCP claims that China is in the primary stage of socialism, party theorists argue that the current development stage "looks a lot like capitalism". Alternatively, certain party theorists argue that "capitalism is the early or first stage of communism." Some have dismissed the concept of a primary stage of socialism as intellectual cynicism. According to Robert Lawrence Kuhn, a China analyst, "When I first heard this rationale, I thought it more comic than clever—a wry caricature of hack propagandists leaked by intellectual cynics. But the 100-year horizon comes from serious political theorists".
Deng Xiaoping Theory Deng Xiaoping Theory () is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (, ; ; Wade–Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; born Xiansheng (); courtesy name Xixian (); 22 August 1904 – 19 Fe ...
was added to the party constitution at the 14th National Congress. The concepts of "
socialism with Chinese characteristics The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics ( zh, s=中国特色社会主义, hp=Zhōngguó tèsè shèhuìzhǔyì) is a set of political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Le ...
" and "the primary stage of socialism" were credited to the theory. Deng Xiaoping Theory can be defined as a belief that state socialism and planned economy, state planning is not by definition communist, and that market mechanisms are class neutral. In addition, the party needs to react to the changing situation dynamically; to know if a certain policy is obsolete or not, the party had to "seek truth from facts" and follow the slogan "practice is the sole criterion for the truth". At the 14th National Congress, Jiang reiterated Deng's mantra that it was unnecessary to ask if something was socialist or capitalist, since the important factor was whether it worked. The "Three Represents", Jiang Zemin's contribution to the party's ideology, was adopted by the party at the 16th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 16th National Congress. The Three Represents defines the role of the CCP, and stresses that the Party must always represent the requirements for developing China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people." Certain segments within the CCP criticized the Three Represents as being un-Marxist and a betrayal of basic Marxist values. Supporters viewed it as a further development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Jiang disagreed, and had concluded that attaining the communist mode of production, as formulated by earlier communists, was more complex than had been realized, and that it was useless to try to force a change in the mode of production, as it had to develop naturally, by following the Historical materialism, economic laws of history. The theory is most notable for allowing capitalists, officially referred to as the "new social strata", to join the party on the grounds that they engaged in "honest labor and work" and through their labour contributed "to build[ing] socialism with Chinese characteristics." The 3rd Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, 16th Central Committee conceived and formulated the ideology of the
Scientific Outlook on Development The Scientific Outlook on Development (), sometimes translated to either the scientific development concept, or as the scientific development perspective, is one of the guiding socio-economic principles of the Communist Party of China The C ...
(SOD). It is considered to be Hu Jintao's contribution to the official ideological discourse. The SOD incorporates scientific socialism, sustainable development, social welfare, a humanism, humanistic society, increased democracy, and, ultimately, the creation of a Socialist Harmonious Society. According to official statements by the CCP, the concept integrates "
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
with the reality of contemporary China and with the underlying features of our times, and it fully embodies the Marxist worldview on and methodology for development." Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, commonly known as Xi Jinping Thought, was added to the party constitution in the 19th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 19th National Congress. Xi himself has described the thought as part of the broad framework created around socialism with Chinese characteristics. In official party documentation and pronouncements by Xi's colleagues, the thought is said to be a continuation of previous party ideologies as part of a series of guiding ideologies that embody "Ideology of the Chinese Communist Party, Marxism adapted to Chinese conditions" and contemporary considerations. The party combines elements of both socialist patriotismSuisheng Zhao. A nation-state by construction: dynamics of modern Chinese nationalism. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 2004. p. 28. and Chinese nationalism.


Economics

Deng did not believe that the fundamental difference between the capitalist mode of production and the socialist mode of production was central planning versus free markets. He said, "A planned economy is not the definition of socialism, because there is planning under capitalism; the market economy happens under socialism, too. Planning and market forces are both ways of controlling economic activity". Jiang Zemin supported Deng's thinking, and stated in a party gathering that it did not matter if a certain mechanism was capitalist or socialist, because the only thing that mattered was whether it worked. It was at this gathering that Jiang Zemin introduced the term
socialist market economy The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource allocation and Distribution (economics), distribution of g ...
, which replaced Chen Yun's "planned socialist market economy". In his report to the 14th National Congress Jiang Zemin told the delegates that the socialist state would "let market forces play a basic role in resource allocation." At the 15th National Congress, the party line was changed to "make market forces further play their role in resource allocation"; this line continued until the of the 18th Central Committee, when it was amended to "let market forces play a ''decisive'' role in resource allocation." Despite this, the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee upheld the creed "Maintain the dominance of the public sector and strengthen the economic vitality of the State-owned enterprises, State-owned economy." The CCP views the world as organized into two opposing camps; socialist and capitalist. They insist that socialism, on the basis of historical materialism, will eventually triumph over capitalism. In recent years, when the party has been asked to explain the capitalist globalization occurring, the party has returned to the writings of Karl Marx. Despite admitting that globalization developed through the capitalist system, the party's leaders and theorists argue that globalization is not intrinsically capitalist. The reason being that if globalization was purely capitalist, it would exclude an alternative socialist form of modernity. Globalization, as with the market economy, therefore does not have one specific class character (neither socialist nor capitalist) according to the party. The insistence that globalization is not fixed in nature comes from Deng's insistence that China can pursue socialist modernization by incorporating elements of capitalism. Because of this there is considerable optimism within the CCP that despite the current capitalist dominance of globalization, globalization can be turned into a vehicle supporting socialism.


Governance


Collective leadership

Collective leadership, the idea that decisions will be taken through consensus, is the ideal in the CCP. The concept has its origins back to Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Bolshevik Party. At the level of the central party leadership this means that, for instance, all members of the Politburo Standing Committee are of equal standing (each member having only one vote). A member of the Politburo Standing Committee often represents a sector; during Mao's reign, he controlled the People's Liberation Army, Kang Sheng, the security apparatus, and Zhou Enlai, the State Council of China, State Council and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (China), Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This counts as informal power. Despite this, in a paradoxical relation, members of a body are ranked Hierarchy, hierarchically (despite the fact that members are in theory equal to one another). Informally, the collective leadership is headed by a "leadership core"; that is, the
paramount leader The paramount leader also named supreme leader () of the Chinese Communist Party ) , anthem = "The Internationale" , seats1_title = National People's Congress (13th National People's Congress, 13th) , seats1 = , ...
, the person who holds the offices of CCP general secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission (China), CMC chairman and President of the People's Republic of China, PRC president. Before Jiang Zemin's tenure as paramount leader, the party core and collective leadership were indistinguishable. In practice, the core was not responsible to the collective leadership. However, by the time of Jiang, the party had begun propagating a responsibility system, referring to it in official pronouncements as the "core of the collective leadership".


Democratic centralism

The CCP's organizational principle is democratic centralism, which is based on two principles: democracy (synonymous in official discourse with "socialist democracy" and "inner-party democracy") and centralism. This has been the guiding organizational principle of the party since the 5th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 5th National Congress, held in 1927. In the words of the party constitution, "The Party is an integral body organized under its program and constitution and on the basis of democratic centralism". Mao once quipped that democratic centralism was "at once democratic and Centralism, centralized, with the two seeming opposites of democracy and centralization united in a definite form." Mao claimed that the superiority of democratic centralism lay in its internal contradictions, between democracy and centralism, and liberty, freedom and discipline. Currently, the CCP is claiming that "democracy is the lifeline of the Party, the lifeline of socialism". But for democracy to be implemented, and functioning properly, there needs to be centralization. The goal of democratic centralism was not to obliterate capitalism or its policies but instead it is the movement towards regulating capitalism while involving socialism and democracy. Democracy in any form, the CCP claims, needs centralism, since without centralism there will be no order. According to Mao, democratic centralism "is centralized on the basis of democracy and democratic under centralized guidance. This is the only system that can give full expression to democracy with full powers vested in the people's congresses at all levels and, at the same time, guarantee centralized administration with the governments at each level exercising centralized management of all the affairs entrusted to them by the people's congresses at the corresponding level and safeguarding whatever is essential to the democratic life of the people".


Shuanggui

''Shuanggui'' is an intra-party disciplinary process conducted by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI). This formally independent internal control institution conducts ''shuanggui'' on members accused of "disciplinary violations", a charge which generally refers to Corruption in China, political corruption. The process, which literally translates to "double regulation", aims to extract confessions from members accused of violating party rules. According to the Dui Hua Foundation, tactics such as cigarette burns, beatings and simulated drowning are among those used to extract confessions. Other reported techniques include the use of induced hallucinations, with one subject of this method reporting that "In the end I was so exhausted, I agreed to all the accusations against me even though they were false."


Multi-Party Cooperation System

The Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation System is led by the CCP in cooperation and consultation with the eight parties which make up the
United Front A united front is an alliance An alliance is a relationship among people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousne ...
. Consultation takes place under the leadership of the CCP, with mass organizations, the United Front parties, and "representatives from all walks of life". These consultations contribute, at least in theory, to the formation of the country's basic policy in the fields of political, economic, cultural and social affairs. The CCP's relationship with other parties is based on the principle of "long-term coexistence and mutual supervision, treating each other with full sincerity and sharing weal or woe." This process is institutionalized in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). All the parties in the United Front support China's road to socialism, and hold steadfast to the leadership of the CCP. Despite all this, the CPPCC is a body without any real power. While discussions do take place, they are all supervised by the CCP.


Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence has been aggressively developed by the Chinese government in the past decade to enable further its consolidation of power. Some Chinese citizens have been subject to punitive measures blocking their financial transactions and city-to-city mobility.


Organization


Central organization

The
National Congress''National Congress'' is a term used in the names of various political parties and legislatures . Political parties *Ethiopia: Oromo National Congress *Guyana: People's National Congress (Guyana) *India: Indian National Congress *Iraq: Iraqi Natio ...
is the party's highest body, and, since the 9th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 9th National Congress in 1969, has been convened every five years (prior to the 9th Congress they were convened on an irregular basis). According to the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party, party's constitution, a congress may not be postponed except "under extraordinary circumstances." The party constitution gives the National Congress six responsibilities: # electing the
Central Committee Central committee is the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, of both ruling and nonruling parties of former and existing Socialist State, socialist states. In such party org ...
; # electing the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI); # examining the report of the outgoing Central Committee; # examining the report of the outgoing CCDI; # discussing and enacting party policies; and, # revising the party's constitution. In practice, the delegates rarely discuss issues at length at the National Congresses. Most substantive discussion takes place before the congress, in the preparation period, among a group of top party leaders. In between National Congresses, the Central Committee is the highest decision-making institution. The CCDI is responsible for supervising party's internal anti-corruption and ethics system. In between congresses the CCDI is under the authority of the Central Committee. The Central Committee, as the party's highest decision-making institution between national congresses, elects several bodies to carry out its work. The first plenary session of a newly elected central committee elects the
general secretary Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social inter ...
of the Central Committee, the party's leader; the Central Military Commission (China), Central Military Commission (CMC); the
Politburo A politburo () or political bureau is the executive committee for communist party, communist parties. It is present in most former and existing communist states. Names The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian language, Russian ''Polit ...
; the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC); and since 2013, the National Security Commission of the Chinese Communist Party, Central National Security Commission (CNSC). The first plenum also endorses the composition of the Secretariat of the Chinese Communist Party, Secretariat and the leadership of the CCDI. According to the party constitution, the general secretary must be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), and is responsible for convening meetings of the PSC and the Politburo, while also presiding over the work of the Secretariat. The Politburo "exercises the functions and powers of the Central Committee when a plenum is not in session". The PSC is the party's highest decision-making institution when the Politburo, the Central Committee and the National Congress are not in session. It convenes at least once a week. It was established at the 8th National Congress, in 1958, to take over the policy-making role formerly assumed by the Secretariat. The Secretariat is the top implementation body of the Central Committee, and can make decisions within the policy framework established by the Politburo; it is also responsible for supervising the work of organizations that report directly into the Central Committee, for example departments, commissions, publications, and so on. The CMC is the highest decision-making institution on military affairs within the party, and controls the operations of the People's Liberation Army. The general secretary has, since Jiang Zemin, also served as Chairman of the CMC. Unlike the collective leadership ideal of other party organs, the CMC chairman acts as commander-in-chief with full authority to appoint or dismiss top military officers at will. The CNSC "co-ordinates security strategies across various departments, including intelligence, the military, foreign affairs and the police in order to cope with growing challenges to stability at home and abroad." The general secretary serves as the Chairman of the CNSC. A first plenum of the Central Committee also elects heads of departments, bureaus, central leading groups and other institutions to pursue its work during a term (a "term" being the period elapsing between national congresses, usually five years). The General Office of the Chinese Communist Party, General Office is the party's "nerve centre", in charge of day-to-day administrative work, including communications, protocol, and setting agendas for meetings. The CCP currently has four main central departments: the Organization Department of the Chinese Communist Party, Organization Department, responsible for overseeing provincial appointments and vetting cadres for future appointments, the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party, Publicity Department (formerly "Propaganda Department"), which oversees the media and formulates the party line to the media, the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party, International Department, functioning as the party's "foreign affairs ministry" with other parties, and the United Front Work Department, which oversees work with the country's non-communist parties, mass organizations, and influence groups outside of the country. The CC also has direct control over the Central Policy Research Office, which is responsible for researching issues of significant interest to the party leadership, the Central Party School of the Chinese Communist Party, Central Party School, which provides political training and ideological indoctrination in communist thought for high-ranking and rising cadres, the Party History Research Centre, which sets priorities for scholarly research in state-run universities and the Central Party School, and the Compilation and Translation Bureau, which studies and translates the classical works of Marxism. The party's newspaper, the ''People's Daily'', is under the direct control of the Central Committee and is published with the objectives "to tell good stories about China and the (Party)" and to promote its party leader. The theoretical magazines ''Qiushi, Seeking Truth from Facts'' and ''Study Times'' are published by the Central Party School. The various offices of the "Central Leading Groups", such as the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, the Taiwan Affairs Office, and the Central Finance Office, also report to the central committee during a plenary session.


Lower-level organizations

After seizing political power, the CCP extended the dual party-state command system to all government institutions, social organizations, and economic entities. The State Council and the Supreme Court each has a party core group (党组), established since November 1949. Party committees permeate in every state administrative organ as well as the People's Consultation Conferences and mass organizations at all levels. Party committees exist inside of companies, both private and state-owned. Modeled after the Soviet Nomenklatura system, the party committee's organization department at each level has the power to recruit, train, monitor, appoint, and relocate these officials. Party committees exist at the level of Provinces of China, provinces, cities, Counties of the People's Republic of China, counties, and neighborhoods. These committees play a key role in directing local policy by selecting local leaders and assigning critical tasks. The Party secretary at each level is more senior than that of the leader of the government, with the CCP standing committee being the main source of power. Party committee members in each level are selected by the leadership in the level above, with provincial leaders selected by the central Organizational Department, and not removable by the local party secretary. In theory, however, party committees are elected by party congresses at their own level. Local party congresses are supposed to be held every fifth year, but under extraordinary circumstances they may be held earlier or postponed. However that decision must be approved by the next higher level of the local party committee. The number of delegates and the procedures for their election are decided by the local party committee, but must also have the approval of the next higher party committee. A local party congress has many of the same duties as the National Congress, and it is responsible for examining the report of the local Party Committee at the corresponding level; examining the report of the local Commission for Discipline Inspection at the corresponding level; discussing and adopting resolutions on major issues in the given area; and electing the local Party Committee and the local Commission for Discipline Inspection at the corresponding level. Party committees of "a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the Government of China, central government, city divided into districts, or autonomous prefecture [are] elected for a term of five years", and include full and alternate members. The party committees "of a county (banner), autonomous county, city not divided into districts, or municipal district [are] elected for a term of five years", but full and alternate members "must have a Party standing of three years or more." If a local Party Congress is held before or after the given date, the term of the members of the Party Committee shall be correspondingly shortened or lengthened. Vacancies in a Party Committee shall be filled by an alternate members according to the order of precedence, which is decided by the number of votes an alternate member got during his or hers election. A Party Committee must convene for at least two plenary meetings a year. During its tenure, a Party Committee shall "carry out the directives of the next higher Party organizations and the resolutions of the Party congresses at the corresponding levels." The local Standing Committee (analogous to the Central Politburo) is elected at the first plenum of the corresponding Party Committee after the local party congress. A Standing Committee is responsible to the Party Committee at the corresponding level and the Party Committee at the next higher level. A Standing Committee exercises the duties and responsibilities of the corresponding Party Committee when it is not in session.


Funding

The funding of all CCP organizations mainly comes from state fiscal revenue. Data for the proportion of total CCP organizations’ expenditures in total China fiscal revenue is unavailable. However, occasionally small local governments in China release such data. For example, on 10 October 2016, the local government of Mengmao Township, Ruili City, Yunnan Province released a concise fiscal revenue and expenditure report for the year 2014. According to this report, the fiscal Revenue amounted to RMB 29,498,933.58, and CCP organization' expenditures amounted to RMB 1,660,115.50, that is, 5.63% of fiscal revenue is used by the CCP for its own operation. This value is similar to the social security and employment expenditure of the whole town—RMB 1,683,064.90.


Members

To join the party, an applicant must be approved by the communist party. In 2014, only 2 million applications were accepted out of some 22 million applicants. Admitted members then spend a year as a probationary member. In contrast to the past, when emphasis was placed on the applicants' ideological criteria, the current CCP stresses technical and educational qualifications. To become a probationary member, the applicant must take an admission oath before the party flag. The relevant CCP organization is responsible for observing and educating probationary members. Probationary members have duties similar to those of full members, with the exception that they may not vote in party elections nor stand for election. Many join the CCP through the Communist Youth League of China, Communist Youth League. Under Jiang Zemin, private entrepreneurs were allowed to become party members. According to the CCP constitution, a member, in short, must follow orders, be disciplined, uphold unity, serve the Party and the people, and promote the socialist way of life. Members enjoy the privilege of attending Party meetings, reading relevant Party documents, receiving Party education, participating in Party discussions through the Party's newspapers and journals, making suggestions and proposal, making "well-grounded criticism of any Party organization or member at Party meetings" (even of the central party leadership), voting and standing for election, and of opposing and criticizing Party resolutions ("provided that they resolutely carry out the resolution or policy while it is in force"); and they have the ability "to put forward any request, appeal, or complaint to higher Party organizations, even up to the Central Committee, and ask the organizations concerned for a responsible reply." No party organization, including the CCP central leadership, can deprive a member of these rights. As of 30 June 2016, individuals who identify as farmers, herdsmen and fishermen make up 26 million members; members identifying as workers totalled 7.2 million. Another group, the "Managing, professional and technical staff in enterprises and public institutions", made up 12.5 million, 9 million identified as working in administrative staff and 7.4 million described themselves as party cadres. 22.3 million women are CCP members. The CCP currently has 90.59 million members, making it the second largest political party in the world after India's
Bharatiya Janata Party The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major List of political parties in India, political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. It is the current List of ruling political parties by country, ruling politic ...
. Women in China have low participation rates as political leaders. Women's disadvantage is most evident in their severe under representation in the more powerful political positions. At the top level of decision making, no woman has ever been among the nine members of the Standing Committee of the Communist Party's Politburo. Just 3 of 27 government ministers are women, and importantly, since 1997, China has fallen to 53rd place from 16th in the world in terms of female representation at its parliament, the National People's Congress, according to the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Party leaders such as Zhao Ziyang have vigorously opposed the participation of women in the political process. Within the party women face a glass ceiling.


Communist Youth League

The Communist Youth League (CYL) is the CCP's youth wing, and the largest mass organization for youth in China. According to the CCP's constitution the CYL is a "mass organization of advanced young people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China; it functions as a party school where a large number of young people learn about socialism with Chinese characteristics and about communism through practice; it is the Party's assistant and reserve force." To join, an applicant has to be between the ages of 14 and 28. It controls and supervises Young Pioneers of China, Young Pioneers, a youth organization for children below the age of 14. The organizational structure of CYL is an exact copy of the CCP's; the highest body is the National Congress of the Communist Youth League of China, National Congress, followed by the , Politburo of the Communist Youth League of China, Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Youth League of China, Politburo Standing Committee. However, the Central Committee (and all central organs) of the CYL work under the guidance of the CCP central leadership. Therefore, in a peculiar situation, CYL bodies are both responsible to higher bodies within CYL and the CCP, a distinct organization. As of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Youth League, 17th National Congress (held in 2013), CYL had 89 million members.


Symbols

According to Article 53 of the CCP constitution, "the Party emblem and flag are the symbol and sign of the Communist Party of China." At the beginning of its history, the CCP did not have a single official standard for the flag, but instead allowed individual party committees to copy the flag of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Abbreviated in Russian as КПСС or ''KPSS''. was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the One-party state, sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 19 ...
. On 28 April 1942, the Central Politburo decreed the establishment of a sole official flag. "The flag of the CPC has the length-to-width proportion of 3:2 with a hammer and sickle in the upper-left corner, and with no five-pointed star. The Political Bureau authorizes the General Office to custom-make a number of standard flags and distribute them to all major organs". According to ''People's Daily'', "The standard party flag is 120 centimeters (cm) in length and 80 cm in width. In the center of the upper-left corner (a quarter of the length and width to the border) is a yellow hammer-and-sickle 30 cm in diameter. The flag sleeve (pole hem) is in white and 6.5 cm in width. The dimension of the pole hem is not included in the measure of the flag. The red color symbolizes revolution; the hammer-and-sickle are tools of workers and peasants, meaning that the Communist Party of China represents the interests of the masses and the people; the yellow color signifies brightness." In total the flag has five dimensions, the sizes are "no. 1: 388 cm in length and 192 cm in width; no. 2: 240 cm in length and 160 cm in width; no. 3: 192 cm in length and 128 cm in width; no. 4: 144 cm in length and 96 cm in width; no. 5: 96 cm in length and 64 cm in width." On 21 September 1966, the CCP General Office issued "Regulations on the Production and Use of the CCP Flag and Emblem", which stated that the emblem and flag were the official symbols and signs of the party.


Party-to-party relations


Communist parties

The CCP continues to have relations with non-ruling communist and workers' parties and attends international communist conferences, most notably the
International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties The International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties (IMCWP) is an annual conference attended by communist and workers' parties from several nations. It originated in 1998 when the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) invited communist and ...
. Delegates of foreign communist parties still visit China; in 2013, for instance, the General Secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Jeronimo de Sousa, personally met with Liu Qibao, a member of the Central Politburo. In another instance, Pierre Laurent (politician), Pierre Laurent, the National Secretary of the French Communist Party (PCF), met with Liu Yunshan, a Politburo Standing Committee member. In 2014 Xi Jinping, the CCP general secretary, personally met with Gennady Zyuganov, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), to discuss party-to-party relations. While the CCP retains contact with major parties such as the Communist Party of Portugal, PCP, French Communist Party, PCF, the CPRF, the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, the Communist Party of Brazil, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist−Leninist), Communist Party of Nepal and the Communist Party of Spain, the party retains relations with minor communist and workers' parties, such as the Communist Party of Australia, the Workers Party of Bangladesh, the Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist) (Barua), the Communist Party of Sri Lanka, the Workers' Party of Belgium, the Hungarian Workers' Party, the Dominican Workers' Party and the Party for the Transformation of Honduras, for instance. In recent years, noting the self-reform of the European social democratic movement in the 1980s and 1990s, the CCP "has noted the increased marginalization of West European communist parties."


Ruling parties of socialist states

According to David Shambaugh, the CCP has retained close relations with the remaining
socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is bor ...
s still espousing
communism Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communism
: Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam and their respective ruling parties, as well as North Korea and its Workers' Party of Korea, ruling party, which officially removed all mentions of communism from the constitution in 2009. It spends a fair amount of time analyzing the situation in the remaining socialist states, trying to reach conclusions as to why these states survived when so many did not, following the Revolutions of 1989, collapse of the Eastern European socialist states in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In general, the analyses of the remaining socialist states and their chances of survival have been positive, and the CCP believes that the socialist movement will be revitalized sometime in the future. The ruling party which the CCP is most interested in is the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV). In general the CPV is considered a model example of socialist development in the post-Soviet era. Chinese analysts on Vietnam believe that the introduction of the Doi Moi reform policy at the 6th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, 6th CPV National Congress is the key reason for Vietnam's current success. While the CCP is probably the organization with China-North Korea relations, most access to North Korea, writing about North Korea is tightly circumscribed. The few reports accessible to the general public are those about North Korean economic reforms. While Chinese analysts of North Korea tend to speak positively of North Korea in public, in official discussions circa 2008 they show much disdain for Economy of North Korea, North Korea's economic system, the North Korea's cult of personality, cult of personality which pervades society, the Kim dynasty (North Korea), Kim family, the idea of hereditary succession in a socialist state, the security state, the use of scarce resources on the Korean People's Army and the general impoverishment of the North Korean people. Circa 2008 there are those analysts who compare the current situation of North Korea with that of China during the Cultural Revolution. Over the years, the CCP has tried to persuade the Workers' Party of Korea (or WPK, North Korea's ruling party) to introduce economic reforms by showing them key economic infrastructure in China. For instance, in 2006 the CCP invited the First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, WPK general secretary Kim Jong-il to Guangdong to showcase the success economic reforms have brought China. In general, the CCP considers the WPK and North Korea to be negative examples of a communist ruling party and socialist state. There is a considerable degree of interest in Cuba within the CCP. Fidel Castro, the former First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), is greatly admired, and books have been written focusing on the successes of the Cuban Revolution. China-Cuba relations, Communication between the CCP and the PCC has increased since the 1990s. At the 4th Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee, which discussed the possibility of the CCP learning from other ruling parties, praise was heaped on the PCC. When Wu Guanzheng, a Central Politburo member, met with Fidel Castro in 2007, he gave him a personal letter written by Hu Jintao: "Facts have shown that China and Cuba are trustworthy good friends, good comrades, and good brothers who treat each other with sincerity. The two countries' friendship has withstood the test of a changeable international situation, and the friendship has been further strengthened and consolidated."


Non-communist parties

Since the decline and fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the CCP has begun establishing party-to-party relations with non-communist parties. These relations are sought so that the CCP can learn from them. For instance, the CCP has been eager to understand how the People's Action Party of Singapore (PAP) maintains its total domination over Politics of Singapore, Singaporean politics through its "low-key presence, but total control." According to the CCP's own analysis of Singapore, the PAP's dominance can be explained by its "well-developed social network, which controls constituencies effectively by extending its tentacles deeply into society through branches of government and party-controlled groups." While the CCP accepts that Singapore is a liberal democracy, they view it as a guided democracy led by the PAP. Other differences are, according to the CCP, "that it is not a political party based on the working class—instead it is a political party of the elite. [...] It is also a political party of the parliamentary system, not a vanguard party, revolutionary party." Other parties which the CCP studies and maintains strong party-to-party relations with are the United Malays National Organisation, which has ruled Malaysia (1957–2018, 2020–present), and the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), Liberal Democratic Party in Japan, which dominated Japanese politics since 1955. Since Jiang Zemin's time, the CCP has made friendly overtures to its erstwhile foe, the Kuomintang. The CCP emphasizes strong party-to-party relations with the KMT so as to strengthen the probability of the reunification of Taiwan with mainland China. However, several studies have been written on the KMT's loss of power in 2000 after having ruled Taiwan since 1949 (the KMT officially ruled mainland China from 1928 to 1949). In general, one-party states or dominant-party states are of special interest to the party and party-to-party relations are formed so that the CCP can study them. The longevity of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region, Syrian Regional Branch of the Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party is attributed to the personalization of power in the al-Assad family, the strong presidential system, the inheritance of power, which passed from Hafez al-Assad to his son Bashar al-Assad, and the role given to the Syrian military in politics. Circa 2008, the CCP has been especially interested in Latin America, as shown by the increasing number of delegates sent to and received from these countries. Of special fascination for the CCP is the 71-year-long rule of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in Mexico. While the CCP attributed the PRI's long reign in power to the strong presidential system, tapping into the machismo culture of the country, its nationalist posture, its close identification with the rural populace and the implementation of nationalization alongside the marketization of the Economy of Mexico, economy, the CCP concluded that the PRI failed because of the lack of inner-party democracy, its pursuit of social democracy, its rigid party structures that could not be reformed, its Corruption in Mexico, political corruption, the pressure of globalization, and American interference in Mexican politics. While the CCP was slow to recognize the pink tide in Latin America, it has strengthened party-to-party relations with several socialist and anti-American political parties over the years. The CCP has occasionally expressed some irritation over Hugo Chávez's anti-capitalist and anti-American rhetoric. Despite this, the CCP reached an agreement in 2013 with the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), which was founded by Chávez, for the CCP to educate PSUV cadres in political and social fields. By 2008, the CCP claimed to have established relations with 99 political parties in 29 Latin American countries. Social democratic movements in Europe have been of great interest to the CCP since the early 1980s. With the exception of a short period in which the CCP forged party-to-party relations with far-right parties during the 1970s in an effort to halt "Soviet imperialism, Soviet expansionism", the CCP's relations with European social democratic parties were its first serious efforts to establish cordial party-to-party relations with non-communist parties. The CCP credits the European social democrats with creating a "capitalism with a human face". Before the 1980s, the CCP had a highly negative and dismissive view of social democracy, a view dating back to the Second International and the Marxist–Leninist view on the social democratic movement. By the 1980s, that view had changed and the CCP concluded that it could actually learn something from the social democratic movement. CCP delegates were sent all over Europe to observe. By the 1980s, most European social democratic parties were facing electoral decline and in a period of self-reform. The CCP followed this with great interest, laying most weight on reform efforts within the Labour Party (UK), British Labour Party and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. The CCP concluded that both parties were re-elected because they modernized, replacing traditional state socialist tenets with new ones supporting privatization, shedding the belief in big government, conceiving a new view of the welfare state, changing their negative views of the market and moving from their traditional support base of trade unions to entrepreneurs, the young and students.


Electoral history


National People's Congress elections


See also

* List of Chinese Communist Party members * Politics of the People's Republic of China * Succession of power in the People's Republic of China


Notes


References


Citations


Further reading

; Scholarly articles * * * * * * * * ; Books * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Saich, Tony. ''From Rebel to Ruler: One Hundred Years of the Chinese Communist Party'' (2021) * Saich, Tony. ''Finding Allies and Making Revolution The Early Years of the Chinese Communist Party'' (2020) * Saich, Tony. ''Governance and Politics of China '' (2015) * * * * * * * * * * * * * ; Primary sources * ; 1485pp


External links

*
''People's Daily''
official newspaper of the CCP Central Committee {{DEFAULTSORT:Communist Party of China Chinese Communist Party, Communist parties in China Ruling communist parties People's Republic of China Political parties established in 1921 Political parties in the Republic of China Chinese Civil War Maoist parties Government of China 1921 establishments in China Parties of one-party systems Chinese nationalist political parties