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A Commonwealth realm is a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
that has
Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke of York, Duke and Duchess of York (later Ki ...

Elizabeth II
as its
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Mod ...

monarch
and
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
. Each realm functions as an independent state, equal with the other realms. In 1952, Elizabeth II was the monarch and head of state of seven independent states: the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...
, and
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...
. Since then, new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies, and some realms have become republics.
Barbados Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of the Americas, and the most easterly of the Caribbean Islands. It is in length and up to in width, covering an area of . It is in the weste ...

Barbados
is the most recent realm to become a republic; it did so on 30 November 2021. As of 30 November 2021, there are 15 Commonwealth realms:
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda (; ) is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'' ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
,
The Bahamas The Bahamas (), known officially as The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a sovereign country within the of the in the . It takes up 97% of the Lucayan Archipelago's land area and is home to 88% of the archipelago's population. The consists ...
,
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surroundi ...

Belize
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and western , stretching , is the world's longest bi-national land border. Canada's capital ...

Canada
,
Grenada Grenada ( ; Grenadian Creole French: ) is an island country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself, two smaller islands, Carriacou and Peti ...

Grenada
,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola). Jamaica lies about south of Cuba, and west of Hispanio ...

Jamaica
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
,
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; ho, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a country in that comp ...

Papua New Guinea
,
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis (), officially the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies. Located in the Leeward Islands chain of the Lesser Antilles, it is the smallest sovereign state in the Western Hemis ...
,
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individu ...

Saint Lucia
,
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (), often Pars pro toto#Geography, simply referred to as Saint Vincent, is an island country in the Caribbean. It is located in the southeast Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, which lie in the West Ind ...

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
, the
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, in ...
,
Tuvalu Tuvalu ( ; formerly known as the Ellice Islands) is an island country in the Polynesian subregion of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. Its islands are situated about midway between Hawaii and Australia. They lie east-northeast of the Santa Cruz ...

Tuvalu
, and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. All are members of the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
, an intergovernmental organisation of 54
independent member states
independent member states
, 52 of whom were formerly territories held as part of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. All Commonwealth members are independent sovereign states, whether they are Commonwealth realms or not. Queen Elizabeth II serves as
Head of the Commonwealth Head of the Commonwealth is a title used by the ceremonial leader who symbolises "the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is ...
, an officer which is recognised by the members states of the Commonwealth as the "symbol of their free association".


Current realms

There are currently 15 Commonwealth realms, with a combined area (excluding the Antarctic claims) of 18.7 million km2 (7.2 million mi2) and a population of around 151 million, of which all but about two million live in the six most populous: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, and Jamaica. }, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
french: Elizabeth Deux, par la grâce de Dieu Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres royaumes et territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Grenada The monarch of Grenada is the head of state of Grenada since 1765. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, who is also Sovereign of a number of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the Governor-G ...
, 1974 , Cécile La Grenade ,
Keith Mitchell Keith Claudius Issac Mitchell (born 12 November 1946) is a Grenada, Grenadian politician who has been Prime Minister of Grenada since 2013; previously he served as Prime Minister from 1995 to 2008. He is the longest-serving Prime Minister in Gren ...

Keith Mitchell
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Jamaica The monarchy of Jamaica is a constitutional system of government in which a Hereditary monarchy, hereditary monarch is the Sovereignty, sovereign and head of state of Jamaica. The terms ''The Crown, Crown in Right of Jamaica'', ''Her Majesty ...
, data-sort-value="1962", 1962 ,
Patrick Allen John Keith Patrick Allen (17 March 1927 – 28 July 2006) was a British actor. Life and career Allen was born in Nyasaland Nyasaland () was a British protectorate located in Africa that was established in 1907 when the former British C ...
,
Andrew Holness Andrew Michael Holness (born 22 July 1972) is a Jamaican politician who has been the Prime Minister of Jamaica since 3 March 2016, following the 2016 Jamaican general election. Holness previously served as prime minister from October 2011 to 5 ...
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - ,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
, style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of New Zealand The monarchy of New Zealand is the Constitution of New Zealand, constitutional system of government in which a Hereditary monarchy, hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of New Zealand. The current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, a ...
, data-sort-value="1907", 1907 ,
Cindy Kiro Dame Alcyion Cynthia Kiro () (née Simpson; born 1958) is a New Zealand public health academic, administrator, and advocate, who has served as the 22nd Governor-General of New Zealand The governor-general of New Zealand ( mi, Te kāwana tian ...
,
Jacinda Ardern Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern ( ; born 26 July 1980) is a New Zealand politician who has been the List of prime ministers of New Zealand, 40th prime minister of New Zealand and Leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, leader of the Labour Party si ...

Jacinda Ardern
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
Māori: ''Erihāpeti Te Tuarua, I te atawhai a te Atua, ko ia nei te Kuini o Aotearoa me Ērā Atu o Ōna Whenua, Rohe hoki, te Ūpoko o te Kotahitanga o Ngā Whenua i Raro i Tōna Maru, te Kaipupuri i te Mana o te Hāhi o Ingarangi'' , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Papua New Guinea A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a m ...
, data-sort-value="1975", 1975 ,
Bob Dadae Sir Bob Dadae, (born 8 March 1961) is a Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea ( tpi, Independen Stet bilong Papua Niug ...
,
James Marape James Marape (born 24 April 1971) is a Papua New Guinean politician, who is serving as the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea (PNG; , ; tpi, Papua Niugini; ho, Papua Niu Gini; tcs, Op Deudai), officially the Independent ...
, Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Papua New Guinea and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis (), officially known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies. Located in the Leeward Islands chain of the Lesser Antilles, it is the smallest ...
, 1983 ,
Tapley Seaton Sir Samuel Weymouth Tapley Seaton, (born 28 July 1950) is the current Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis. He was born on Saint Kitts, the son of William A. Seaton and his wife, Pearl A. Seaton, n ...
,
Timothy Harris Timothy Sylvester Harris (born 14 January 1964) is the current Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis, in office since 2015. He previously served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 10 August 2001 to 25 January 2008, as Minister for Finance fro ...
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Saint Lucia The monarchy of Saint Lucia is a system of government in which a hereditary Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexua ...
, 1979 , Errol Charles , Philip J. Pierre , Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines The monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is the constitutional system of government in which a Heredity, hereditary monarch is the Sovereignty, sovereign and Head of state#Governors-general (Commonwealth realms), head of state of Saint Vi ...
, 1979 ,
Susan Dougan Dame Susan Dilys Dougan, (née Ryan; born 3 March 1955, Colonarie, Saint Vincent), is the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines since 1 August 2019. She is the first female Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. S ...
,
Ralph Gonsalves Ralph Everard Gonsalves (born 8 August 1946) is a Vincentian politician. He is currently the Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and leader of the Unity Labour Party (ULP).
Ralph Gonsalves
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Solomon Islands The monarchy of Solomon Islands is a system of government in which a constitutional monarch A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitut ...
, 1978 ,
David Vunagi Sir David Okete Vuvuiri Vunagi, (born 5 September 1950) is a retired Solomon Islands Anglican bishop and incumbent Governor-General of Solomon Islands. He was the Archbishop of Melanesia and Bishop of the Diocese of Central Melanesia, from 2009 t ...
,
Manasseh Sogavare Manasseh Damukana Sogavare (born 17 January 1955) is a Solomon Islands Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanua ...
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Solomon Islands and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of Tuvalu The monarchy of Tuvalu is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which ...
, 1978 , Tofiga Vaevalu Falani ,
Kausea Natano Kausea Natano (born 5 July 1957) is a Tuvaluan politician who is serving as Prime Minister of Tuvalu, in office since 19 September 2019. He is also serving as an Member of Parliament, MP for Funafuti, having also served as the country's deputy pri ...

Kausea Natano
, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Tuvalu and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth , , - , , style="text-align:right;", ,
Monarchy of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established ...
, data-sort-value="1801", 1801 , ''None'' ,
Boris Johnson Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (; born 19 June 1964) is a British politician and writer serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of govern ...

Boris Johnson
, en, Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
la, Elizabeth II, Dei Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina, Consortionis Populorum Princeps, Fidei Defensor ,


Relationship of the realms

The Commonwealth realms are
sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
s. They are united only in their voluntary connection with the institution of the monarchy, the succession, and the Queen herself; the person of the sovereign and the Crown were said in 1936 to be "the most important and vital link" between the dominions. Political scientist Peter Boyce called this grouping of countries associated in this manner "an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations or constitutional law." Terms such as ''
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
'', a ''form of personal union'', and ''shared monarchy'', among others, have all been advanced as definitions since the beginning of the Commonwealth itself, though there has been no agreement on which term is most accurate, or even whether ''personal union'' is applicable at all. Under the
Balfour Declaration of 1926 300px, King George V (front, centre) with his prime ministers at the 1926 Imperial Conference.Standing (left to right): Walter Stanley Monroe, Monroe (Newfoundland), Gordon Coates, Coates (New Zealand), Stanley Bruce, Bruce (Australia), J. B. M. ...
,
dominion The term dominion was used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other D ...

dominion
s were proclaimed as considered "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown" and the monarch is "equally, officially, and explicitly onarchof separate, autonomous realms". Andrew Michie wrote in 1952 that "Elizabeth II embodies in her own person many monarchies: she is Queen of Great Britain, but she is equally Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, and Ceylon... it is now possible for Elizabeth II to be, in practice as well as theory, equally Queen in all her realms." Still, Boyce holds the contrary opinion that the crowns of all the non-British realms are "derivative, if not subordinate" to the crown of the United Kingdom. Since each realm has the same person as its monarch, the diplomatic practice of exchanging ambassadors with letters of credence and recall from one head of state to another does not apply. Diplomatic relations between the Commonwealth realms are thus at a cabinet-level only, and
high commissioners High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) High is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Jason High (born 1981), American mixed martial artist *Kathy High (born 1954), American interdisciplinary artist, curator, and ...
are exchanged between realms (though all other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations also follow this same practice, for traditional reasons). A high commissioner's full title will thus be ''High Commissioner for Her Majesty's Government in ountry'. For certain ceremonies, the order of precedence for the realms' high commissioners or national flags is set according to the chronological order of, first, when the country became a dominion and then the date on which the country gained independence. Conflicts of interest have arisen from this relationship amongst independent states. Some have been minor diplomatic matters, such as the monarch expressing on the advice of one of her cabinets views that counter those of another of her cabinets. More serious issues have arisen with respect to armed conflict, where the monarch, as head of state of two different realms, may be simultaneously at war and at peace with a third country, or even at war with herself as head of two hostile nations.


The Crown in the Commonwealth realms

The evolution of dominions into realms has resulted in
the Crown The Crown is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

the Crown
having both a shared and a separate character, with the one individual being equally monarch of each state and acting as such in right of a particular realm as a distinct
legal person In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...
guided only by the advice of the cabinet of that jurisdiction. This means that in different contexts, the term ''Crown'' may refer to the extra-national institution associating all 15 countries, or to the Crown in each realm considered separately. The monarchy is therefore no longer an exclusively British institution, having become "domesticated" in each of the realms. From a cultural standpoint, the sovereign's name and image and other royal symbols unique to each nation are visible in the emblems and insignia of governmental institutions and militia. The Queen's effigy, for example, appears on coins and banknotes in some countries, and an oath of allegiance to the Queen is usually required from politicians, judges, military members and new citizens. By 1959, it was being asserted by Buckingham Palace officials that the Queen was "equally at home in all her realms".


Royal succession and regency

To guarantee the continuity of multiple states sharing the same person as monarch, the preamble of the ''
Statute of Westminster 1931 The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom an Act of Parliament is primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and ...
'' laid out a convention that any alteration to the
line of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae ...
in any one country must be voluntarily approved by the parliaments of all the realms. This convention was first applied in 1936 when the British government conferred with the dominion governments during the
Edward VIII abdication crisis In 1936 a constitutional crisis In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the constitution, political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable t ...
. Prime Minister of Canada
William Lyon Mackenzie King William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the 10th prime minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the ...

William Lyon Mackenzie King
pointed out that the Statute of Westminster required Canada's request and consent to any legislation passed by the British parliament before it could become part of Canada's laws and affect the line of succession in Canada. Sir
Maurice Gwyer Sir Maurice Linford Gwyer, (25 April 1878 – 12 October 1952) was a British lawyer, judge, and academic administrator. He served as Vice-Chancellor of Delhi University from 1938 to 1950, and Chief Justice of India from 1937 to 1943). He is cre ...
, first parliamentary counsel in the UK, reflected this position, stating that the Act of Settlement was a part of the law in each dominion. Though today the Statute of Westminster is law only in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom, the convention of approval from the other realms was reasserted by the
Perth Agreement The Perth Agreement is an agreement made by the prime ministers of those sixteen countries of the Commonwealth of Nations A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has so ...
of 2011, in which all 16 realms at the time agreed in principle to change the succession rule to
absolute primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
, to remove the restriction on the monarch being married to a Catholic, and to reduce the number of members of the Royal Family who need the monarch's permission to marry. These changes came into effect on 26 March 2015. Alternatively, a Commonwealth realm may choose to cease being such by making its throne the inheritance of a different royal house or by becoming a republic, actions to which, though they alter the country's royal succession, the convention does not apply. Agreement among the realms does not, however, mean the succession laws cannot diverge. During the abdication crisis in 1936, the United Kingdom passed ''His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act'' with the approval of the parliament of Australia and the governments of the remaining dominions. (Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa gave parliamentary assent later.) The Act effected Edward's abdication in the United Kingdom on 11 December; as the Canadian government had requested and consented to the Act becoming part of Canadian law, and Australia and New Zealand had then not yet adopted the Statute of Westminster, the abdication took place in those countries on the same day. The parliament of South Africa, however, passed its own legislation— ''His Majesty King Edward the Eighth's Abdication Act, 1937''—which backdated the abdication there to 10 December. The Irish Free State recognised the king's abdication with the ''Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936'' on 12 December. According to
Anne Twomey Anne Carolyn Twomey (born June 7, 1951) is an American actress. Early life Born in Boston, Massachusetts, daughter of Muriel Descoteaux Twomey and Harry F. Twomey, Jr. of Gladwyne, Pennsylvania. She has a brother, John Twomey. John is married ...
, this demonstrated "the divisibility of the Crown in the personal, as well as the political, sense." For E. H. Coghill, writing as early as 1937, it proved that the convention of a common line of succession "is not of imperative force" and Kenneth John Scott asserted in 1962 that it ended the "convention that statutory uniformity on these subjects would be maintained in the parts of the Commonwealth that continued to owe allegiance to the Crown". Today, some realms govern succession by their own domestic laws, while others, either by written clauses in their constitution or by convention, stipulate that whoever is monarch of the United Kingdom is automatically also monarch of that realm. It is generally agreed that any unilateral alteration of succession by the UK would not have effect in all the realms. Following the accession of
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom There have been 12 monarchy of the United Kingdom, British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England an ...

George VI
to the throne, the United Kingdom created legislation that provided for a regency if the monarch was not of age or incapacitated. Though input was sought from the dominions on this matter, all declined to make themselves bound by the British legislation, feeling instead that the governors-general could carry out royal functions in place of a debilitated or underage sovereign. Tuvalu later incorporated this principle into its constitution. New Zealand included in its ''Constitution Act 1986'' a clause specifying that, should a regent be installed in the United Kingdom, that individual would carry out the functions of the monarch of New Zealand.


Monarch's role in the realms

The sovereign resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Queen appoints
viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

viceroy
s to perform most of the constitutional and ceremonial duties on her behalf in the other realms: in each, a governor-general as her personal national representative, as well as a
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
as her representative in each of the
Australian states The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Aust ...
. These appointments are made on the advice of the prime minister of the country or the premier of the state concerned, though this process may have additional requirements. The extent to which specific additional powers are reserved exclusively for the monarch varies from realm to realm. On occasions of national importance, the Queen may be advised to perform in person her constitutional duties, such as granting Royal Assent or issuing a
royal proclamation A proclamation (Lat. ''proclamare'', to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known. Proclamations are currently used within the governing framework of some nations ...

royal proclamation
. Otherwise, all royal powers, including the
Royal Prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions wr ...
, are carried out on behalf of the sovereign by the relevant viceroy, who, apart from those already mentioned, include a
lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction. Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy, or lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, L ...
in each province of Canada (appointed by the
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ...
). In the United Kingdom, the Queen appoints
Counsellors of State The counsellors of state are senior members of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British ...
to perform her constitutional duties in her absence. Similarly, the monarch will perform ceremonial duties in the Commonwealth realms to mark historically significant events. Citizens in Commonwealth realms may request birthday or wedding anniversary messages to be sent from the sovereign. This is available for 100th, 105th, and beyond for birthdays; and 60th ("Diamond"), 65th, 70th ("Platinum"), and beyond for wedding anniversaries.


Religious role of the monarch

It is solely in the United Kingdom that the Queen plays a role in organised religion. In England, she acts as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and nominally appoints its bishops and archbishops. In Scotland, she swears an oath to uphold and protect the Church of Scotland and sends a Lord High Commissioner as her representative to meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, church's General Assembly, when she is not personally in attendance.


Flags

The governors-general throughout the Commonwealth realms also each use a personal flag, which, like that of the sovereign, passes to each successive occupant of the office. Most feature a Lions passant, lion passant atop a St. Edward's Crown, St. Edward's Crown (heraldry)#Commonwealth usage, royal crown with the name of the country across a scroll underneath, all on a blue background. The two exceptions are those of, since 1981, Flag of the Governor General of Canada, Canada (bearing on a blue background the Crest (heraldry), crest of the Arms of Canada, Royal Coat of Arms of Canada) and, since 2008, Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand, New Zealand (a St. Edward's Crown above the Escutcheon (heraldry), shield of the Coat of arms of New Zealand). The lieutenant governors of the Canadian provinces each have Flags of the Lieutenant-Governors of Canada, their own personal standards, as Flags of the Governors of the Australian states, do the governors of the Australian states. In realms without a specific royal standard, the Queen uses her Flags of Elizabeth II#Personal Flag, personal flag.


Historical development


Dominions emerge

The possibility that a colony within the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
might become a new kingdom was first mooted in the 1860s, when it was proposed that the British North American territories of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Province of Canada unite as a confederation that might be known as the ''Kingdom of Canada''. Although the dominions were capable of governing themselves internally, they remained formallyand substantively in regard to foreign policy and defencesubject to British authority, wherein the governor-general of each dominion represented the British monarch-Queen-in-Council, in-Council reigning over these territories as a single Empire, imperial domain. It was held in some circles that the Crown was a monolithic element throughout all the monarch's territories; A.H. Lefroy wrote in 1918 that "the Crown is to be considered as one and indivisible throughout the Empire; and cannot be severed into as many kingships as there are dominions, and self-governing colonies". This unitary model began to erode, however, when the dominions gained more international prominence as a result of their participation and sacrifice in the First World War. In 1919, Canadian prime minister Sir Robert Borden and South African minister of defence Jan Smuts demanded that, at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Versailles Conference, the dominions be given full recognition as "autonomous nations of an Imperial Commonwealth". As a result, although the King signed as High Contracting Party for the Empire as a whole, the dominions were also separate signatories to the Treaty of Versailles. They also became, together with India, founding members of the League of Nations. In 1921 the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Lloyd George, stated that the "British Dominions have now been accepted fully into the community of nations".


Interwar period


Balfour Declaration

The pace of independence increased in the 1920s, led by Canada, which exchanged envoys with the United States in 1920 and concluded the Halibut Treaty in its own right in 1923. In the Chanak crisis of 1922, the Canadian government insisted that its course of action would be determined by the Canadian parliament, not the British government, and, by 1925, the dominions felt confident enough to refuse to be bound by Britain's adherence to the Treaty of Locarno. Richard Haldane, 1st Viscount Haldane, The Viscount Haldane said in 1919 that in Australia the Crown "acts in self-governing States on the initiative and advice of its own ministers in these States." Another catalyst for change came in 1926, when Field Marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, the Lord Byng of Vimy, then
Governor General of Canada The governor general of Canada (french: gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ...
, refused the advice of his prime minister (
William Lyon Mackenzie King William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the 10th prime minister of Canada The prime minister of Canada (french: premier ministre du Canada, link=no) is the ...

William Lyon Mackenzie King
) in what came to be known colloquially as the King–Byng Affair. Mackenzie King, after resigning and then being reappointed as prime minister some months later, pushed at the 1926 Imperial Conference, Imperial Conference of 1926 for a reorganisation of the way the dominions related to the British government, resulting in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Balfour Declaration, which declared formally that the dominions were fully autonomous and equal in status to the United Kingdom. What this meant in practice was not at the time worked out; conflicting views existed, some in the United Kingdom not wishing to see a fracturing of the sacred unity of the Crown throughout the empire, and some in the dominions not wishing to see their jurisdiction have to take on the full brunt of diplomatic and military responsibilities. What did follow was that the dominion governments gained an equal status with the United Kingdom, a separate and direct relationship with the monarch, without the British Cabinet acting as an intermediary, and the governors-general now acted solely as a personal representative of the sovereign in right of that dominion. Though no formal mechanism for tendering advice to the monarch had yet been established—former Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes theorised that the dominion cabinets would provide informal direction and the British Cabinet would offer formal advice—the concepts were first put into legal practice with the passage in 1927 of the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, ''Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act'', which implicitly recognised the Irish Free State as separate from the UK, and the King as king ''of'' each dominion uniquely, rather than as the British king ''in'' each dominion. At the same time, terminology in foreign relations was altered to demonstrate the independent status of the dominions, such as the dropping of the term "Britannic" from the King's style outside of the United Kingdom. Then, in 1930 George V's Cabinet of Australia, Australian ministers employed a practice adopted by resolution at that year's Imperial Conference, directly advising the King to appoint Sir Isaac Isaacs as the Australian governor-general.


Statute of Westminster

These new developments were explicitly codified in 1931 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, through which Canada, the Union of South Africa, and the Irish Free State all immediately obtained formal legislative independence from the UK, while in the other dominions adoption of the statute was subject to ratification by the dominion's parliament. Australia and New Zealand did so in 1942 and 1947, respectively, with the former's ratification back-dated to 1939, while Newfoundland never ratified the bill and reverted to direct British rule in 1934. As a result, the Parliament of the United Kingdom, parliament at Westminster was unable to legislate for any Dominion unless requested to do so, although the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was left available as the last court of appeal for some Dominions. Specific attention was given in the statute's preamble to royal succession, outlining that no changes to that line could be made by the parliament of the United Kingdom or that of any dominion without the assent of all the other parliaments of the UK and dominions, an arrangement a justice of the Ontario Superior Court in 2003 likened to "a treaty among the Commonwealth countries to share the monarchy under the existing rules and not to change the rules without the agreement of all signatories." This was all met with only minor trepidation, either before or at the time, and the government of Ireland was confident that the relationship of these independent countries under the Crown would function as a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
, akin to that which had earlier existed between the United Kingdom and Hanover (1801 to 1837), or between England and Scotland (1603 to 1707). Its first test came, though, with the Edward VIII abdication crisis, abdication of King Edward VIII in 1936, for which it was necessary to gain the consent of the governments of all the dominions and the request and consent of the Canadian government, as well as separate legislation in South Africa and the Irish Free State, before the resignation could take place across the Commonwealth. The civil division of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales later found in 1982 that the British parliament could have legislated for a dominion simply by including in any new law a clause claiming the dominion cabinet had requested and approved of the act, whether that was true or not. Further, the British parliament was not obliged to fulfil a dominion's request for legislative change. Regardless, in 1935 the British parliament refused to consider the result of the Secessionism in Western Australia#1933 referendum, Western Australian secession referendum of 1933 without the approval of the Australian federal government or parliament. In 1937, the Appeal Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa ruled unanimously that a repeal of the Statute of Westminster in the United Kingdom would have no effect in South Africa, stating: "We cannot take this argument seriously. Freedom once conferred cannot be revoked." Others in Canada upheld the same position.


Fully sovereign dominions

At the 1932 British Empire Economic Conference, delegates from the United Kingdom, led by Stanley Baldwin (then Lord President of the Council), hoped to establish a system of free trade within the British Commonwealth, to promote unity within the British Empire and to assure Britain's position as a world power. The idea was controversial, as it pitted proponents of imperial trade with those who sought a general policy of trade liberalisation with all nations. The dominions, particularly Canada, were also adamantly against dispensing with their import tariffs, which "dispelled any romantic notions of a 'United Empire'." The meeting, however, did produce a five-year trade agreement based upon a policy, first conceived in the 1900s, of Imperial Preference: the countries retained their import tariffs, but lowered these for other Commonwealth countries. During his tenure as Governor General of Canada, John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, Lord Tweedsmuir urged the organisation of 1939 royal tour of Canada, a royal tour of the country by King George VI, so that he might not only appear in person before his people, but also personally perform constitutional duties and pay a state visit to the United States as Monarchy of Canada, king of Canada. While the idea was embraced in Canada as a way to "translate the Statute of Westminster into the actualities of a tour," throughout the planning of the trip that took place in 1939, the British authorities resisted at numerous points the idea that the King be attended by his Canadian ministers instead of his British ones. The Canadian prime minister (still Mackenzie King) was ultimately successful, however, in being the minister in attendance, and the King did in public throughout the trip ultimately act solely in his capacity as the Canadian monarch. The status of the Crown was bolstered by Canada's reception of George VI. When the Second World War began, there was some uncertainty in the dominions about the ramifications of Britain's declaration of war against Nazi Germany. Australia and New Zealand had not yet ratified the Statute of Westminster; the Australian prime minister, Robert Menzies, considered the government bound by the British declaration of war, while New Zealand coordinated a declaration of war to be made simultaneously with Britain's. As late as 1937, some scholars were still of the mind that, when it came to declarations of war, if the King signed, he did so as king of the empire as a whole; at that time, William Paul McClure Kennedy wrote: "in the final test of sovereignty—that of war—Canada is not a sovereign state... and it remains as true in 1937 as it was in 1914 that when the Crown is at war, Canada is legally at war," and, one year later, Arthur Berriedale Keith argued that "issues of war or neutrality still are decided on the final authority of the British Cabinet." In 1939, however, Canada and South Africa made separate proclamations of war against Germany a few days after the UK's. Their example was followed more consistently by the other realms as further war was declared against Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland, and Japan. Ireland remained neutral. At the war's end, it was said by F.R. Scott that "it is firmly established as a basic constitutional principle that, so far as relates to Canada, the King is regulated by Canadian law and must act only on the advice and responsibility of Canadian ministers."


Post-war evolution

Within three years following the end of the Second World War, Dominion of India, India,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...
, and
Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island ...
became independent dominions within the Commonwealth. India would soon move to a republican form of government. Unlike the Republic of Ireland and Burma, however, there was no desire on the part of India to leave the Commonwealth, prompting a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Commonwealth Conference and the London Declaration in April 1949, which entrenched the idea that republics be allowed in the Commonwealth so long as they recognised King George VI as
Head of the Commonwealth Head of the Commonwealth is a title used by the ceremonial leader who symbolises "the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is ...
and the "symbol of the free association of its independent member nations". As these constitutional developments were taking place, the dominion and British governments became increasingly concerned with how to represent the more commonly accepted notion that there was no distinction between the sovereign's role in the United Kingdom and his or her position in any of the dominions. Thus, at the 1948 Prime Ministers' Conference the term ''dominion'' was avoided in favour of ''Commonwealth country'', to avoid the subordination implied by the older designation.


From the accession of Elizabeth II

The Commonwealth's prime ministers discussed the matter of the new monarch's title, with St. Laurent stating at the 1953 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference that it was important to agree on a format that would "emphasise the fact that the Queen is Queen of Canada, regardless of her sovereignty over other Commonwealth countries." The result was a new Royal Style and Titles Act being passed in each of the seven realms then existing (excluding
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...
), which all identically gave formal recognition to the separateness and equality of the countries involved, and replaced the phrase "British Dominions Beyond the Seas" with "Her Other Realms and Territories", the latter using the word ''realm'' in place of ''dominion''. Further, at her coronation, Elizabeth II's oath contained a provision requiring her to promise to govern according to the rules and customs of the realms, naming each one separately. The change in perspective was summed up by Patrick Gordon Walker's statement in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, British House of Commons: "We in this country have to abandon... any sense of property in the Crown. The Queen, now, clearly, explicitly and according to title, belongs equally to all her realms and to the Commonwealth as a whole." In the same period, Walker also suggested to the British parliament that the Queen should annually spend an equal amount of time in each of her realms. John Grigg, 2nd Baron Altrincham, Lord Altrincham, who in 1957 criticised Queen Elizabeth II for having a Court (royal), court that encompassed mostly Britain and not the Commonwealth as a whole, was in favour of the idea, but it did not attract wide support. Another thought raised was that viceregal appointments should become trans-Commonwealth; the governor-general of Australia would be someone from South Africa, the governor-general of Ceylon would come from New Zealand, and so on. The prime ministers of Canada and Australia, John Diefenbaker and Robert Menzies, respectively, were sympathetic to the concept, but, again, it was never put into practice. On 6 July 2010, Elizabeth II addressed the United Nations in New York City as queen of all then-16 Commonwealth realms. The following year, Portia Simpson-Miller, the Prime Minister of Jamaica, spoke of a desire to make that country a republic, while Alex Salmond, the First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (which favours Scottish independence), stated an independent Scotland "would still share a monarchy with... the UK, just as... 16 [sic] other Commonwealth countries do now." Dennis Canavan, leader of Yes Scotland, disagreed and said a separate, post-independence referendum should be held on the matter. Following the
Perth Agreement The Perth Agreement is an agreement made by the prime ministers of those sixteen countries of the Commonwealth of Nations A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has so ...
of 2011, the Commonwealth realms, in accordance with convention, together engaged in a process of amending the common line of succession according to each country's constitution, to ensure the order would continue to be identical in every realm. In legislative debates in the United Kingdom, the term ''Commonwealth realm'' was employed.


Former realms


List of states

In addition to the states listed above, the Dominion of Newfoundland was a dominion when the Statute of Westminster 1931, ''Statute of Westminster 1931'' was given royal assent but effectively lost that status in 1934, without ever having assented to the Statute of Westminster, and before the term Commonwealth realm ever came into use. Due to a domestic financial and political crisis, the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland legislature petitioned the UK to suspend dominion status, the UK parliament passed the ''Newfoundland Act 1933'', and Commission of Government, direct rule was implemented in 1934. Rather than reclaiming dominion status after the Second World War, it became a province of Canada in 1949.


Republican referendums

Six Commonwealth realms and Dominions have held referendums to consider whether they should become republics. As of January 2020, of the eight referendums held, three have been successful: in Ghana, in South Africa and the second referendum in Gambia. Referendums that rejected the proposal were held in Australia, twice in Tuvalu, and in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Interest in holding a second referendum was expressed in Australia in 2010. During the 2020 Jamaican general election the People's National Party promised to hold a referendum on becoming a republic within 18 months if it won the election and polls suggested that 55% of Jamaicans desired the country become a republic. However, the ruling Jamaica Labour Party, which had in 2016 promised a referendum but not carried one out, was re-elected.
Barbados Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of the Americas, and the most easterly of the Caribbean Islands. It is in length and up to in width, covering an area of . It is in the weste ...

Barbados
, which had been a Commonwealth realm for 55 years since it gained independence in 1966, Republicanism_in_Barbados#2020_proposal, became a republic by vote of Parliament in October 2021, effective on 30 November 2021. Some Barbadians criticised the government's decision not to hold a referendum on the issue as being undemocratic.


See also

*
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
* Commonwealth Family * Imperial Federation * List of states headed by Elizabeth II * Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations * Union of the Crowns


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * *


External links


The Commonwealth
at the Royal Family official website {{DEFAULTSORT:Commonwealth Realm Commonwealth realms, Commonwealth of Nations History of the Commonwealth of Nations Governance of the British Empire British monarchy Monarchy in Canada Monarchy in Australia Monarchy in New Zealand Monarchy in Belize Monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis Personal unions